Introductions



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Introductions

  • Introductions

  • Positioning myself

  • A definition of mixed methods research

  • Steps in the process of designing a mixed methods study



View research as set of interactive components; not always linear

  • View research as set of interactive components; not always linear

  • Focus on rigorous data collection and analysis

  • Work as an applied research methodogist

  • Trained in quantitative, self-trained in qualitative, lst generation mixed methods writer

  • Serve as a consultant on mixed methods on projects

  • Work on projects in an order not in proposal format; then I reassemble into proper format





A Definition of Mixed Methods Research

  • A Definition of Mixed Methods Research



Qualitative

  • Qualitative

  • Text Data

  • This is a sample of a text file of words that might be collected on interview transcripts, observation fieldnotes, or optically-scanned documents.





Collects both quantitative and qualitative data

    • Collects both quantitative and qualitative data
    • “Mixes” them
    • “Mixes” them at the same time (concurrently) or one after the other (sequentially)
    • Emphasizes both equally or unequally




Quantitative data

  • Quantitative data

    • Instruments
    • Checklists
    • Records


Qualitative analysis

  • Qualitative analysis





To compare results from quantitative and qualitative research

  • To compare results from quantitative and qualitative research

  • To use qualitative research to help explain quantitative findings

  • To explore using qualitative research and then to generalize findings to a large population using quantitative research

  • To develop an instrument because none are available or useful

  • To augment an experiment with qualitative data



The insufficient argument – either quantitative or qualitative may be insufficient by itself

  • The insufficient argument – either quantitative or qualitative may be insufficient by itself

  • Multiple angles argument – quantitative and qualitative approaches provide different “pictures”

  • The more-evidence-the-better argument – combined quantitative and qualitative provides more evidence

  • Community of practice argument – mixed methods may be the preferred approach within a scholarly community

  • Eager-to-learn argument – it is the latest methodology

  • “Its intuitive” argument – it mirrors “real life”



Preliminary considerations

  • Preliminary considerations

  • Creating a title

  • Posing a general question

  • Listing the types of data collection and analysis

  • Making explicit your worldview

  • Identifying your research design

  • Drawing a figure of your design

  • Writing a purpose statement

  • Writing research questions

  • Completing a research plan





Writing the title

  • Writing the title

    • Short
    • Topic
    • Participants
    • Include the words “Mixed methods”
    • Neutral –neither quan or qual


Write it as a question

  • Write it as a question

  • Look to see how it is phrased

  • Make sure that it is specific enough and focused (an answerable question)

  • Ask yourself, “when I end the study, what question would like to have answered?”



Quantitative data (closed-ended)

  • Quantitative data (closed-ended)

    • Instruments
    • Behavioral checklists
    • Records


Quantitative Sources of Data

  • Quantitative Sources of Data



Qualitative analysis

  • Qualitative analysis

    • Use text and images,
    • For coding
    • For theme development
    • For relating themes
    • Design-type




One paradigm (pragmatism, transformative) (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003; Mertens, 2003)

  • One paradigm (pragmatism, transformative) (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003; Mertens, 2003)

  • Multiple paradigms (dialectic perspective) (Greene, 2007)

  • Linking paradigms to design features) (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007)

  • Epistemological stance (ontology, epistemology, axiology, methodology) (Guba & Lincoln, 2005)

  • Shared beliefs in a research field (Morgan, 2007)

  • What it is

  • How it informs your study



Advocacy lens (feminist, racial, ethnic, disability, sexual orientation) (Mertens, 2003)

  • Advocacy lens (feminist, racial, ethnic, disability, sexual orientation) (Mertens, 2003)

  • Social science lens (social science theory)

  • Components:

    • What is it
    • Who has used it in your field
    • How it will shape your study (rephrase your guiding research question, if a lens applies)


Procedures for handling your qualitative and quantitative data

  • Procedures for handling your qualitative and quantitative data

  • Sequence – concurrent or sequential or both

  • Emphasis – emphasis on qualitative or quantitative

  • Sometimes both concurrent and sequential phases are used

  • Designs may include more than two phases

  • Think about using a simple, elegant design



















Concurrent Designs

  • Concurrent Designs

    • Use strategies to explore contradictory findings
    • Use parallel questions
    • Select sub-sample of quantitative for qualitative
    • Be sensitive to bias from one data collection to the other




This mixed methods study will address _________________ (overall content aim of the study). An embedded mixed method design will be used, and it is a design in which one data set provides a supportive, secondary role in a study based primarily on the other data set. The primary purpose of this study will use ________________ (quantitative instruments) to test the theory of _____________ (the theory) that predicts that __________________ (independent variables) will influence ________________ (positively, negatively) the __________ (dependent variables or outcomes) for ____________ (participants) at __________ (the research site). A secondary purpose will be to gather qualitative data _______________ (type of qualitative data, such as interviews) that will explore ____________ (the central phenomenon) for _________________ (participants) at _____________(site). The reason for collecting the secondary database is ________________ (e.g., to address different question, to provide support for the primary purpose).

  • This mixed methods study will address _________________ (overall content aim of the study). An embedded mixed method design will be used, and it is a design in which one data set provides a supportive, secondary role in a study based primarily on the other data set. The primary purpose of this study will use ________________ (quantitative instruments) to test the theory of _____________ (the theory) that predicts that __________________ (independent variables) will influence ________________ (positively, negatively) the __________ (dependent variables or outcomes) for ____________ (participants) at __________ (the research site). A secondary purpose will be to gather qualitative data _______________ (type of qualitative data, such as interviews) that will explore ____________ (the central phenomenon) for _________________ (participants) at _____________(site). The reason for collecting the secondary database is ________________ (e.g., to address different question, to provide support for the primary purpose).







Qualitative central question

  • Qualitative central question

    • Begin with “what” or “how”
    • Focus on single phenomenon
    • Use exploratory verbs (discover, understand, explore)
    • Non-directional language
    • A general question (allowing participants’ perspectives to emerge)


Can be hypotheses or questions

  • Can be hypotheses or questions

  • State variables – independent, dependent, mediating, covariates

  • Develop from theory

  • Use distinct measures for independent and dependent variables

  • Order variables from independent to dependent



Write qualitative research questions and write quantitative research questions/hypotheses

  • Write qualitative research questions and write quantitative research questions/hypotheses

  • Also write a mixed methods research question

  • Write these questions separately



Three ways to write this question:

  • Three ways to write this question:

  • Methodologically-focused:

    • To what extent do the qualitative results confirm the quantitative results?
    • Content-focused:
    • How do the interviews with adolescent boys support the quantitative results that their self-esteem changes during the middle school years?
    • Hybrid of quantitative and qualitative elements:
    • What results emerge from comparing the exploratory qualitative data about boy’s self-esteem with outcome quantitative instrument data measured on a self-esteem instrument?


Title

  • Title

  • Introduction

    • (Problem)
    • Worldview/theoretical lens
    • Audience
    • Purpose Statement
    • Research Questions
  • (Literature Review)

  • Methods

    • Type of Mixed Methods Design (also add definition of mixed methods)
    • Types of Data Collection
    • Types of Data Analysis
    • Sequence/Emphasis/ Mixing Procedures
    • Figure of procedures
    • Anticipated methodological issues
  • Ethical issues anticipated

  • Validity issues

  • Researcher resources and skills

  • References, Appendices



Books:

  • Books:

  • Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Creswell, J. W. (2008). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

  • Greene, J. C. (2007). Mixed methods in social inquiry. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  • Mertens, D. M. (2005). Research methods in education and psychology: Integrating diversity with quantitative and qualitative approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

  • Plano Clark, V. L., & Creswell, J. W. (2008). The mixed methods reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (1998). Mixed methodology: Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

  • Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (Eds.) (2003). Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.



Articles and Chapters:

  • Articles and Chapters:

  • Caracelli, V. J., & Greene, J. C. (1993). Data analysis strategies for mixed-method evaluation designs. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 15 (2), 195-207.

  • Creswell, J. W., Plano Clark, V. L., Gutmann, M., & Hanson, W. (2003). Advanced mixed methods research designs. In: A. Tashakkori & C. Teddlie (Eds.), Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 209-240). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Creswell, J. W., Plano Clark, V. L., & Garrett, A. L. (2008). Methodological issues in conducting mixed methods research. In M.M. Bergman (Ed.), Advances in mixed methods research. London: Sage.

  • Greene, J. C., Caracelli, V. J., & Graham, W. F. (1989). Toward a conceptual framework for mixed-method evaluation designs. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 11 (3), 255-274.

  • Ivankova, N. V., Creswell, J. W., & Stick, S. (2006). Using mixed methods sequential explanatory design: From theory to practice. Field Methods, 18(1), 3-20.

  • Morgan, D. L. (2007). Paradigms lost and pragmatism regained. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1, 48-76.

  • Morse, J. M. (1991). Approaches to qualitative-quantitative methodological triangulation. Nursing Research, 40, 120-123.






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