CHAPTER 3 Analysis of Past Performance Performance against Specific Goals RUSA (Rashtriya Uchathar Shiksha Abhiyan), National Mission on Higher Education envisages a great transformation for India as a nation by working at the grassroots level and touching the lives of people and the nation at large through the institutes of Higher Education. The objectives of drawing more people into colleges and universities, enrolling them in courses that develop their potential and giving incentives (and impetus) to innovative projects are succinctly summed up in the RUSA guidelines as “Equity, Access and Excellence”. These three goals are like a tripod on which the RUSA initiative rests.
Equity -Collegiate level With a view to focus on Higher Education, the erstwhile Directorate of Public Instructions in Tamilnadu was bifurcated into Directorate of School Education and Directorate of Collegiate Education. It was in this manner that the Directorate of Collegiate Education came into being in 1965. At present, there are 62 Government Arts and Science Colleges, 7 Government Colleges of Education, 162 Government Aided colleges (viz., 133 Arts and Science Colleges, 3 Physical Education Colleges, 10 Oriental Colleges, 2 Schools of Social Work and 14 Colleges of Education and 446 Self- financing Colleges (viz., 438 Arts and Science Colleges and 8 Physical Education Colleges) and 651 Self Financing Colleges of Education functioning under the control of the Directorate of Collegiate Education.
Quite obviously, the review of measures taken in relation to ‘equity’ will be in relation to government colleges and will exclude ‘Aided’ and ‘Self Financing’ colleges. The same applies to the question of ‘access’ to Higher Education. The Directorate of Collegiate Education has undertaken the following equity measures over the past decade:
Free Education in Government and Aided Colleges In the interest and welfare of students, who come from the weaker sections of the society and to encourage more number of students to pursue higher education, all Government Arts and Science Colleges provide Free Education up to PG level. 1,54,003 students have benefited during 2012-13. All Government Aided Arts and Science Colleges provide Free Education up to UG level. 2,97,875 students have benefited during 2012-13.
Free Education in Government and Aided Colleges of Education Free Education is provided up to PG level in Government Colleges of Education to the students belonging to SC/ST and Differently-Abled categories. Similar concession is given in Government Aided Colleges of Education up to UG level to the above categories.
Special Coaching Classes for SC/ST/MBC students Two Centres for Free Coaching for Women for UPSC Civil Services Examination were set up in 2002, one at Queen Mary’s College, Chennai and the other at Sri Meenakshi College for Women, Madurai, to facilitate entry of women from Tamil Nadu into the IAS and IPS cadres.
Free Bus Pass to students of government colleges All students in the state are given free bus pass till PG level to ensure that they come to educational institutions regularly and want of money for transport isn’t a barrier to attend school/college.
Free Text Books:
To help students hailing from the weaker sections of the society and to support those pursuing Technical Education, free text books have been distributed. Free text books in Communication English I and II, Engineering Maths I to IV, Engineering Physics I and II and Engineering Chemistry I and II are distributed to First year Diploma students in Government Polytechnic Colleges. During 2012-13, 12,065 students benefitted under this scheme and a sum of Rs.14,25,000 has been spent.
Scholarships National Merit Scholarships (Government of India)
State Scholarships for the children of school teachers
State Merit Scholarship
Adhoc Merit Grant for S.C & S.T. students
State Collegiate Scholarships
Scholarships to Tamil Nadu students pursuing research studies in Jawharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
Scholarships to cadets belonging to Tamil Nadu in Rashtriya Indian Military Academy, Dehra Dun
Scholarships to cadets belonging to Tamil Nadu in National Defence Academy, Kadakvasala, Pune
Educational concessions to the children of Defence Service Personnel
Educational concessions to the children of ex-servicemen
Scheme of payment of stipend to full time Ph.D. research scholars in Govt. and Aided colleges
Scholarships for Research Students in government colleges
Free Education to the students
Computer Literacy Programme In 2003-04, Computer Literacy Programme was made compulsory for Non-computer science students and is being implemented in 60 Government (constituent) Arts and Science Colleges. The Government appointed M/s. Elcot Limited as the Nodal Agency. Free Laptops have been given for Students of Government colleges from the year 2012.
Tuition fee is waived for First Generation Graduate. Stipend for Tamil Medium students in Government Colleges: Under this scheme 33,164 students have benefitted with a Government grant of Rs.1.35 crore during 2012-13. Engineering Seats are allotted through Single Window Counselling. To enable the economically weaker and meritorious students to join engineering professional courses at an affordable cost, 65% of the undergraduate Engineering seats in Self Financing Non-Minority institutions and 50% of the under-graduate seats in Self Financing Minority Institutions are being allotted through Single Window Counselling System of Anna University, Chennai. 1,27,404 students were allotted seats during the academic year 2012-13. Financial Assistance to Students pursuing B.E/B.Tech is in vogue. Financial assistance of Rs.46,50,000/- has been given to 186 economically weaker students under Chief Minister’s Public Relief Fund at the rate of Rs.25,000/- each to enable them to pursue B.E/B.Tech courses during 2012-13.
Contribution of State Universities to Equity All State Universities execute the following equity measures as per State policy:
Tuition Fee Concession
Fee Concession to Differently Abled
AlagappaUniversity AlagappaUniversity has beenaccredited with 'A' Grade by National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) and is located at Karaikudiin TamilNadu. This University has emerged from the galaxy of institutions initially founded by the great philanthropist and educationistDr.R.M.AlagappaChettiar. AlagappaUniversitywas brought into existence by a Special Act of the Government of TamilNaduin May 1985 with the objective of fostering research, development and dissemination of knowledge in various branches of learning.Alagappa University is recognized by the University Grants Commission (UGC) of India. The University'smottois"Excellence in Action"and the University keeps before it the vision of excellence in all spheres of its action. Alagappa University has a significant number of women students, i.e. 61% which is 1.56 times that of men students. In this university, the enrollment of students of BC and SC/ST communities is higher than the statutory reservation level by about 60% and 35% respectively. 90% of the students belonging to the SC/ST and OBC communities are first generation learners. The enrollment of socially and economically backward community students in the M.Phil programs is high at 91-95%.
The Quota earmarked in the Reservation Policy for the differently-abled candidates is strictly adopted in admission. Special care in teaching to the differently-abled students is provided. The students admitted under this reservation are properly educated to avail the financial assistance provided by the Government and other statutory bodies. The scheme of total fee concession to the differently-abled candidates has been implemented as per the direction of the Government.
Education for Employability
The courses offered by the University are designed with a view to offer training that enhances job opportunities. Some of the courses are B.Sc. (Micro-biology and Clinical Lab Technology), B.Com/M.Com (with Computer Applications), BCA, B.Sc./M.Sc.(Computer Applications), B.Sc. (Home Science- Nutrition & Dietetics). Since the university is located in the coastal region and two of the districts have an extensive coastal area known for a rich variety of sea weeds, a course has been designed in Sea Weed Farming.
Entrepreneurship Development Cell
Placement programs, Entrepreneurship Development Programms and Skill Development Programs etc., are conducted to equip the students to be self employed. The Entrepreneurship Development Cell of the University functions under a senior Professor who organizes EDP programs and provides guidelines. The colleges affiliated to this university also have Entrepreneurship Development Cells which conduct EDPs and Skill training for their students. The Centre for Women Studies and the Centre for Rural Development of the university are also engaged in EDPs for students as well as Self Help Groups (SHGs), Weavers and Artisans.
Outreach activities are carried out by the Centre for Rural Development, Centre for Women Studies, National Service Scheme, Youth Red Cross, Red Ribbon Club, Centre for Nehru Studies, Department of Life-long Learning, Centre for Gandhian Studies and also by some Departments bringing vital links with society. Every Department is involved in Village Placement Program.
Centre for Womens Studies:
The Centre for Women`s Studies (CWS) has so far been instrumental to form close to 600 SHGs. It arranges bank loans for SHGs. The Centre has conducted training programs for Panchayat Level Federation and Awareness Program for rural women on AIDS and Reproductive Health. Knowledge on Domestic Violence Act, 2005 is also imparted to target groups. The CWS conducts Rural Development Schemes, Mahalir Thittam (of the Government of Tamil Nadu), Women Entrepreneurs Scheme, etc. CWS also reaches out to women in distress in Sivaganga district and arranges for their rehabilitation through District Social Welfare Board. The CWS organizes many activities on diverse socio-economic and environmental issues for the benefit of rural women. It has conducted over 150 programs in the last five years on EDP, SHG, Environment, Rural Sanitation, Gender Issues, etc.
Centre for Rural Development
The university also has a vibrant Centre for Rural Development. This centre conducts Sewing Machine Operator Training in batches. The program is meant for women below poverty line (BPL). The program is conducted in collaboration with Infra-structure Leasing and Financing Company CDI Ltd. Hyderabad and Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. During 2009 alone, about 120 BPL rural women were trained.
Skill Development Centre and Computer Centre
Short term skill training is provided to the unemployed rural youth and women in the field of fashion knit garmenting, glass painting and functional computer operation programmes through the Skill Development Centre and Computer Centre of Alagappa University. The certificate courses include
Certificate in Garment Tailoring
Certificate in Sewing Machine Operator Training Programmes
Certificate in 2D animation and Digital Publication
Certificate in Basic and Advanced welding
Certificate in Gem and Jewellery
Certificate in Auto CAD
Diploma in CNC operator
Free Legal Aid Cell
The university takes measures for the redressal of grievances. This service is given publicity by display on Notice boards. A complaint box is provided for lodging grievances. Complaints need to be resolved within 30 days. There is a Free Legal Aid Cell instituted in the Centre for Women Studies. Legal literacy camps are also conducted to create awareness about their rights for women.
Centre for Study of Social Exclusion and Inclusive Policy
The Centre for Study of Social Exclusion and Inclusive Policy came into existence in Bharathidasan University during the academic year 2008-09. The Centre was conceived as a rallying point, as well as, a source of inspiration for all other civil society organizations working on issues concerning SC/ST, Minority Religious groups, and other marginalized and socially excluded sections of the society.
Centre for Differently Abled Persons
The Centre for Differently Abled Persons was established in Bharathidasan University in the academic year 2011 with the Motto of “Encourage, Enable and Empower the Differently Abled Persons” in Education, Employment, Entrepreneurship and livelihood to fulfill the vision of empowering the Differently Abled students of its University Departments, Constituent Colleges and Affiliated Colleges. The Centre was established with the motto of providing “Training for Inclusive Education” for the Pre-service and In-service teachers, Parents and Community as a whole. The centre endeavors to empower persons with disabilities by providing training in Special Education, ICT training, Assistive technology training, Vocational Training, Job Placement and Entrepreneurship Training with the ultimate objective of making differently abled persons self-reliant and economically independent. The centre’s Digital Talking Library is first of its kind in Tamil Nadu. The Digital Talking Library allows functionality for online reading including text-to-speech (TTS) and bookmarking.
University of Madras
Student Services through USAB (University Students’ Advisory Bureau)
The University of Madras has been of immense help to its student community through the University Students’ Advisory Bureau. It specializes in career guidance and brings out publications that are informative. Remedial coaching classes are arranged at undergraduate and postgraduate levels for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Minority community students. Coaching is arranged for SC/ST and Minority community candidates to prepare for National Eligibility Test (NET) or State Eligibility Test (SET) for Lectureship.
Madurai Kamaraj University
‘Earn While You Learn’ Scheme
The Department of Adult Education of Madurai Kamaraj University has embarked on a project in tune with the Government’s initiatives for Women Empowerment and has offered many self-employment courses for providing entrepreneurial skill to women. It has also initiated an “Earn While You Learn” scheme in order to support and sustain the educational interest of the students hailing from socially and economically weaker sections of the society.
GER in Tamil Nadu The human development index of India is 0.619, while the corresponding figure for Tamil Nadu is 0.736, placing it among the top states in the country. The GER (Gross Enrolment Ratio) at the national level is 21.1 while in Tamil Nadu it is 32.9 in 2012-13. RUSA has set 25.2% as its target by the end 12th plan and 32% GER by the end of 13th plan and obviously Tamilnadu is marching ahead of these targets already.
Introduction of Shift System in Government Polytechnic Colleges The shift system introduced in 14 Government Polytechnic Colleges helps meritorious, economically weaker students hailing from rural areas to get Diplomas in Technical Education, thus paving the way for gainful employment. 3037 students have benefitted during 2012-13.
Distance Education University of Madras – Institute of Distance Education
The Institute of Distance Education established in 1981, offers 27 U.G. Courses, 20 P.G. Courses, 9 P.G. Science Courses and 34 other Courses. There are about 1,60,000 students on rolls.
The Thiruvalluvar Institute of Distance Education was established in the year 2011-12.
Bharathidasan University Institute of Distance Education was established in 1992.
Open University The Tamil Nadu Open University (TNOU) was established in the year 2008. The academic arm of the University has 13 Schools ably supported by 5 Service Divisions and one Centre for Electronic Media Production and Research. The University has now registered an impressive growth with 103 academic Programmes, one-fifth of which are in the skill development/vocational areas, and a cumulative student population of about 4.5 lakhs. Its instructional system comprises quality print materials in self- learning format, digital content through stand-alone CDs, face-to-face contact sessions, and continuous assessment and term-end examinations.
The learning needs of the students are catered to, through a massive network of 604 learner support centres, comprising 204 Community Colleges, 153 Computer Programme Centres, 144 Learning Resource Centres, 33 Off-Campus Centres, 28 Learning Centres, 11 B.Ed. (Special Education) Programme Centres, 10 University Coordinating Centres, 10 B.Ed. General Programme Centres, 8 Jail Centres and 3 Counselling and Psychotherapy Centres. Most of the operations of the University have been brought under e-Governance for efficiency and transparency. The University is poised to embark on technology enhanced learning environments. This is the first University in the State to have produced self-learning materials and implemented Credit System, based on expected learner-input/workload. Some of its Study Materials have been adopted on royalty basis by various other Universities, including Dr.B.R.Ambedkar Open University, Hyderabad.
Provision of Vocational Programmes to Jail inmates, with fee concession
Preparation of digital content (i.e., multi-media CD-ROMs) for various academic programmes
Production of multi-media content pertaining to Sangam Literature
Establishment of two Zonal Centres, in Srirangam and Coimbatore
As per the announcement made by the Hon’ble Chief Minister in the Assembly, 32 Constituent Community Colleges, one in each District are to be established. In the first phase, 5 Constituent Community Colleges have been established in Chennai, Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Madurai and Tiruchirappalli. Activities relating to multi-modal material production for the differently-abled, is in progress. The State Government have identified the university as the Nodal Agency for carrying out the Ministry of Human Resource Development Scheme of Community Colleges in the State. An English Professor went to Poland as a visiting faculty at the Jan Dlugozs University.
Tamil Nadu Open University has established 15 Community Colleges. The Manonmaniam Sundaranar University has 18 Community Colleges offering 15 job-oriented, work-related and skill-based one year Diploma courses. Some of the courses offered through Community Colleges are Diploma in Computer Applications, Four-Wheeler Mechanism, Two-Wheeler Mechanism, Child Care Education, Health Assistance, Laboratory Assistance, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Computer Usage for Office Management, Varma and Massage, Foreign Trade and Import-Export Documentation, Air Travel Ticketing, Silambam and Martial Arts, Hotel Management and Catering Science.
With the aim of “Including the Excluded and Giving the Best to the Least”, the Community Colleges provide skill based livelihood-enhancing education and help in upscaling the eligibility for employment of the disadvantaged and under privileged. Providing appropriate skills development in collaboration with local industries leading to gainful employment is the major aim of Community Colleges.
Women’s University Mother Teresa Women's University was established in Kodaikanal in 1984 with “Towards Equal Status” for women as motto. The University strives for a holistic development of women in all spheres, through education. The major mission of the University is to empower women, through Teaching, Research and Extension. It offers courses at various levels –Ph.D., M.Phil. P.G., U.G. in Arts and Science and B.Ed., and M.Ed. It also offers 31 Courses through the distance mode. The University has 18 academic departments with students at the Post-Graduate and Research levels. There are 11 Affiliated Colleges which include 2 Government, 2 Aided, 2 Constituent and 5 Self Financing Colleges for women in Theni and Dindigul Districts, and 8 Community Colleges catering to the higher educational needs of the students of rural and tribal areas.
Evening Colleges Alagappa University which has an impressive track record with regard to equity – high enrolment of women students, first generation learners, SC/ST/OBCs and minorities, has evening colleges functioning in Rameswaram, Ramanathapuram, Thirupuvanam, Thondi and Paramakudi. Those who enroll in these colleges obviously cannot afford education in a day college. It is to the credit of Alagappa University that people who are doubly disadvantaged, i.e. due to the backwardness of the region and their own socio economic condition, are drawn into the fold of higher education.
Project Genesis Training Programme
Through Project Genesis Training Programme sponsored by Infosys BPO Ltd., 204 Assistant Professors of Government Arts and Science Colleges have been trained. The trained Assistant Professors organized 11 placement camps in 5 Centres. 196 students have been given employment through campus interviews organized at these Centres.
Placement Cells and Job Fairs in Government Colleges Every Government College has a Placement Cell. Leading IT companies like Infosys, HCL, Wipro and CTS (Cognizant Technology Solutions) conduct campus interviews. One of the faculty members is given charge of the Placement Cell. Job Fairs conducted on campus also come under the purview of the Placement Cell. In a job fair conducted in 2013 in the 5 regions of the Directorate of Collegiate Education, 1521 students of 36 Government Colleges and 10,687 students of 80 Government Aided Colleges were selected.
Measures by All the State Universities to achieve ‘Excellence’ Choice Based Credit System
Establishment of Smart Class rooms with Video Conferencing facilities,
Inviting renowned Professors from Foreign Universities.
Installation of Solar Energy Generation Panels
Technical Education – Quality Improvement Programme (TEQIP)
TEQIP is a sponsored project where the cost is shared between the Central Government and State Government in the ratio of 75:25. Government Engineering Colleges at Coimbatore, Salem, Karaikudi and Burgur and Computer Science Department of Manonmanium Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli have been selected under this scheme. As a first installment, a sum of Rs.10.08 crore was released to these institutions in May, 2012. Each institution received Rs.2 crore and State Project Facilitation Unit received Rs.8 lakhs. Rs.4.47 crore has been spent under TEQIP-II as per the details given below. Rs.2.87 crore for Purchase of Equipment, Machineries, Books and Journals to modernize laboratories and libraries.
To encourage the students to pursue higher studies and research in Engineering, Rs.6000/- per month /per student is given to 192 M.E. students and Rs.12000/- per month/per scholar is given to 22 Ph.D scholars. An amount of Rs.52.7 lakhs has been incurred under the programme.
Rs.35.4 lakhs has been sanctioned for conducting faculty and staff development programmes.
Rs.6.4 lakhs has been sanctioned for conducting programmes for the improvement of academic and all round capacity of weak students in these institutions.
Rs.27 lakhs has been sanctioned for implementation of institutional and academic reforms such as obtaining AICTE-NBA Accreditation and UGC approved academic autonomous status.
Rs.38 lakhs for enhancement of Institution and Industry Interaction, Institutional Management Capacity and Research and Development activities and Institutional Consultancy activities.
During TEQIP Phase II, 163 papers were published in refereed National and International Journals. Industry Institute Cells were formed in each institution and 33 MoUs were signed with industries. Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore and University College of Engineering, (BIT campus) Tiruchirappalli, (a Constituent College of Anna University, Chennai) have been selected for TEQIP-II under sub-component 1.1 (Strengthening Institutions to improve learning outcomes and employability of graduates).