The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Azerbaijan Baku Medical College No.1
Abstract. Subject name: Engilis. Subject: Analysis of sputum in pulmonary tuberculosis Department: Treatment Group, course, semester: 174, II cours, III semester Student’s name, surname: Osmanova Gulchin Leader: Mammedova Elmira
Plan: 1. Etiology 2. Clinic 3. Treatment 4. İnternet information
Tuberculosis is a contagious disease. It remains one of the most dangerous infections in the world today and mainly affects the able-bodied part of the population. According to the World Health Organization, there are currently more than 20 million TB patients in the world, of which 7 million are open TB. Every year, 3.5 million people are infected with tuberculosis and 1 million people die from the disease. About 2 people die of tuberculosis every minute. At the beginning of the 20th century, tuberculosis accounted for 20 percent of all deaths.
At present, according to official statistics, there are about 8,000 TB patients in Azerbaijan.
Tuberculosis is also called "tuberculosis". The Latin translation of this word means bubble. The causative agent of tuberculosis is called "coke" in honor of the scientist who discovered it.
Mycobacterim is caused by tuberculosis or Cox's disease. These are aerobic, acid-fast bacteria and are very resistant to a number of environmental influences. When boiled at 70 ° C for 30 minutes, it is destroyed in 5 minutes. 5% carbolic acid, 5% formalin solution kills germs. Pathogenesis: When a healthy, well-immune person is infected with TB, there are usually no symptoms, and the small internal TB process heals on its own. Sometimes no symptoms remain from this process or a small limited Gon hearth remains. This primary infection usually occurs in children or adolescents. Infection occurs most often by airborne droplets, usually in the fall. TB occurs in only 0.4-0.5% of primary infections. However, tuberculosis often occurs as a result of reactivation of blood vessels, which were formed during the initial infection in childhood against the background of weakening of the body. Thus, while more than half of the population is infected with TB, not everyone develops TB. This disease occurs only in people who do not eat well, live in unsatisfactory conditions, have low immunity for various reasons, against the background of other diseases (diabetes, AIDS, etc.), smoke a lot, or constantly breathe in harmful dust, etc. develops.
Group I: Tuberculosis intoxication in children and adolescents Group II: Tuberculosis of the respiratory organs Group III: Tuberculosis of other organs and systems: Tuberculosis of the meninges and central nervous system Tuberculosis of the intestine, peritoneum, adrenal lymph nodes Tuberculosis of the nodes Tuberculosis of the eye Tuberculosis of other organs.
The clinic of TB may vary depending on its form.
During tuberculosis intoxication in children and adolescents, the body temperature periodically rises to 37-38 ° C (subfebrile fever), the patient's appetite is disturbed, neurovegetative disorders (nervousness or lethargy, headaches, palpitations), weak growth of peripheral lymph nodes, mycorrhiza) , a slight enlargement of the liver, sometimes the spleen, no increase or decrease in body weight, inflammation of the middle ear (otitis media), a tendency to other diseases.
Pulmonary tuberculosis is characterized by prolonged cough, subfebrile (sometimes more) fever, sputum, sometimes blood clots, chest pain, etc. goes with the signs. In addition, general symptoms such as irritability, night sweats, weight loss, low blood pressure, impaired adrenal function are of concern to the patient. In miliary tuberculosis, the process is acute and accompanied by a high temperature, in which case there may be no symptoms such as cough, sputum, signs of intoxication, typhoid-like symptoms predominate. In the late, severe stages of tuberculosis, symptoms of heart, vascular system and respiratory failure appear. The patient's pulse rate (tachycardia), shortness of breath, peripheral cyanosis (bruising of the lips, fingers), the involvement of accessory muscles in the respiratory process, and other symptoms occur. Some forms of pulmonary tuberculosis may be asymptomatic (tuberculosis, tuberculosis). Diagnosis: A minimum of 3 diagnostic methods are used to diagnose tuberculosis: X-ray of the lungs (or fluorography), Mantoux test, microscopic examination of sputum. After that, if necessary, additional diagnostic methods can be applied. The general analysis of the blood shows an increase in ECS, an increase in eosinophils (eosinophilia), a decrease in lymphocytes (lymphopenia). In children and adolescents, if the Mantoux test gives a "+" result for the first time, it is called a "bend" and indicates an initial infection. Circumcision can be detected 2 months after infection.
Treatment: Tuberculosis is a curable disease. This may not be possible only in the late stages. TB treatment takes a long time. According to the law, TB treatment in the Republic of Azerbaijan is free. Diet is prescribed. Thus, the patient should be well nourished, receive all the necessary nutrients and calories throughout the day. The amount of protein, vitamins, minerals and fats in the diet should meet the daily requirement. Bleach, eggs, fish, fruits and vegetables, etc. types of food should dominate the meal. Conservative treatment includes chemicals, if necessary, hormonal, desensitizing drugs, vitamins, sanatorium treatment, diet. If conservative treatment does not work, surgery may be performed.
TB prevention is more important. To this end, Mantoux tests are performed on children and adolescents every year, children with curvature are identified and group VI dispensaries are registered. They remain under strict observation for 1 year. Children with curvature are chemically treated with isoniazid for 3 months. After 3 months, a repeat Mantoux test is performed - if the size of the resulting papule is reduced, drug prophylaxis is not continued, if the intensity is increased or remains in place, prophylaxis is continued for 2-3 years in spring and autumn. Early detection of TB plays an important role in its effective treatment. Therefore, timely referral of patients, initiation of treatment, preventive examination of healthy people once a year is an important factor in the fight against tuberculosis.