Polymers containing c-Octabde



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The COP decided at the fourth meeting to list in Annex A certain congeners contained in commercial pentabromodiphenyl ether (c-PentaBDE) and/or commercial octabromodiphenyl ethers (c-OctaBDE) including tetrabromodiphenyl ether, pentabromodiphenyl ether, hexabromodiphenyl ether, and heptabromodiphenyl ether (POP-BDEs).

  • The COP decided at the fourth meeting to list in Annex A certain congeners contained in commercial pentabromodiphenyl ether (c-PentaBDE) and/or commercial octabromodiphenyl ethers (c-OctaBDE) including tetrabromodiphenyl ether, pentabromodiphenyl ether, hexabromodiphenyl ether, and heptabromodiphenyl ether (POP-BDEs).













Polymers containing c-OctaBDE

  • Polymers containing c-OctaBDE

  • Polyurethane (PUR) foam containing c-PentaBDE

    • Largest amount in transport (car, bus, truck, train, etc.)
    • In countries with flame retardant standards also used in furniture and construction and minor in mattresses
  • Minor use PentaBDE: in textiles and rubber



Ecological priorities (Section 2.2.4) :

  • Ecological priorities (Section 2.2.4) :

  • Design measures to reduce flame retardants

  • Inorganic flame retardants

  • Reactively bonded, halogen-free organic nitrogen and phosphorus compounds

  • Non-persistent or bioaccumulative additive flame retardants that are not toxic to humans and the environment in the long term



Since the use of POP-BDE have largely stopped a decade ago, a large share of POP-BDE-containing materials have already entered the waste management and recycling flow or might soon come to this stage. Therefore considerations of waste management options play a crucial role in the overall assessment.

  • Since the use of POP-BDE have largely stopped a decade ago, a large share of POP-BDE-containing materials have already entered the waste management and recycling flow or might soon come to this stage. Therefore considerations of waste management options play a crucial role in the overall assessment.



To practically achieve the separation of POP-BDE containing materials in the frame of the Convention.

  • To practically achieve the separation of POP-BDE containing materials in the frame of the Convention.

  • A separation of BFR and non-BFR polymers will improve the recyclability of the polymer streams.

  • For sensitive non-BFR applications made from recycled polymers (e.g. toys, kitchen articles etc.) no BFR or other critical chemicals should be present in these materials.

  • Separation of BFR containing polymers for Br recovery.

  • PBDD/F formation potential end-of-life BFR materials



Live Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the management of material and recycling flow quantifying impact on ecological and heath is considered BAT/BEP.

  • Live Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the management of material and recycling flow quantifying impact on ecological and heath is considered BAT/BEP.

  • Life cycle assessments have been undertaken for electronics and transport – the main material flows impacted by POP-BDEs.

  • Recycling of PUR foam & Bromine?



Standard/rapid PBDE analysis: is not practical for separation in the recycling and the waste stream (Section 4.1)

  • Standard/rapid PBDE analysis: is not practical for separation in the recycling and the waste stream (Section 4.1)

  • Bromine in situ measurement can be used (X-ray technologies; sliding spark) (Section 4.2)



Recovery of materials from WEEE (Section 5.1)

  • Recovery of materials from WEEE (Section 5.1)

    • The management of POP-BDE in WEEE polymers needs to be addressed in the frame of BAT/BEP for EEE/WEEE. BAT/BEP for management of WEEE is established by the Basel Convention and is an important synergy.
  • Reuse of electric and electronic equipment (Section 5.2)

    • Repair and reuse of EEE is the preferred option for end-of-life management. Reuse extends the life span, safes energy for the manufacturing and lowers the environmental impacts of mining for raw materials.


The recovery of metals is the key driver of WEEE recycling.

    • The recovery of metals is the key driver of WEEE recycling.
    • Current WEEE recycling facilities are normally not optimized for separation of PBDE/BFR containing polymer.
    • The complex mixture of polymers is difficult to separate and industry has tight specifications for materials/chemicals resulting in low recycling rates of polymers from WEEE.
    • Strategy: to produce valuable recyclates with a quality accepted by producers of new products and separation of PBDE/BFR as an integrative part of recycling.




























The current BAT/BEP guidance has highlighted developing country considerations where possible.

  • The current BAT/BEP guidance has highlighted developing country considerations where possible.

  • However there is currently a lack of information on BEP (and BAT) applied in developing countries.

  • Information and comments on BAT/BEP from developing countries are welcome and will be considered in an update of this guidance.



For more information, please contact:

  • For more information, please contact:

  • Secretariat of the Stockholm Convention

  • 11-13, Chemin des Anémones - 1219 Châtelaine, Switzerland

  • Tel.: +41 (0)22 917 8729 - Fax: +41 (0)22 917 8098 E-mail: ssc@pops.int, Website: www.pops.int




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