Saint Anthony Mary Claret

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). In one of his letters, Father Claret wrote this phrase: “As Gerson says, in caring for adults there are two very great duties, sometimes fruitless; but [in] caring for the children there is only one duty, and in general of great benefit and transcendence” (letter to Father Joseph Xifré, Rome, July 16, 1869: EC., II, pp. 1407-1408).

593 Cf. Vida y virtudes del venerable varón el Maestro Juan de Ávila: Obras (Madrid 1759) I, pp. 150 151. Ex libris.

594 Father Diego de Guzmán was born around the year 1522 in Seville; educated by his uncle D. Alonso Manrique, archbishop of Seville. Upon his uncle’s death, he began to study Law. In 1541, he heard Saint John of Avila preach, admired him and became his disciple. A simple and ingenuous man he became captivated by the Saint, who made him give up Law to study Theology in Toledo (1542-1546). He entered the Company of Jesus in Oñate (Guipúzcoa) in 1552, was ordained priest towards the year 1556, and professed his final vows the 23rd of May, 1560 in Rome. He dedicated himself to catechesis and wrote "Modo per insegnar con frutto la dottrina christiana" (1585). He died a saintly death in Seville May 8, 1606 (cf. San Juan de Ávila, Obras completas, new critical edition by Luis Sala Balust (+) and Francisco Martín Hernández. BAC (Madrid 2000) I, pp. 82-83; Medina, F. B, Guzmán, Diego de, in: Diccionario histórico de la Compañía de Jesús. Biográfico-temático. Directors: Charles O'Neill, S.I.-Joaquín Mª Domínguez, S.I. (Roma-Madrid 2001) II, pp. 1857-1859).

595 Saint Ignatius of Loyola (Loyola, Guipúzcoa, 1491-Rome 1556). Converted. Founder of the Company of Jesus. His motto: “Ad majorem Dei gloriam” (for the greater glory of God). His feast is celebrated on July 31st.

596 Saint Francis Xavier (Castillo de Javier, Navarra, 1506-Isla Sancián, 1552). Followed Saint Ignatius of Loyola, assisted in the foundation of the Company of Jesus, and departed to India, then to Japan, where he ministered with extraordinary selflessness and devotion.

597 Saint Francis Borgia (Gandia, Valencia, 1510 – Rome 1572). Third Superior General of the Company of Jesus from 1865 until his death.

598 Diego Laínez (Almazán, Soria, 1512-Rome 1565). Was one of the founders of the Company of Jesus. He performed brilliantly as a theologian at the Council of Trent. He was the second Superior General of the Jesuit Company (1556-1565).

599 Alfonso Salmerón (1515-1585) Jesuit, companion of Saint Ignatius Loyola and pontifical theologian at the Council of Trent, was born in Toledo, and died in Naples.

600 Saint Joseph Calasanz (1557-1648), great educator and founder of the Piarist Community, was born in Peralta de la Sal (Huesca), and died in Rome.

601 Blessed César de Bus (Cavaillon, France, 1544 - Aviñón 1607) founded the Congregation of Secular priests of Christian Doctrine (1592) and the Congregation of the Daughters of Christian Doctrine.

602 Claret said of them: “I believe that, at this time, they are the ones who do the most good for the church, and those whom one can expect the most of” (letter to Father Joseph Xifré, Rome, July 16, 1869: EC., II, p. 1406).

603 Father Ignatius Martins (1530 1598), Jesuit from the year 1547.

604 Father Edmond Auger (1530- 1619) entered as a novice of the Jesuits in Rome when Saint Ignatius was still alive. He was a great preacher, called the Chrysostom of France, and published the Catecismo o suma de la religión cristiana (Valencia 1565) 88 pp.

605 Is 33:18: Vulgate edition. Where is the teacher of the little ones?

606 Regarding these catechists cf. Mss. Claret, II, 263- 266.

607 Also in Rome, during the Vatican Council I, he dedicated himself to the teaching of catechism to children. For this purpose, he copied a series of questions and answers in Italian with the fundamental truths of the faith. It was a small booklet, so as to be able to carry it readily at hand (cf. Mss. Claret, XII, 391- 396).

608 Saint Anthony Claret was one of the principal catechists of his time. He composed - as he himself says - four fundamental catechisms that soon branched off into twelve. Furthermore, he edited others from various other authors. Here, the following are referred to: Compendio o breve explicación de la doctrina (Barcelona 1848); Catecismo explicado (Barcelona 1848); Maná del cristiano (compendio de catecismo para los rústicos) (Vic 1850) and Devocionario de los párvulos (Barcelona 1858). At the time he wrote the Autobiografia, he was preparing a complete catechism, the Catecismo ùnico (cf. Autob. Doc. XVI). Here, the Saint refers to the Catecismo explicado (a Spanish edition and another in Catalan in 1848), which was the first book published by the Librería Religiosa. Of this catechism and of the author, one of the Saint’s collaborators said: “Claret and Clará, Anthony Mary, Catalan, apostolic missionary, Archbishop of Santiago, Cuba presently of Trajanoplolis “in partibus” and confessor of Isabel II, Queen of Spain, “Catechism of Christian Doctrine” explained and adapted for children, Barcelona 1861, fourteenth edition. So many repeated and numerous editions prove - better than our best judgment - the importance of a Catechism whose excellent intrinsic qualities compile the most genuine application of images. He also produced a “Catechism of Christian Doctrine” for children, printed several times in 16th , and another for preschoolers, both true excerpts of the original” (Besalú y Ros, Francisco Javier, Enseñanza Catequística [Madrid 1963] pp. 355-356).

609 First edition (Barcelona 1861) II, pp. 515-517.

610 In another place, he wrote: “Those who do not know the Christian doctrine are blind without a guide, without light, in darkness; trees without root; navigators without compass nor rudder; soldiers without weapons; worker without bread. This science of the doctrine is the wharf; the weights of the clock; it is the dock that holds us secure, the pomba (= the pump) that makes us rise, the steam machine” (Mss. Claret, II, 263 266).

611 This handbook is preserved in the CMF General Archives of Rome (Mss. Claret, VIII-IX).

612 In another place he compares sinners to walnut trees: “There are certain sinners who are like the walnut trees that do not give their fruit unless struck with sticks” (letter to Don Carmelo Sala, Vic, September 13, 1865: EC., II, p. 932).

613 The realists were those in favor of prince Don Carlos Isidro, brother of Fernando VII and aspirer to the crown of Spain, of conservative tendency; whereas the constitutionalists were the liberals, who, taking advantage of the weakness of the throne, tried to take power in anomalous and fragile situations, first, taking advantage of the regency of Maria Cristina (1833 1840), and later, after the regency of Espartero (1840 1843), taking advantage of Isabel II, who began her reign at thirteen years of age (in 1843). Both ideologies, opposing each other, gave rise to the Carlist wars that, more than wars of succession, were ideological wars: different models of State and Society: Liberalism born of the French revolution proclaimed freedom, progress, democracy, and equality. On the other hand, Carlism defended and advocated absolutism and the defense of two great classes: throne and altar. Liberalism was represented by liberals and the bourgeoisie; and Carlism, by the nobility, the clergy and some of the people.

614 Lk 20:20 “[they sent spies] to trap him in his speech” (cf. Mt 22:15).

615 Cf. Saint Alphonsus Liguori, Selva di materie predicabili (Bassano 1833) 3rd part, chap. 6, p. 305. For a general overview of his life and works see: Castle, Harold. "St. Alphonsus Liguori." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 14 Mar. 2009 . For an English translations of his Writings go to:

616 He used much from the work of Mateo de Moya, Símiles de la Religión (390 pp.). Ex libris.

617 Catalan expression equivalent to “That’s some pill you expect us to swallow! or What a pack of lies!”

618 “You are right.”

619 Cf. 2 Cor 3:5.

620 Among Claret’s books ex libris are the works by the following authors: Saint John Chrysostom, Opera Omnia (Venice 1780) 13 volumes; Saint Alphonsus M. Liguori, Discorsi sacri o sia sermons (Bassano 1829) 242 pp.; Selva di materie predicabili (Bassano 1833) 2 vols., 464 pp.; Homo apostolicus (Barcelona 1844) 3 volumes; Meditaciones para todos los días de Adviento, novena y octava de Navidad (Barcelona 1859) 244 pp.; Theologia Moralis (Paris 1840 1841) 7 vols.; Compendium Theologiae Moralis (Barcelona 1847) 846 pp.; Instrucción al pueblo sobre los diez mandamientos (Barcelona 1842) 318 pp.; Siniscalchi, Liborio, Quaresimale (Venice 1773) 356 pp.; La scienza della salute eterna ovvero Esercizi Spirituali di S. Ignazio (Venice 1821) 524 pp.; Barcia y Zambrana, José, Despertador christiano de sermones doctrinales (Barcelona 1687), 5 volumes; Despertador christiano eucharistico (Barcelona 1690) 422 pp.; Despertador christiano. Quadragesimal (Madrid 1758 1762) 3 volumes; Despertador christiano. Marial (Madrid 1692) 394 pp; Exercitatorium christianum (Madrid 1687) 2 volumes; San Juan de ávila, Obras del Venerable Maestro.. (Madrid 1759 1760) 9 volumes.

621 These lines and the last part of the previous number had already been reproduced in Autob. 230.

622 Jer. 2:12: “Be amazed at this, O heavens!”

623 Brother Luis De Granada, Vida del V. D. Juan de Ávila: Obras del Venerable Maestro. (Madrid 1788) VI, p. 659. Almost all of this number also appears in Autob. 232.

624 This number up until here also appears in Autob. 232.

625 These lines also appear in Autob. 230.

626 The Conferences of Saint Vincent de Paul originated in France and soon spread everywhere. In Spain, “Claret and all the apostles from then on protected them and cheered them on.” (Jiménez Duque, Baldomero, Espiritualidad y apostolado, BAC, Historia de la Iglesia en España [Madrid 1979] V, p. 455). Their diffusion in Spain was due to Santiago de Masarnau. This Servant of God was born in Madrid in 1805. In 1823, he traveled to France with his exiled father. There, he encountered the Conferences of Saint Vincent de Paul, and was the one who introduced them to Spain. After a life dedicated to the poor, living through the spirit of Saint Vincent de Paul, he died with the fame of sanctity in Madrid December 14, 1882. (cf. Quadrado, José María, Biografía de Don Santiago de Masarnau [Madrid 1905] 362 pp.; Flores Auñón, Juan Carlos, Semblanza biográfica. Santiago Masarnau Fernández, seglar: fundador y primer presidente de la Sociedad de San Vicente de Paúl en España (1805-1882) [Madrid 1998] 100 pp.).

627 The same doctors attribute the health of the Saint, in the midst of excessive apostolic works, to a supernatural cause (cf. APV ses. 47). The trip to the Canary Islands was not in 1847, as Claret mistakenly states, but in 1848 (cf. Autob. nn. 478-480).

628 The Servant of God Buenaventura Codina (1785-1857), bishop of the Canary Islands from 1848, whom Claret describes in a single stroke as a “very virtuous and zealous man.”

629 Cf. Autob. nn. 92, 107.

630 The copy given to him by the Jesuits is preserved in the Chapel of Claretian Relics (CMF General Curia - Rome): Diertins, Ignatius, Exercitia spiritualia S. P. Ignatii Loyolae (Taurini 1826) editio nova, 330 pp. The Saint wrote on the first page: Haec sunt arma militiae nostrae [Here are our military weapons]. And further on: Ad usum Antonii Claret et Clara, Pbri. The book is used and highlighted with lines, small arrows, and other markings. The Trullás’ edition was made in 1844.

631 Precisely, upon concluding the exercises that he gave to the clergy of Vic from the 8th to the 18th of July, 1844, he published the booklet Avisos a un sacerdote que acaba de hacer los ejercicios de San Ignacio, a fin de conservar el fuego que el divino Espíritu haya encendido en su corazón (Vic 1844) 24 pp.

632 Pobla de Lillet.

633 That town is called San Llorenç de Morunys or dels Piteus.

634 It does not mention the exercises to priests and laypersons here - men and women - that achieved so much success in Madrid (cf. HD, I, pp. 361 392; II, pp. 55 60; Boletín de la Sociedad de San Vicente de Paúl 5 [1860] 45 49). “With the retreat - he said in one of his speeches at the Conferences - is how they are to communicate graces and the gifts of the Holy Spirit, and with them you will be transformed like the apostles, who before receiving the Holy Spirit did not know but to ask God to throw fire from the sky on the ungrateful city, and other such things; but as soon as the divine Spirit came upon them, everything in them was mercy, kindness and love” (Boletín de la Sociedad de San Vicente de Paúl 6 [1862] 70).

635 Ejercicios espirituales de San Ignacio explicados por el Excmo. e Ilmo. Sr. D. Antonio María (sic), arzobispo de Santiago de Cuba (Madrid 1859) 478 pp. In the rustic abodes, the publishers corrected the omission of the last name of the Saint. The edition was made under the charge of the Academy of Saint Michael. The Librería Religiosa made three editions while the Saint was still alive (1859, 1864, 1868), with a total of more than 20,000 copies. Composing this volume were 24 meditations of Pergmayr, Josef, Gründliche Erwägungen ewiger Wahrheiten, translated from the Italian version in 1842 by a Visitation Sister of Madrid. The manuscript is kept in the Claretian Archive of CESC – Vic. Claret added 11 meditations to the aforementioned distribution: plan of life, day of retreat, etc., completing a full harmony. It was published in the Saint’s name, probably because of how much he added, or due to the prestige of the Claret signature. (cf. Aramendía, Julio, El Beato Antonio María Claret y los ejercicios espirituales: Manresa 40 [1934] 333; Postius, Juan, Librería claretiana de ejercicios: Annales CMF 36 [1940-1941] 425-434). Father Pergmayr’s preference is founded, no doubt, by the Salesian influence of his writings (cf. Guibert, Joseph de, La spiritualité de la Compagnie de Jésus [Roma 1953] pp. 419 420). Among the eleven meditations added are some favorite subjects of the Saint, such as heaven, the Holy Sacrament, the Virgin, and love toward our fellowmen. In some of these meditations, the Lord granted extraordinary grace, such as love for enemies on October 15, 1869 in meditation 27 (cf. “Lights and Graces,” 1869). He takes others as objects of his resolutions, such as meditations 20 and 28 (Autob. n. 742).

636 Note the Ignatian touch in the phrase, very common in the Jesuit Company: Ad majorem Dei gloriam.

637 The copy that Isabel II donated, which is kept in the Chapel of the Claretian Relics of Rome, bears this autographic dedication: “To her majesty, the queen, Our Lady, in testimony of love and veneration, the author. Antonio Maria Claret and Clará, Archbishop of Trajanópolis.”

638 “Saint Anthony Mary Claret was a tireless and popular publisher. The multitude of his simple and pious works instructed the people and maintained their piety for many years” (Valverde, Carlos, Los católicos y la cultura española, BAC, Historia de la Iglesia en España [Madrid 1979] V, p. 525; cf. Lozano, Juan Manuel, Un gran apóstol de la prensa: San Antonio María Claret [Madrid 1963] 62 pp.).

639 In another place, he affirmed: “A good book is the best friend one can have and there is nothing comparable to the acquiring of a good friend” (Mss. Claret, XIII, 279).

640 Cf. Mt 15:19.

641 Ps 14:1: “The fool has said in his heart, ‘There is no God.’”

642 Cf. 1 Jn 2:16: “the concupiscence of the eyes and ears”

643 Fr. James Passarell (1803- 1864), great friend of Claret and of the Claretian Missionaries.

644 The original reads: “and will use them and others more.”

645 Reglas de espíritu que a unas religiosas muy solícitas de su perfección enseñaban San Alfonso y el V. P. Segneri Juniore (Vic 1843) 16 pp. Also published in EC, III, pp. 575-577.

646 Cf. in this volume, the General Bibliography. “As an apostle of the pen, Father Claret had no rival during his time, maybe in all of Europe” (Brunet, Manuel, Actualidad del P. Claret [Vic 1953] p. 22) “Writings in a functional and very original style, lively and very straightforward, his books and pamphlets achieved immense popularity” (ib., p. 25).

647 An almost complete collection of his loose leaflets is preserved in the CESC Vic.

648 One of these “prescriptions” contains four norms: 1. Resolution and three Hail Marys daily. 2. Do not get angry. 3. Penances for the blasphemies. 4. Flee from the blasphemies and short prayers of reparation. On the 5th of April, 1845, our Saint founded the Society of Mary Most Holy Against Blasphemy in Mataro and the following year a newsman stated from Espula de Francolí: “The habits have been corrected in a wonderful and satisfactory manner; the horrible monster of blasphemy almost disappearing, the demeanor that bound this religious principality in a highly scandalous way from past discords. (El Católico, Saturday, May 23rd, 1846: Gutiérrez, Federico, San Antonio María Claret en el periódico El Católico (1840-1857) [Roma-Madrid 1989] p. 84). Shortly after, in many places of Catalonia “there did not occur even the smallest amont of blaspheming as was previously the custom” (HD, I, p. 206).

649 In Catalonia this prayer, spread through flyers, became as popular as the “Hail Mary” or the “Blessed be your purity” (very much promoted by Father Claret in his books and pamphlets). The fruits that it produced were countless. The Saint tells further on of an extraordinary conversion through it (Autob. n. 830). The prayer is similar to the consecration, propogated in Italy by Father Nicola Zucchi (1586- 1670). It is entitled “O Domina mea” and was published in the Pratica della vera divozione nella servitù della Vergine (Roma 1666). Claret’s prayer has original traits. It reads: “Oh Virgin Mary and Mother of God! I surrender myself as your child, and in honor and glory of your purity I offer my soul and body, my mind and senses, and ask that you give me the grace never to commit any sin. Amen. (Then three times.) Mother, behold your son! (Continuing:) I have placed my trust in you, good Mother, and I shall never be confounded. Amen” (cf. Ramos, Clemente, Un apóstol de María [Barcelona 1954] pp. 347 354; Canal, José María, La Oración “¡Oh Virgen y Madre de Dios!”: SC 5 [1966] 105 116).

650 Cf. Conciencia, Manuel, Vida del glorioso taumaturgo de Roma... fundador de la Congregación del Oratorio de San Felipe Neri (Madrid 1760) I, p. 277.

651 Cf. Ps 94:8.

652 Seemingly, this man had been “the leader of a group of evil people” (Aguilar, Francisco de Asís, Vida de Claret, p. 86).

653 This episode occurred on Monday, January 14, 1850 (cf. The newspaper La España, January 23, 1850, p. 1; Aguilar, Francisco de Asís, o. c., p. 143; declaration of Antonio Barjau: IPV ses. 19, art. 38; Sidera, Juan, Los cuatro reos de Villafranca: SC 18 [2000] 97-110).

654 Cf. Sir 18:9.

655 Cf. Sidera, Juan, Historia del “Camí dret” en los ocho primeros años de existencia (1843-1850), sexquicentenario de la primera edición: SC 12 (1994) 57-120; 13 (1995) 17-76. “The booklet Camino recto y seguro para llegar al cielo, a popular devotional in which several generations were formed… is the book the Catalan author has the most editions (...) and the greatest number of copies altogether” (Ferret, Antoni, Compendi d’història de Catalunya [Barcelona 1976] p. 233 and note 1).

656 The Camino recto is not an anthology of devotions, but a manual of Christian formation. It is complete, accessible to everyone, and full of fervor. The anarchist James Brossa had to admit: “We have not been able to come up with any Camino recto”(Brunet, Manuel, Actualidad del P. Claret [Vic 1953] p. 40). The printed copies have reached two million. “It has brought more people to heaven than the number of letters it contains” Collell, Jaime, Lo que cuesta hacer un santo [Barcelona 1900] p. 25; cf. Sidera, Juan, El primer libro claretiano: el Camí dret: edición de 1843 (Vic 1993) 30 pp.

657 “I have written - he used to say - …stealing sleep from the night and rest from the day” (letter to Bishop José Caixal, Port au Prince January 22, 1856: EC. I, p.1168).

658 Cf. General Bibliography.

659 He wrote it mainly for the seminary students of El Escorial. The complete title is: El colegial o seminarista teórica y prácticamente instruido. Obra utilísima, o más bien necesaria para los jóvenes de nuestros días que siguen la carrera eclesiástica (Barcelona 1860) I, 424 pp. In this first part - it says in the prologue - “we will deal with matters appropriate to forming a wise and virtuous priest” (pp. 7- 8). The following year, after overcoming many difficulties, he also published the second volume (Barcelona 1861) 526 pp.), which attempts “to develop a minister of the Lord who is not only wise, but also practical in performing his holy functions” (volume I, p. 8). Indeed, the second volume is an ascetic commentary to the ritual of Holy Orders and an ascetic-pastoral directory for the administration of the sacraments. The Librería Religiosa produced 28,000 copies in two editions. The work merited the approval from heaven (cf. Autob. n. 690 and “Lights and Graces,” 1860, 1861). “In all that work, the goal that I set is already seen clearly: it is that God be known, loved, served, and praised well and wisely” (letter to Mother María Antonia París, Madrid January 30, 1862: EC, II, p. 441).

660 Arte del canto eclesiástico y cantoral para uso de los seminarios (Madrid 1861) 170 pp. “It has been the most difficult for me to arrange, due to the diversity of opinions among the singers” (letter to Mother María Antonia París, March 26, 1862: EC, II, p. 453). There were three editions, amounting to 25,800 copies. “The demand for this little book of Songs has been amazing - wrote the bishop of Urgel -. Just today I have had to give away 60 copies that I had kept for myself” (fragment of a letter dated December 11, 1863: EC, II, p. 264, note 2).

661 A publication of that time, upon announcing the Sermones de misión, he wrote: “The subscribers will not fail to notice this reduction in price; but they will not be surprised knowing that the Librería Religiosa, not having to buy the rights to the works of his Most Excellency and Illustrious Founder, his kindness along with his laboriousness, overflows in spiritual and financial gain for the purchasers” (Revista Católica 32 [1858] 360).

662 Fr. José Quintanas Riembau, schoolmate of Claret and doctor in Jurisprudence from the University of Bologna, asked the Saint in writing how he could better invest an amount destined to pious works. This was the answer of the archbishop: “The most pious object, in the amount you mention, most useful and on the day it is able to be applied, is without a doubt, the distribution of good books. I see and feel the usefulness for this need every day; for this reason I exhort all people to give me the opportunity to invest in savings for this work whatever I can” (Letter dated in Real Sitio from San Ildefonso on August 31, 1864: EC, II, p. 813).

663 “The Most Holy Virgin is the Lady and the Proprietor of the Librería Religiosa. The Board will represent the authority of Holy Mary, will defend the property that this Lady has in the Librería Religiosa, and in all its works will put her mark” (Letter to Fr. José Caixal, Lequeitio August 12, 1868: EC, III, pp. 537 and 539).

664 Bishop José Caixal y Estrade was one of the great friends and collaborators of Father Claret. He as born in Vilosell (Lérida) on July 9, 1803. He was ordained a priest in 1831, canon of Tarragona in 1833, and presented for the bishopric of Urgel on October 29, 1852. On March 10, 1853, he was elected, and consecrated in Tarragona on June 5th; and took office as bishop on June 15th of the same year. He was Father of Vatican Council I. Senator in 1871. He was jailed by General Martinez Campos in 1876. He founded the Institute of the Holy Family Sisters, of Urgel, and later died in exile in Rome on August 26. 1879. (cf. Porta y Vilalta, Vicente, Biografía del Excelentísimo e Ilustrísimo Sr. Dr. D. José Caixal y Estradé [Barcelona 1898] 318 pp.; Nadal, Joaquín María de, El Obispo Caixal. Un gran prelado de la Edad Moderna [Barcelona 1959] 124 pp.; Prats, Joan Maria, El Beat P. Claret i el Dr. Caixal: La Paraula Cristiana 11 [1935] 196 228; Mestre Saura, Francesc, La espiritualidad del obispo Caixal. Tesis doctoral [Roma 1989] PUG, pro manuscripto; Id., El obispo Caixal, Vicario General Castrense: Anthologica Annua 32 [1985] 319-363; Id., Escritos del obispo Caixal y Estradé: Anthologica Annua 44 [1997] 591-627; Mauri Prior, J. M., Josep Caixal i Estradé Bisbe de Urgell (1852-1879) [Roma 1975], PUG; Id., El obispo Caixal, Vicario General Castrense de las tropas carlistas por iniciativa del Papa Pío IX: Anthologica Annua 44 [1985] 319-363; Casas Rabassa, Santiago, El obispo Caixal y el Concilio Vaticano I. “Excepta e dissertationibus in Sacra Theologia”, XLII [Pamplona 2002] 473-561; Id., En el bicentenario del nacimiento de don José Caixal y Estradé, obispo de Urgel. Apuntes para una biografía: Analecta Sacra Tarraconensia 76 [2003] 1-25; Baraut, Cebrià, Episcopologi de l'Esglèsia d'Urgell, segles VI-XX [La Seu d'Urgell 2002] pp. 109-111).

665 Bishop Antonio Palau y Tremens, born in Valls (Tarragona) on July 27, 1806. Ordained a priest in 1831. Professor in the seminary in Barcelona, skillful canon of Tarragona, founder of Revista Católica and its director for eleven years (1842- 1853), and Bishop of Vic (1853- 1857) and of Barcelona (1858- 1862), where he died on July 8, 1862. Father Claret, who in those days presided in Gracia over the second General Chapter of his missionaries, officiated at the funeral of his good friend (cf. Vilarrasa, Eduardo María, Biografía del Excmo. e Ilmo. Sr. D. D. Antonio Palau y Termens: Revista Católica 48 [1862] 49 136).

666 The official foundation of the Librería Religiosa took place in Tarragona on one of the first days of the month of February, 1847. The first book of this company - the Catecismo explicado by Claret - was published in December of 1848, and the printing company was established definitively in Barcelona in January of 1850 (cf. HD, I, p. 505). It functioned as a subscription service for the books that were published: many books on spirituality and almost all of Claret’s works. They also printed classic books and foreign author’s translations. The diffusion of its publications was tremendous (cf. Borrás y Feliu, Antoni, La Librería Religiosa de Barcelona y la renovación de la piedad en España a mediados del siglo XIX (1848 1868): Festschrift W. Zeller [Marbourg 1976] 370 383). D. José Sala Mas worked as administrator (cf. HD, I, p. 515).

667 Here, Camino recto, which already had 400,000 printed copies, is referred to. In 19 years, the Librería Religiosa printed 9,569,800 copies of books, monographs, and flyers (cf. HD, I, p. 511).

668 The Academy of St. Michael was blessed by Pius IX on February 28, 1859 and approved by Isabel II on the 16th of March of the same year. (cf. Plan de la Academia de San Miguel [Barcelona 1859] pp. 32 33).

669 “Anthony devoted himself totally to this work, to its writing and distribution. He never got tired of giving, so much so that, as archbishop of Cuba, he gave away more than 200,000 volumes” (Pius XII, Bull of Canonizaton Quos Spiritus Sanctus [May 7, 1950]: AAS 44 [1952] 348). A layman, contributor and fervent advertiser, who later became a priest, named Miguel Iter (1807- 1876), traveled with Father Claret through Catalonia, carrying on a small donkey large amounts of sacred books which the missionary distributed profusely. In Cuba as well as on his trip throughout Andalusia (1862), he sent ahead large boxes full of books, leaflets, stamps, rosaries, medals, etc.

670 He must have read it in one of his favorite books: Rodríguez, Alonso, Ejercicio de perfección y virtudes cristianas (Barcelona 1861) parte 3.ª, trat. 1, cap. 3, p. 13. Ex libris.

671 2 Cor 2:15: “the good odor of Christ in every place.”

672 Cf. Mt 21:19. - See Mss. Claret, VII, 215.

673 Cf. Rev. 14:3.

674 Cf. Lk 24:32.

675 In another text he alludes to a different reason, in accordance with the state of transformation in which he then lived: “In addition to the instruction that was given with these conversations we give them, those of the world, seeing that we only think of God, and that we do not happen to speak of anything other than of God, it edifies and moves them greatly to love to Him” (Memoria de la Academia de San Miguel [Madrid 1866] p. 10). In Manuel du missionnaire, Father Adrien Nampon (Jesuit), indicated this phrase: “He is frequently reprimanded [Father Lefebre] for keeping silence when he could have spoken, and this fault, he said, made him lose the opportunity on many occasions to be useful to some souls” (Lyon Paris 1848) 2.ª ed., p. 190. Ex libris; cf. ANONIMOUS, El espíritu de San Francisco de Sales... translated by Sebastián de Jocano y Madaría, LR (Barcelona 1856) pp. 155-157.

676 We know that on his first pastoral visit to Cuba, he distributed 20,663 rosaries and 8,931 medals free of charge (cf. Autob. n. 545).

677 Origen de la devoción del escapulario azul celeste [Origin of the Devotion to the Blue Scapular] (Madrid 1862) 32 pp. In the three editions released during the life of the Saint, 29,000 copies were printed. In addition to the devotional part, it had rules to fight against indifference, to reform habits, and to confront Lucifer. Thus, it carried out the charge of facing all evils in Spain (cf. Autob. n. 694).

678 “The orator should be proficient in all the arts and sciences.” The idea is from Latin writer Marco Tulio Cicero (De Oratore [París 1740] n. 6, p. 135), although it is not a literal quotation.

679 Acts 1:1: “He began to do and teach.”

680 1 Cor11:1. One fundamental point of Claretian spirituality is that the missionary should conform himself to Christ, head and model of missionaries. All virtues are referred to the existential manner of life that the Lord adopted in spreading the Kingdom of God.

681 The focus of humility, like the other virtues, is Christ-centered and apostolic (Autob. n. 356). Motives: apostolic need (n. 341) and to please Jesus (n. 356). Nature: practical knowledge directly from one’s own nothingness and rejoicing in the dependence on God (n. 347). Actions: 1) Do not boast (n. 348); 2) Do not feel contempt (n. 349); 3) Gravitate always toward one’s own nothingness, even in major heightened situations (n. 350). Means: fervor of charity (n. 342); inner light (nn. 343, 344); infusing feelings (n. 353); humiliation, especially in the ministry (nn. 342, 352); meditation and reading (nn. 343, 350); self examination (n. 351).

682 Ps 118:71: “It is good for me that you have humbled me.”

683 This instance is typical of the Saint’s spirituality. God’s initiative first thrusts his heart into the furnace of love and places it on the anvil of humiliation; the Saint corresponds with all his might and means. But even then, he knows that his corresponding is itself a grace.

684 “May I know thee; may I know myself.” St. Augustine, Soliloquios, libro 2, cap. 1, n. 1: BAC, Obras (Madrid 1950) I, p. 544. Saint Augustine’s phrase is Noverim me, noverim te; cf. S. Alfonso Maria de Liguori, Selva di materie predicabili (Bassano 1833) I, p. 183. Ex libris. En BAC, Obras ascéticas (Madrid 1954) II, p. 248. For reference in English see note 109 of this section.

685 St. Francis of Assisi, Florecillas. Consideraciones sobre las llagas, 3.ª, BAC, Escritos y biografías de su época (Madrid 1949) p. 207. For the English reference see: Ungolino di Monte Santa Maria, The Little Flowers of St. Francis of Assisi, W. Heywood, Trans., (Vintage Spiritual Classic 1998)

Saint John of Avila, in a praising sermon preached to nuns (Biblioteca Naz. Vittorio Emmamuele - Mss. 1327), writes: “It is said of him that in prayer God revealed two things to him: that of his poverty and personal weakness, and the other of God’s great riches… Seeing this, Saint Francis would say: “Lord, who are You and who am I?”“ (San Juan de Ávila, Obras completas, BAC [Madrid 1970] III, p. 290). See also Studies of the spanish mystics, vol.1-3, by E. Allison Peers (The Sheldon Press, 1927, 1930, 1960.)

686 Ex 3:14.

687 In his copy of Flos sanctorum, in the part corresponding to April 30th, feast of Saint Catherine of Siena, he underlined this phrase: “Do you know, my daughter, who I am and who you are? Blessed are you if you do: I am who am and you are she who is not” (Ribadeneira, Pedro de, Flos sanctorum [Madrid 1761] I, p. 665; cf. Beato Raimondo da Capua, La vita di S. Caterina da Siena [Roma 1866] p. 57). Ex libris.

688 Cf. 1 Cor 12:3.

689 He uses the same comparison to speak of impurity (cf. Bálsamo eficaz [Barcelona 1858] pp. 25 26).

690 Cf. Eph. 2:8.

691 Cf. Rev. 12:7-9.

692 Cf. Is 14:14.

693 The following books have many notations by the Saint: Venerable Maestro Juan de ávila, Audi, filia, cap. 57 65: Obras (Madrid 1759) III, pp. 315 358; Rodríguez, Alonso, Ejercicio de perfección y virtudes cristianas (Barcelona 1861) parte 2.ª, trat. 3: “De la virtud de la humildad”, pp. 123 265; Scaramelli, Juan Bautista, Directorio ascético (Madrid 1806) III, art. 11, cap. 1 4, pp. 547 579.

694 This refers to his booklet whose complete title is: Resumen de los principales documentos que necesitan las almas que aspiran a la perfección. Escrito bajo el símbolo de una paloma [Resume of the Main Teachings Needed by Souls Aspiring to Perfection. Written under the Symbol of a dove](Barcelona 1848) 32 pp. It was issued first as a leaflet and a year later as a booklet. It can be found in Spanish in Escritos Espirituales, pp. 78-93, and in English in Works III, 91-112.

695 On another occasion, in the cathedral of Gerona, he pronounced these words: “For eighteen years I have practiced the particular examination of humility, and I am still at the beginning” (Fuster, Juan, Oración fúnebre... en las exequias de... Claret (diciembre de 1870), en: Clotet, Jaime, Resumen... [Barcelona 1882] p. 309).

696 The defamation and persecution campaign against the missionary was very violent, mainly during the preaching missions in the province of Tarragona. The archbishop, Don Antonio Fernando de Echánove y Zaldívar (1765-­1854), had to stand up in his defense with a circular letter sent to the parish priests on October 24, 1846. The archbishop spoke of “crude slander and absurd accusations.” He also greatly praised Father Claret: “His private conduct is irreproachable; his customs, uplifting; his works, in accordance with his language of a minister of the Gospel; his dedication and self-denial, complete.” “The penitent, mortified, laborious life, is of a true apostolic missionary. He always travels on foot and without provision for food or clothing. This is well-known by the people in Catalonia as well as in other provinces” (HD, I, p. 257).

697 Is 42: 8: “I will not give my glory to another.”

698 Cf. St. Benedict, Sancta Regula, cap. 7, BAC, Su vida y su Regla (Madrid 1954) pp. 375 391. The order of Saint Thomas is opposite to that of Saint Benedict (cf. ib., p. 373, nota). For English see: The Holy Rule of St. Benedict, 1949 Edition, Trans. Boniface Verheyen, OSB. Electronic text (with added scripture references) prepared by Boniface Butterworth, OSB . Claret studied the treatment of the virtues by Saint Thomas and in the introduction it closely follows the text of Summa Theologica.

699 Mt 11:29.

700 Cf. 1 Cor 4:16. - “In the desire to make the Gospel an unchangeable rule of life and in the obsession to materially reproduce materially all the traits of the Savior, Our Saint comes very close to Saint Francis of Assisi” (Lozano, Juan Manuel, Mystic and Man of Action, J. Daries, trans., [Claretian Publications, Chicago, 1977] p. 124).

701 Regarding humility cf. Viñas, José María-García Paredes, José Cristo Rey, C.M.F., Our Project of Missionary Life, vol. II, o.c. p. 592-612.

702 Saint Anthony Claret embraced poverty as a requirement for following Christ in preaching (Autob. nn. 362, 370; cf. nn. 130 135). Even in the Biblical texts in which he discovered his apostolic vocation, he indicated some that are related to poverty (Lk 9:59; Is 48:10). He always embraced it without question: “Had nothing, wanted nothing, and refused it all” (Autob. n. 359). Poverty gave him added personal perfection. (Autob. nn. 370 371). The apostolate was not a consequence of his religious life, but to be an apostle with greater intensity he radically lived the demands of the religious life. This poverty reminds us of that of Saint Dominic and of the best apostolic men. As Archbishop and confessor to Isabel II he followed the same conduct: “He only allowed himself very little luxury in the purchase and binding of books” (Fuente, Vicente de la, Breve reseña de la vida del Excmo. Sr. D. Antonio María Claret [Madrid 1878] p. 13: en SC 9 [1991] 188; Viñas, José María-García Paredes, José Cristo Rey, Our Project of Missionary Life, vol. II , o. c., pp. 317-390).

703 . Cf. 1 Jn 2:16.

704 Cf. Mss. Claret, IX, 288; XIII, 391-394. Similar ideas in the little Claretian book: Origen de la devoción al escapulario azul celeste, [Origin of the Devotion to the Blue Scapular] (Librería Religiosa, Barcelona 1862) pp. 24-25.

705 Cf. Ex 32:1 26.

706 This norm of conduct is inspired by the recommendations given by Jesus to the apostles on their first mission. (cf. Mt 9, 35 10, 42). There is a similar axiom by the holy bishop of Geneva, which states: “Ask for nothing nor refuse nothing” (Anonimous, Máximas entresacadas de las obras de San Francisco de Sales y distribuidas para todos los días del año [Vic 1840] p. 27); but Claret’s phrase goes beyond that: to pure evangelical radicalism.

707 In that time, as was mentioned in various times in letters back then, the cassock had no sleeves and required the use of the Americana or vest. Perhaps the episode today will make us smile; but it is one more testimony – an exaggeration, if you will - of the Claretian evangelical radicalism.

708 Cf. Ex 16:12; Dt. 8:4, 29:4; Clotet, Jaime, Resumen..., (Barcelona 1882) p. 272.

709 Cf. Lk 9:3.

710 Mt 5:3.

711 Mt 19:21.

712 Cf. Lk 14:26, 33.

713 Cf. 2 Cor 8:9.

714 Cf. Lk 5:11.

715 To the Venerable Mother Maria Antonia Paris, he would say: “God wants a public testimony to be given in favor of poverty, since, unfortunately, in this day, more confidence is placed in money than in God” (Letter dated in Madrid on the 30th of January, 1862: EC, II, pp. 440 441).

716 It took ten and a half hours to travel from Vic to Campdevànol. (D. F. C., Itinerario de Cataluña [Barcelona 1823] p. 49). When he passed the San Quirico de Beora Inn, he had been walking five hours. This incident must have occurred towards the end of July 1843.

717 The Inn of San Quince de Besora was called “Hostal nou” (stated. by F. Lorenzo Font: APV ses. 100, p. 278).

718 The simple peseta was divided in 34 quarters; the quarter was equivalent to 4 maravedises.

719 From Igualada to Molins del Rey was a ten and a half hour walk, and from Molins to Barcelona, another three hours (cf. D. F. C., o. c., p. 8).

720 It happened on Thursday, October 2, 1845. From Baga to San Lorenzo de Morunys or dels Piteus, there is a twelve hour walk. It corresponds to the pre-Pyrenees region and the courses of the rivers Llobregat and Cardoner. They are very rough terrains, in the foothills of the Cadí mountain range. Following his itinerary, he must have crossed the rivers Bastereny, Saldès, Aguadé, Valls y Cardoner (cf. Bertrans, Pedro, Petjades apostòliques del Beat P. Antoni Maria Claret en el Bisbat de Solsona [Barcelona 1934] p. 26).

357a “The circumstances of this event were such that, among the few people who heard it told by our protagonist, it was a true miracle, believing unanimously that the boy gifted with so much strength, appeared unexpectedly without knowing from where it came and disappeared without knowing where it went, was Mr. Claret’s Guardian Angel” (Aguilar, Francisco de Asís, Vida de Claret, p. 104, nota 1).

721 For someone born in Sallent, to speak of “the other side of Manresa” is to speak of the west. The stream referred to should be the Riera de Rajadell or the Cornet (cf. Gasol, Josep Maria, Sant Antoni Maria Claret i la ciutat de Manresa [Manresa 1970] p. 30).

722 Cf. Mt 4:2; Lk 4:2.

723 Cf. Mt 12:1.

724 Cf. Mt 12:2; Mk 2:24; Lk 6:2.

725 Cf. Mt 26:15.

726 Cf. Autob. nn. 745, 782-786, 792.

727 Jesus and the Apostles announced the Kingdom of God with meekness and humility, not with power or violence (Autob. nn. 372 375) A missionary is a man of zeal – vehement love – and needs to be guided by prudence and kindness (Autob. n. 381). Meekness is so necessary, that it is a sign of vocation to apostolic ministry (Autob. n. 374). Claret took-up the particular examination of this virtue from 1862 to 1864. By the testimonies of the processes and by the graces and lights, one sees that the Lord perfected the meekness of the Saint with the gifts of piety and counsel.

728 Mt 11:29.

729 This phrase, attributed to Saint Bernard, is quoted by Saint Francis de Sales in his book An Introduction to the Devout Life, part III, chap. 8.

730 Mt 5:4.

731 Cf. Ps 26:13.

732 Cf. Ex 11:3.

733 Cf. Jn 1:29, 36.

734 Cf. Is 42:3.

735 Cf. Lam 3:30.

736 Cf. Is 53:3, 5, 7.

737 Claret’s vocation received much influence from the texts of the figure of the Servant of Yahwéh, and one of the main characteristics of the Servant is meekness.

738 James 3:13-15.

739 For that reason, in another of his writings addressed to priests, he recommends the practice of this virtue: “If the poor soul who kneels at your feet is a habitual and relapsing sinner, or is living in some proximate occasion of sin, and you are unable for the moment to set him free, for God’s sake do not scold him or exasperate him. Rather, by your kindness and great love show him how much you desire his salvation. Help him to realize the sad state he is in and show him the means he must use if he wishes to get out of it. In this way you will soon see him return and know that you hvve won him back for heaven.” (Advice to a priest [Vic 1844] pp. 16 17: in Works III, p. 300.

740 Ps 118:63: “I have hated and detested iniquity; but I have loved your law.”

741 2 Cor 11:2.

742 Cf. Gen 24:59-67.

743 Cf. 2 Cor 11: 2.

744 1 Cor 15:31.

745 2 Cor 11:29.

746 Cf. St. Augustine, Expositions on the Psalms, Psalm 59, 1st part, 9, Philip Schaff, ed. Online in Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, St. Augustine, Volume VIII

See also Expositions on the Book of Psalms, Edited, with Brief Annotations, and Condensed From the Six Volumes of the Oxford Translation. (A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Volume VIII) D.D. A. Cleveland Coxe, Ed. (Charles Scribner's Sons 1889).

747 Regarding apostolic zeal cf. Viñas, José María-García Paredes, José Cristo Rey, C.M.F., Our Project of Missionary Life, vol. II , o. c., pp.579-591.

748 Cf. 2 Sam 18:5, 12.

749 Cf. 2 Sam 18:14, 15.

750 Cf. Ez 18:12; 2 Pt 3:9. - A conversation of exercises to priests is preserved, in which it is instilled in them to have the zeal of a mother’s heart. Among other things, it says: “A priest must have all the qualities of a good mother. A mother works, suffers, begs and pleads, cries” (Mss. Claret, X, 419 422).

751 Cf. Wis 8:1.

752 Cf. Mss. Claret, II, 17. – Regarding meekness cf. Viñas, José María-García Paredes, José Cristo Rey, o. c., pp. 613-627.

753 Modesty is understood as being circumspect in words (Autob. n. 384), in manners (Autob. n. 385), and in deeds (Autob. n. 387). The rules are almost the same as proposed by Saint Ignatius in his Reglas de la modestia (cf. BAC, Obras completas [Madrid 1952] pp. 626-627). But Claret’s are totally conformed to the figure of Christ, model of missionaries (Autob. nn. 387 388); moreover, he identifies it with his own: “my modesty will be that of Jesus Christ” (Autob. n. 389). The motivation is not a purely spiritual esthetic, but imminently apostolic (Autob. nn. 387 388).

754 Cf. 1 Cor 4:9. – Although the missionary is a “spectacle”; above all, it is Christ that should show in his attitudes and actions (Autob. n. 387). The missionary must be virtuous “in everyone’s eyes” so as to obtain fruit (Autob. n. 388).

755 Cf. Rom12:8; Heb 12:14.

756 Cf. Mk 8:12; Lk 19:41; Jn 11:35. - St. John Chrysostom, Hom. in Mat. 6, 6: For Spanish see: Obras, BAC (Madrid 1955) I, p. 117. For English see: NPNF1-10. St. Chrysostom: Homilies on the Gospel of Saint Matthew, Philip Schaff ed. in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers (London and New York, 1889-90)

757 Sir 21:23: “A fool raises his voice in laughter, but a prudent man at the most smiles gently.”

758 1 Cor 4:16.

759 Acts 1:1: “He began to do and teach.”

760 Cf. Phil 4:5.

761 Cf. Col 3:12.

762 Cf. Ribadeneira, Pedro, Flos sanctorum (Madrid 1761) III, p. 179.

763 For Saint Anthony Claret, mortification is, above all, a basic attitude in the face of God: deprive yourself of your own pleasure to give pleasure to God (Autob. n. 391). Mortification is a condition of apostolic testimony (Autob. nn. 390, 392) and gives efficacy to the apostolate, for growth in holiness and prayer (Autob. nn. 411 413). It involves all the senses (Autob. nn. 401 411). Claret appreciates the beseeched value of mortification, but punctuates, above all, its value as exemplary, considering it an effective means of apostolate. It strives to build up to convert and rejoices when it is obtained. Regarding this virtue cf. Viñas, José María-García Paredes, José Cristo Rey, o. c., pp. 626-638.

764 In this paragraph, the Saint discloses - with simplicity and effortlessly - his spiritual refinement and the degree of heroism at which he had arrived: to always please God in everything, with ease and joy. It is easy to discover the work of the Holy Spirit in the phrase: “I felt obligated to fulfill what was a mere proposal” (Autob. n. 391).

765 Cf. Bacci Aretino, Pietro Giacomo, Vita di S. Filippo Neri, fiorentino, fondatore della Congregazione dell’Oratorio (Roma 1622); Lohner, Tobia, Bibliotheca manualis concionatoria (Dilingae 1691) I, p. 620.

766 Cf. Autob. n. 98.

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