I am to gratefully acknowledge the love, affection and inspiration given by Dr kv sarma and Mrs Lakshmi Sharma



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I am to gratefully acknowledge the love, affection and inspiration given by Dr KV Sarma and Mrs Lakshmi Sharma.

  • I am to gratefully acknowledge the love, affection and inspiration given by Dr KV Sarma and Mrs Lakshmi Sharma.

  • He was one of the few ‘truly’ qualified people to do work in history of science, especially astronomy and mathematics

  • Kerala legacy we speak of today could survive only because of his arrival at the right time if not late…

  • ('Contributions to the study of the Kerala School of Hindu Astronomy and Mathematics' (1977) )





Pre-historic epochs seen recorded in the alpha-numeric chronograms

  • Pre-historic epochs seen recorded in the alpha-numeric chronograms

  • These chronograms combine both mathematical and astronomical information and attests for an antiquity that finds little support in the known historical details. Most of these chronograms specify a day count, i.e. the kalidinam expired and had implicit in them the epoch of ‘Kaliyugadi’ i.e. midnight /sunrise of 17-18 February – 3101 CE when the siddhāntic planetary means had a computational super-conjunction at 0 degree. Such dates can be traced as far back as 29 April -58 CE, 13 November -26 CE etc.

  • In the 4th century after Christ, these chronograms make us meet with a legendary astronomer Vararuci and he is succeeded by Aryabhata-I in Kali 3623 (Giritunga)



20th March 403 CE apogee conjunction of moon can be shown to be the epoch of the Girnasreyadi vakyas

  • 20th March 403 CE apogee conjunction of moon can be shown to be the epoch of the Girnasreyadi vakyas

  • Udayagiri epoch of Indian astronomy can be identified as 20 March 402 CE (K3503 i.e. 120 years prior to K3623)

  • Studies today lack an audience that can understand and appreciate the astronomical evidence

  • Vararuchi of Kerala known through the Chandravakyas had the epoch of his Vakyas related to the Udayagiri of Chandragupta-II Vikramaditya.

  • In Kerala, the chronogram yajnasthanamsamrakshyam puts his son’s epoch as 14 Feb 378 CE.

  • Aryabhata epoch Kali 3623 (elapsed) is 120 years after the Udayagiri epoch



Āryabhata stands renowned even in modern times for the scientific treatise he presented on Astronomy and Mathematics.

  • Āryabhata stands renowned even in modern times for the scientific treatise he presented on Astronomy and Mathematics.

  • Knowledge that won him praise in Kusumapura in his own life time continues to win him praise even in the 21st century.

  • Apart from his astronomical and mathematical precepts, his advent is looked upon as a turning point in the history of exact sciences in India. He not only set forth the right background by drawing the best of the scientific tradition that preceded him but also chose to create a break with the paradigm by enunciating such revolutionary principles like the rotation of earth and a wholesome revision of mathematical astronomy based on observations.

  • We are in dark about his observational innovations as the Āryārdhrātrasiddhānta is lost and is known only through brief extracts in texts like those of Bhāskara-I.



Kerala legacy of Astronomy and Mathematics begins with Aryabhata (522 CE) – ‘practically every astronomical text produced in the land base itself on the teachings of Aryabhata’

  • Kerala legacy of Astronomy and Mathematics begins with Aryabhata (522 CE) – ‘practically every astronomical text produced in the land base itself on the teachings of Aryabhata’

  • Ref: Sarma, KV., Tradition of Aryabhatiya in Kerala, Revision of Planetary Parameters

  • A vast body of astronomical and mathematical literature in such illustrious names as Bhaskara-I, Haridatta, Madhava, Paramesvara, Nilakantha, Achyuta etc. Modern researchers, Dr. KV Sarma, Kuppanna Sastri, RC Gupta, KS Shukla, CT Rajagopal etc.

  • Revision of the older siddhantas was an outcome of the realization of data misfit between prediction and observations of the astronomical phenomena and successive astronomer-mathematicians have been very critical of even the most astute of their predecessors as we see with Brahmagupta and Vatesvara.



Brahmagupta minced no words to criticize Aryabhata and Vatesvara followed on the lines of the “lotus-born” (Brahmagupta) :

  • Brahmagupta minced no words to criticize Aryabhata and Vatesvara followed on the lines of the “lotus-born” (Brahmagupta) :

  • “The longitude of a planet obtained from its forged revolution number cannot be the same as that obtained from its real revolution number…. The revolution number for Mars (for example) may be forged by taking the first four figures as 8522, 0635, 7552 or 9292..” (I:20-22)

  • and

  • “On account of forged revolution numbers, forged civil days and forged positions of apogees and due to ignorance of the epicycles, the longitude of the planets disagree with observations and so they are not true”. (I:27)

  • With Vatesvara airing such criticism on Brahmagupta, one can imagine the plight of the lesser folks if anybody were to forge astronomical works without taking into account the data misfit of his times.

  • (Vatesvara siddhanta, translated by Prof. KS Shukla)



"Aryabhata I or Aryabhata the Elder to distinguish him from a 10th-century Indian mathematician of the same name, he flourished in Kusumapura—near Patalipurta (Patna), then the capital of the Gupta dynasty—where he composed at least two works, Aryabhatiya (c. 499) and the now lost Aryabhatasiddhanta. Aryabhatasiddhanta circulated mainly in the northwest of India and, through the Sasanian dynasty (224–651) of Iran, had a profound influence on the development of Islamic astronomy. Its contents are preserved to some extent in the works of Varahamihira (flourished c. 550), Bhaskara I (flourished c. 629), Brahmagupta (598–c. 665), and others. It is one of the earliest astronomical works to assign the start of each day to midnight. Aryabhatiya was particularly popular in South India, where numerous mathematicians over the ensuing millennium wrote commentaries" (sic)

  • "Aryabhata I or Aryabhata the Elder to distinguish him from a 10th-century Indian mathematician of the same name, he flourished in Kusumapura—near Patalipurta (Patna), then the capital of the Gupta dynasty—where he composed at least two works, Aryabhatiya (c. 499) and the now lost Aryabhatasiddhanta. Aryabhatasiddhanta circulated mainly in the northwest of India and, through the Sasanian dynasty (224–651) of Iran, had a profound influence on the development of Islamic astronomy. Its contents are preserved to some extent in the works of Varahamihira (flourished c. 550), Bhaskara I (flourished c. 629), Brahmagupta (598–c. 665), and others. It is one of the earliest astronomical works to assign the start of each day to midnight. Aryabhatiya was particularly popular in South India, where numerous mathematicians over the ensuing millennium wrote commentaries" (sic)

  • (Encyclopedia Brittanica)



"A veritable pioneer of Indian Astronomy, Āryabhata is without doubt one of the most original, significant and prolific scholars in the history of Indian science. He was long known by Arabic Muslim scholars as Arjabhad and later in Europe in the middle Ages by the Latinized name of Ardubarius. He lived at the end of the 5th century and the beginning of the sixth century CE, in the town of Kusumapura..." (Georges Ifra, The Universal History of Numbers)

  • "A veritable pioneer of Indian Astronomy, Āryabhata is without doubt one of the most original, significant and prolific scholars in the history of Indian science. He was long known by Arabic Muslim scholars as Arjabhad and later in Europe in the middle Ages by the Latinized name of Ardubarius. He lived at the end of the 5th century and the beginning of the sixth century CE, in the town of Kusumapura..." (Georges Ifra, The Universal History of Numbers)

  • "As far as astronomical works are concerned, it seems that the Kerala country was the seat of its development in the South. It is all based on the Āryabhatīya, with or without corrections called the bījas... How Āryabhata came to be connected with the Kerala country is yet to be explained. He is called Aśmaka (i.e. one born in the Āśmaka region) and some say that an early name of the erstwhile princely state of Travancore was Āśmaka (Apte's Dictionary). But many say that the region near the Vindhyās was called the Āśmaka country...“ (TS Kuppanna Sastri)



"...scholars have thought for a long time that Āryabhata was either born in Kusumapura or lived and taught in that great city of ancient India. Such a view now appears untenable in the light of recent studies on the works of Bhaskara-I and his commentators and also of the medieval commentators of Āryabhata. In these works, Āryabhata is frequently referred to as an aśmaka, that is one belonging to the Aśmaka country which is the name of a country in the south, possibly Kerala....the fact that commentaries of and works based on Āryabhatīya have come largely from South India, from Kerala in particular certainly constitute a strong argument in fvaour of Kerala being the main place of his life and activity"

  • "...scholars have thought for a long time that Āryabhata was either born in Kusumapura or lived and taught in that great city of ancient India. Such a view now appears untenable in the light of recent studies on the works of Bhaskara-I and his commentators and also of the medieval commentators of Āryabhata. In these works, Āryabhata is frequently referred to as an aśmaka, that is one belonging to the Aśmaka country which is the name of a country in the south, possibly Kerala....the fact that commentaries of and works based on Āryabhatīya have come largely from South India, from Kerala in particular certainly constitute a strong argument in fvaour of Kerala being the main place of his life and activity"

  • ('A Concise History of Science in India‘, INSA)

  • SB Dikshit to Dr KV Sarma (1977/2001)





Conflict of the latitude of Ujjayinī

  • Conflict of the latitude of Ujjayinī

  • Verse spells out that on the prime meridian, Ujjayinī is located at one-sixteenth of the earth's circumference North of Laňkā and thus the latitude of Ujjayinī turns out to be 3600/16 = 220N30'.

  • "...This makes the latitude of Ujjayinī equal to 22030'N. This is in agreement with the teachings of the earlier followers of Āryabhata, such as Bhāskara-I (AD 629), Deva (AD 689) and Lalla and the interpretations of the commentators Someśvara, Sūryadeva (b. AD 1191) and Parameśvara (AD 1431). Even the celebrated Bhāskara-II (AD1150) has chosen to adopt it.

  • Brahmagupta (AD628) differed from this view. He takes Ujjayinī at a distance of one-fifteenth of the earth's circumference from Laňkā and the likewise the latitude of Ujjayinī as equal to 240N



Āryabhata gave the latitude of Ujjayinī as 3600/16 North of Laňka and it had acceptance among only his followers.

  • Āryabhata gave the latitude of Ujjayinī as 3600/16 North of Laňka and it had acceptance among only his followers.

  • Brahmagupta and a host of others like Varāhamihira did not agree with Āryabhata and had given rise to an alternate school of thought and tradition.

  • Bhāskara-II apparently had agreement with Āryabhata but some followers of Āryabhata like Sūryadeva could not find any rationale underlying the Āryabhata's notion and they did tacitly accept Brahmagupta as correct.

  • Apart from what Shukla and Sarma have discussed, we can see that the Sūryasiddhānta also did not agree with Āryabhata in the matter.

  • Shukla has quoted Nīlkantha who has tried to explain the conflict by crediting Āryabhata’s reference of 220N30’ to a different Janapada at that latitude. But this is not correct as any reference to Ujjayinī in ancient texts obviously hinted at the location of Mahākāleśvar temple whose latitude according to modern determination is 230N13’.



In any country places falling on the tropic of cancer is well known to astronomers. How could Aryabhata miss it had he been living beyond the tropic of cancer but close by?

  • In any country places falling on the tropic of cancer is well known to astronomers. How could Aryabhata miss it had he been living beyond the tropic of cancer but close by?

  • Can Aryabhata at 25N35 be unaware of the intersection of the prime meridian and the tropic of cancer (240)?

  • How can Aryabhata at Kusumapura (25.5N) place Ujjayini at 22.5N with Palabha = 5?

  • Kusumapura was 87 yojanas (9.50) east of the prime meridian. How can he produce a treatise without the mention of Desantara?

  • Can a treatise as accurate as Aryabhatiya be created in Kusumapura (25.5N, 9.5E of Ujjayini) without Desantara and Udayantara?













C0 = 3299,

  • C0 = 3299,

  • Interger Yojanas per degree of longitude at  demands

  • C = 3240 = 360*9 and





Aśmaka was the Jain Country surrounding Śravanabelgola (12N50) and the place received its name from the stone monoliths out of which the great statues got carved in later times.

      • Aśmaka was the Jain Country surrounding Śravanabelgola (12N50) and the place received its name from the stone monoliths out of which the great statues got carved in later times.






5 Mistakes of Computational Rules

  • 5 Mistakes of Computational Rules

  • Arkāgrā, verse 31 of Goḷa which stipulates the condition for samamaṇḍala śaňku

  • Earth’s diameter and circumference

  • Erroneous use of Rversed sine (verses 35, 36 and 45 of Āryabhaṭīya)

  • Precept on the visibility of Agastya

  • Modification of the revolutions of Moon’s Nodes



It stands scientifically established that the alleged mistakes were in fact observational truths locally at his place of observation – banks of Nila at 10N51, 75E45.

  • It stands scientifically established that the alleged mistakes were in fact observational truths locally at his place of observation – banks of Nila at 10N51, 75E45.

  • Bhaskara’s reference to Asmaka as his place originated from the fact that he was a Jain and Chamravattam and the river Bharata_puzha were part of the Jain country in his days.

  • Chamravattam is named after the Jain muni Sabara and Bharata_puzha after the Jain King Bharata famous as Bharatesvara.



















When  = 0, Agra or Amplitude is 0 and when  > , sun cannot cross PV. In the precept Agra comes into picture as an observation in south latitudes where  =  = Agrā for low  values like 10N51, the location of Āryabhata

  • When  = 0, Agra or Amplitude is 0 and when  > , sun cannot cross PV. In the precept Agra comes into picture as an observation in south latitudes where  =  = Agrā for low  values like 10N51, the location of Āryabhata



Āryabhata’s Ujjayinī of Palabhā = 5 and  = 22.5 is a hypothetical place or there is a latitude error of 1.50 and Palabhā error of 20 Vyaňgulas.

  • Āryabhata’s Ujjayinī of Palabhā = 5 and  = 22.5 is a hypothetical place or there is a latitude error of 1.50 and Palabhā error of 20 Vyaňgulas.





























Lunar eclipse of 23 March 517 CE had maximum of the eclipse at 23:56 almost coinciding meridian and could be observed on horizon later as hypothetically described by Prof KS Shukla.

  • Lunar eclipse of 23 March 517 CE had maximum of the eclipse at 23:56 almost coinciding meridian and could be observed on horizon later as hypothetically described by Prof KS Shukla.

  • Total eclipse of the moon on the meridian and intersection of the equator where the versine was zero and horizon where it reached a maximum = latitude could be observed by Aryabhata on the meridian of Ujjayini.





The lunar eclipse presented an occasion when the eclipsed moon had a meridian transit when posited close to the equator.

  • The lunar eclipse presented an occasion when the eclipsed moon had a meridian transit when posited close to the equator.

  • At the intersection of the meridian and the equator, the Rversed sine of the hour angle H was zero and the Rsine of the aks̟avalana was also zero.

  • Rversed sine of the hour angle and the aks̟avalana increased thereafter.

  • When the eclipsed body was at the horizon at 18:00 hrs on 23 March or at 06:00 hrs on 24 March, the Rversed sine of H had its maximum value and the aks̟avalana also had its maximum value equal to the latitude of the place.

  • East to West horizon observations received the correct representation with versine H but the same failed for the intended purpose during the progress of the eclipse between first contact and last contact













“At the beginning and end of lunar eclipse, the obscured disc appears smoky and during partial obscuration it is black. In totality the obscured part is yellowish brown and at maximum obscuration the disc appears bluish with black tinge”

  • “At the beginning and end of lunar eclipse, the obscured disc appears smoky and during partial obscuration it is black. In totality the obscured part is yellowish brown and at maximum obscuration the disc appears bluish with black tinge”















Precept is location specific and without knowing the place where Agastya was observed, tradition had been alleging mistake on the Aryabhata precept.

  • Precept is location specific and without knowing the place where Agastya was observed, tradition had been alleging mistake on the Aryabhata precept.

  • Empirical rule of Aryabhata is very precise at Chamravattam and none could give a better rule at their place or could even guess out that the place of observation may be south latitudes.











Kerala legend speaks of Haridatta who became a lunatic in later times had been rolling stones up the Rayiranellur hill and rolling them down to demonstrate that obtaining height is too difficult while reaching the foot is very easy

  • Kerala legend speaks of Haridatta who became a lunatic in later times had been rolling stones up the Rayiranellur hill and rolling them down to demonstrate that obtaining height is too difficult while reaching the foot is very easy

  • Unnati varuthuka = Deriving R*Sin 

  • Padam varuthuka = Deriving R*Cos 





Deriving these 24 Rsine values for  up to 900 was difficult as the slope increased or angle increased.

  • Deriving these 24 Rsine values for  up to 900 was difficult as the slope increased or angle increased.

  • Once the 24 Rsines were determined, the cosines could be easily derived.

  • Achieving the height was difficult like rolling a stone up hill but once the height or R*Sine  is achieved, the base or R*Cos  was easy by the rule of compliment.

  • It is noteworthy that height is achieved by means of the Hypotenuse along which the stone is rolled up to height.

  • And thus analogy was drawn for the process of a stone rolled up the hill to achieve the height and then left to roll down with ease to reach the base.



Verse 9 of Kālakriya giving the Jaina 12 fold division of Yuga

  • Verse 9 of Kālakriya giving the Jaina 12 fold division of Yuga

  • Verse 5 of Daśagītikā speaks of Bharata, the first Universal emperor of Jains who accessed the throne from the Ādinātha Rsabhadeva at the beginning of Apasarpinī Kaliyuga.

  • Āryabhata’s rejection of the 4:3:2:1 cycle of Krtādi yugas based on the Smrtis provide attestation to the new interpretation attempted of the verse.

  • Verse 11 of Gola referring to Nandana-vana and Meru represents terminology borrowed from Tiloyapannatti of Jains.

  • References to Bramah the primordial deity of Jains in verses 1 of Ganitā and 49, 50 of Gola.

  • Use of Kali Era having the distinct signature of Āryabhata for the first time in South India with the Aihole inscription of the Cālukya King Pulikeśi-II. Aihole as Āryapura suggests the possibility that the town may have been the place where he may have attained liberation later in his life and hence named after Āryabhata as Āryapura.








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