Problem, Process and Solution Problem-Solution

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Problem, Process and Solution


  • Argumentative/Evaluative

  • Your position – questioning & perceptive

Suggested parts of a Problem-Solution Text

  • Situation – background information

  • Problemlack of data, question method, inadequacies

  • Solution – how to get more data, improve method, overcome inadequacies

  • Evaluation – Assessment of the merits of the proposed answer

Will your text be a problem-solution?

  • HMMs (Hidden Markov Models) are commonly used in speech recognition algorithms. They have also been successfully utilized in many other bioinformatics problems. However, to our knowledge, there is no prior work that uses HMMs for inferring gene regulation. This remains as a significant avenue of research yet to be explored. We are hoping to be the first group to achieve this.

  • Often begin by reviewing the current state of knowledge which allows the author to raise questions and offer answers.

Midposition Adverbs

  • “to our knowledge, there is no prior work that uses”

  • “published”, “to do/carry out research”, yet

  • currently, to date, hitherto, as of yet, study, investigate

  • Task 2 – p. 86

Role of Process

  • Often necessary to describe a process –

  • Does your text/will your text describe a process? What is it?

Passive Voice

  • When/why do we use the passive

  • Identifying “human” agents is unusual

  • May find – by + process or by + non-human agent

    • The chances of finding oil are often estimated by seismic survey
    • Write a similar sentence using concepts from your field


  • Write a list of words used to introduce stages in a sequence eg. Firstly, secondly, thirdly

  • after (a while) afterwards at first at last at (the same time) while first , second, third... thereafter concurrently soon then (up to) (then) later somewhat earlier shortly over the next (2 days) as long as last

Ambiguity caused by combining verbs

  • The liquid is collected and kept for 24 hours

  • The sample is collected and stored in a sterile container

  • In consumer research, individuals are selected and interviewed by telephone

Combining Active/Passive Voice

  • Task 8 – page 98

When “active” is used

  • When agent is important (even human)

    • Einstein developed the theory of relativity
  • When agent is non-human (but not always)

    • The sun rises in the East
    • When the coral is stressed , the coral releases the algae.
  • If the verb indicates a change of state

    • The metal expanded because of the increase in temperature

Task 11 page 104

Task 12 page 105

Task 14

Task 15

  • Indirect Questions

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