Dan’s Course on Islam

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Deuteronomy 34:10-12
Some Muslims think that this may be a prophetic verse about Muhammad. However, Muhammad admitted that he did not perform miracles like Moses's (Cf. Bakara 2:118 and Al-i Imran 3:183-184) Furthermore, Muhammad did not talk face to face with God like Moses did (Bakara 2:97). On the other hand Christ did speak directly with God. (John 1:18, 12:49), and he performed similar miracles (John 20:30-31).


Psalms 45:3-5
Because Muhammad frequently used a sword, some Muslims think that this may be a reference to Muhammad. However, note that:
A) According to verse six, this verse is talking about God Himself.
B) According to Hebrews 1:6-9, Psalms 45:6 is a direct reference to Christ, and Christ is God.


Psalms 149:1-9
Because this verse mentions a double edged sword and the taking of vengeance, some Muslims think that this is a reference to Muhammad. However, the subject in the 2nd verse the "Creator" is seen to be the King of Israel and in the 4th verse again we see that it is the Lord Himself is the subject. Muhammad was neither a Creator nor the Lord, nor was he ever a king of Israel. The children of Israel never rejoiced in Muhammad. (v.2)


Isaiah 21:6-7 & 13-17
According to some Muslims the person on the donkey is Jesus and the person on the camel is Muhammad. Because these verses mention, horses, donkeys, camels, bows, war and Arabia, this passage must be a prophecy about Muhammad.
However, if we take the passage in its context, we see that it is neither about Jesus, nor about Muhammad. The 9th verse mentions the fall of Babylon. Historically, this took place in 519 A.D. with king Darius, and thus fulfilled an Old Testament prophecy.
Furthermore, according to verse 16, these events were to happen "within a year" not a thousand years later.

(See. Isaiah 36:18-21)



Isaiah 29:12
According to some Muslims, this verse concerns Muhammad because he was unable to read or write.
However, if we look at verse 1 & 8 we see that the city of David, Ariel (Jerusalem) is mentioned. Verses 17, 19 & 23 Mention Lebanon and Israel. Muhammad however, never did live in this area, but belonged to the Quraish tribe of Arabia.
Furthermore, the events mentioned in Isaiah 29 have not yet come to pass, but will take place in the future during the battle of Armageddon. (See. Isaiah 29:2-6 and Zechariah 14:1-21, Ezekiel 38:17-23 and Revelation 16:17-21)


Isaiah 42:1-4
The third and fourth verses do not apply well to Muhammad, and in Matthew 12:15-21 we see that these verses are a direct reference to Christ.


Isaiah 53:1-12
Because Muhammad was despised and rejected by some, some Muslims assume that this is a prophetic passage concerning him. However;
a) Isaiah 53:5, 6, 7, and 8 are direct references to Christ who "was wounded for our transgressions he was bruised for our iniquities. But Islam completely denies the doctrine of atonement for sin.

(See: Isra 17:15, An'âm 6:39, Hûd 11:119)

b) Verses 5 and 12 could not possibly refer to Muhammad because the Qur'an teaches that no one can bear the sins of another. (An'âm 6:164)
c) According to the 1 Peter 2:22-25 and Acts 8:32-33 the 53rd chapter of Isaiah is a prophecy concerning the Christ; and Muhammad was not the Christ.


Isaiah 63:1-6
Some Muslims think that this passage refers to Muhammad because he is called "the prophet with a sword." They think that Bozrah may be a reference to Basra. However, Bozrah is found in the area of Edom by the Dead Sea, 80 km S.E. of Jurf ed Darawish. Furthermore, it is apparent that in verses 5-6 and 15-16 that the warrior in question here is the Lord Himself. Therefore, it cannot possibly refer to Muhammad.


Daniel 2:29
According to some Muslims, this passage may be a reference to Muhammad because he was a king, and he sometimes received revelation while reclining on a bed. However, according to verse 28 we see that the king mentioned here is King Nebuchadnezzar, and the prophet Daniel is seen to be talking with him. These people lived 609--534 B.C. and therefore, it could not possibly be a reference to Muhammad.


Habakkuk 3:3
Some Muslims think that the reference to Teman and Mount Paran shows that this refers to Muhammad. However, the context clearly shows that God is the subject in question.


Matthew 3:11
Some Muslims imagine that this may be a reference to Muhammad because he was very strong and fiery. However, in the Bible it is clear that this is a prophetic reference to Christ. (See: Malachi 43:1, Isaiah 40:3, Matthew 3:1-3 & 14, Matthew 11:2-5, Mark 1:1-3, Luke 3:4-6, John 1:29, John 7:37-39, and Acts 1:4-8.)


Matthew 21:43
Some Muslims think that because the Christians were unfaithful, that the Kingdom of God was taken from them and given to the Arabs or Muslims. Verse 43 begins with "Therefore", and the reason is stated in verse 42: "The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner." In the context it is apparent that Christ spoke this parable against the Jewish Chief Priests and Pharisees.

It was the Jews who rejected Christ, and according to 1 Peter 2:5-10 Christ is forming a new priesthood, a holy nation, with himself as the chief cornerstone, not Muhammad. According to 1 Corinthians 3:10-13 there is no other foundation other than Christ. Therefore these verses cannot refer to Muhammad or Islam.



Mark 1:7
Muslims often think that Christ's words here refer to the prophet Muhammad. However in the 6th verse, we see that John the Baptist is talking and in John 1:26-43 we see that he was speaking about the Christ, not Muhammad. See also

Matthew 3:11-14 and Luke 3:16-17.



John 1:21
Some Muslims think that the person in question here is Muhammad, because the Jews asked John if he was either the "Christ", "Elijah" or "that prophet" and he answered "no".
The words "that prophet" is a reference to Deuteronomy 18:18, and we have seen that this is a reference to Christ, not Muhammad. See also Malachi 4:5, Matthew 17:10, Mark 9:11, Matthew 11:14, Acts 3:18-26.


John 4:21
Some Muslims say that because worship would no longer be done facing in the direction of Jerusalem, this is a foreshadowing of the fact that the direction of worship would be towards Mecca. However in verses 23 and 24 it is clear that no future direction is intended as Christ wants people to worship in spirit and in truth.


John 14:30
Some Muslims think that Christ's reference to "the prince of this world" coming is a direct reference to Muhammad. However, Christ used this term to refer to Satan, not Muhammad. See also:
Luke 4:5-8

John 12:31

John 14:30

John 16:11

2 Corinthians 4:4

Ephesians 2:2

Ephesians 6:11-12

James 4:4

1 John 2:15-17

1 John 5:4-5

Revelation 12:9


John 14:16-17 & 26,

15:26, 16:7 & 13
Many Muslims claim that the promised "Comforter" who was to come is a reference to Muhammad. It is claimed that the word "Paracletos" in the Greek is a corruption and that the original should have been "Periclytos" a supposed alternative name for Muhammad or Ahmad. However;
paracletos > periclytos
aHMaD > muHaMmaD
more praised


1) Among the existing 5,300 New Testament Greek manuscripts which pre-date Islam, and among the other manuscripts after Islam there is not one single textual variant from the word “paraclytos, and the word "Periclytos" is not found in any manuscript of any time period before or after Islam. Although “periclytos”, which means famous or renowned, was used by Homer when he wrote the İliad and the Odyssey in the classical Greek of the 10th century B.C., there is not one instance where this word, or any of the other members of its word group, are used in the Koine Greek of the New Testament or the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament. Thus there is no textual or linguistic support for claiming the useage of “periclytos” anywhere in the Bible.
2) The word "Paracletos" means "Comforter" or "Helper" and this word is only used for God Himself. (See Nisâ' 4:83 and Isra 17:56). Furthermore, this word does not suit "the prophet with a sword".
3) In the New Testament the word "Paracletos" is only used of the Holy Spirit and Christ. (See: John 14:16, 17, 26, 15:26, 16:13, 1 John 2:1).
4) The person whom Christ spoke of was the unseen Holy Spirit or Spirit of truth. This Holy Spirit was living among Christ's disciples and Jesus said that it was going to indwell them

(John 14:16-17). However, according to the Qur'an, Muhammad was no more than an ordinary man (Al-i Imran 3:144, Kahf 18:110, Fussilat 41:6)

5) The mentioned "Comforter" is said to be the Holy Spirit and it was going to be sent by the Father in Christ's name. (John 14:26) Muslims cannot say this is true concerning Muhammad.
6) The Holy Spirit's mission was not to gather armies and fight wars as Muhammad did, but to convict men of their sins, (John 16:8-9), and the essence of sin is to not believe Christ is the Son of God (John 3:18 & 36). Muhammad, however, denied that fact that Christ is the Son of God (Maryam 19:35 & 88-93, Furqân 25:2, Zukhruf 43:81-82).
7) The Holy Spirit's mission was not to lift up himself, but to lift up the person of Christ. (John 15:26, John 16:13-14). Muhammad did not do this. Christ claimed to be deity, and Muhammad denied that Christ was God. (John 1:1-18, 4:13-26, 5:17-18, 8:51 & 58, 10:30 & 20:28-29 -- Al-i Imran 3:59, Nisâ 4:36 & 171, Maide 5:17, 72, 75 & 116, Tauba 9:30-32). This is not lifting up Christ, but rather is putting him down.
8) Muhammad furthermore denied Christ's mission as the sacrificial atonement for the sins of the world. He also denied his physical death and resurrection from the dead. (Nisâ 4:157-159 cf. Matthew 27:43-56) These teachings are at the foundation of Christianity. (1 Corinthians 15:1-4 & 17-19). Because Muhammad rejected the foundational teachings of the New Testament regarding the Christ, he therefore did not fulfill the role of the Comforter. (John 14:26)
9) This person (The Comforter - Paracletos) was going to live within the hearts of all believers in Christ. This cannot be claimed of Muhammad.
10) Jesus said soon after his resurrection from the dead that he would send the promised "Comforter" and he told them to wait for this event in Jerusalem (Acts 1:5 & Luke 24:49) The coming of the promised Holy Spirit is seen to have happened on the day of Pentecost some 40 days later in Acts chapter 2. Therefore, it could not be a reference to the coming of Muhammad some 600 years later.


Acts 3:22-26
Because some Muslims think that Deuteronomy 18:15 & 18 is a reference to Muhammad, and because it is quoted here, that it must be another reference to Muhammad. However in the context of Acts 3 it is clearly taking about Jesus (Acts 3:18-20 & 26).

The verses listed above constitute the strongest and most frequently quoted places where Muslims think they can see a prophetic reference to Muhammad in the Bible. However, according to the verses listed above, it is apparent that there are no prophetic references to Muhammad in the Bible. On the contrary, it is clear in the Bible that:
1) John the Baptist was the last and the greatest of the prophets, as he was the forerunner of the Messiah.
Isaiah 40:3-5

Malachi 3:1

Malachi 4:5-6
Matthew 11:7-15

Matthew 17:10-13

Mark 1:1-8

Luke 1:13-17

Luke 1:76-79

John 1:6-8

John 1:15-37

John 3:23-30

2) Christ clearly indicated that after him many false prophets would come and he warned people not to listen to them.
Matthew 7:15-20

Matthew 24:4-5, 11 & 23-27

Mark 13:5-6 & 21-23

Luke 21:8

2 Corinthians 11:3-15

Galatians 1:6-9

2 Peter 2:1-2

1 John 2:18-28

1 John 4:1-6

Revelation 16:13

Revelation 19:20

Revelation 20:10

3) The book of Revelation ends the cannon of Scripture and that no more books were to be added to Scripture.
Deuteronomy 4:2

Deuteronomy 12:32

Psalms 30:5-6

Proverbs 30:5-8

Isaiah 8:19-20

Jeremiah 26:2

Matthew 5:17-19

Galatians 1:6-9

1 John 2:24-27

2 John 9-11

Jude 3-4

Revelation 22:18-19

4) If any person or even an angel teaches any other Gospel other than the Gospel of Christ, then that person is damned.
Galatians 1:6-9

1 Corinthians 14:32-33

2 Corinthians 11:3-15

1 John 2:18-28

5) According to 1 John 2:22-23 and 4:1-6, anyone who denies

Christ is the Messiah or that

he is the Son of God, this

person is influenced by the

spirit of the Anti-Christ. The Qur'an openly denies the

following important doctrines

concerning Christ:


a) The Qur'an denies that Christ is God in the flesh:

Nisâ' 4:171

Mâ'ida 5:17-19, 71-75 & 115

Zukhruf 43:57-59


Isaiah 7:14

Isaiah 9:6

Mark 14:61-62

John 4:13-26

John 5:17-18

John 8:51 & 58

John 20:28-29

Colossians 2:9

Titus 2:13

1 John 5:20


b) The Qur'an denies that Christ is the Son of God:

Bakara 2:116

An'âm 6:101 ***

Tauba 9:30-32

Yûnus 10:68

Maryam 19:35 & 88-92

Furqân 25:2

Zukhruf 43:81-82

Ikhlâs 112:1


Matthew 16:16

Mark 5:6-8

Luke 1:35

John 1:1, 14, 18 & 33-34

Romans 1:1-4

Philippians 2:5-8

Hebrews 1:8

1 John 5:20

c) The Qur'an denies that Christ is the Saviour, the atoning sacrificial Lamb of God, slain to save the world from the penalty of sin.

Nisâ' 4:156-158

Mâ'ida 5:97

An'âm 6:164

A'râf 7:8-9

Isra 17:15

Anbiya 21:47

Mu'minûn 23:102-103

Kauthar 108:1-2


Isaiah 53:4-12

Matthew 20:28

Matthew 26:26-28

John 1:29

Romans 12:1-2

Hebrews 9:1-28

Hebrews 10:1-18

Hebrews 13:16

d) The Qur'an denies that Christ actually physically died on the cross:

Nisâ' 4:156-158


Matthew 27:43-56

Mark 15:33-41

Luke 24:44-47

John 19:16-37

Acts 2:22-36

Romans 5:8-10

1 Corinthians 2:2

1 Corinthians 15:1-6

Also see:
Matthew 24:5 & 23-24

Mark 13:21-22

2 Thessalonians 2:1-12

2 John 1:7



Are there Prophecies by Muhammad?

Victory at the Battle of Badr

(the subject is the Day of Judgement)

Kamer 54:43,45 & 48.....

Muhammad’s Dream

(leaves more questions than answers

and shows God using deception to achieve His aims)
Enfal 8:43.....

Vision of the Pilgrimage

(“if God wills” doesn’t work with a prophetic vision)

Fetih 48:27.....


The Defeat of the Romans
In 615-616 the Persians were threatening to take Constantinople.

Eight years later in 624 the tide had turned and the Romans were entering Persia. The historical experience that a losing nation turns the battle around and defeats its opponent is certainly not rare: It can happen by chance 1 in 4 or 5 times.

Rum 30:1-4.....

The Biblical Tests of a True Prophet
When Prophecy Comes True

Deut. 18:17-20.....

Deut 18:21-22.....

Deut. 13:1-4.....

Two (or more) Witnesses are Needed

Deut. 19:15.....

John 5:31.....

2 Corinthians 13:1.....

Bakara 2:282.....

Maide 5:109.....

Nur 24:4.....
Miracles may be used to Confirm a Witness
Matthew 12:15-18 & 22.....

John 6:30.....

R’ad 13:4 & 27.....



A Quranic Criterion for a True Prophet

Sam Shamoun & Jochen Katz

In some of our papers we have presented the Biblical criteria to distinguish between true and false prophets. One criterion that the Holy Bible gives is that the teachings of a prophet or a messenger must fully agree with the previous revelations:

"If a prophet arises among you, or a dreamer of dreams, and gives you a sign or a wonder, and the sign or wonder which he tells you comes to pass, and if he says, ‘Let us go after other gods,’ which you have not known, ‘and let us serve them,’ you shall not listen to the words of that prophet or to that dreamer of dreams; for the LORD your God is testing you, to know whether you love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul. You shall walk after the LORD your God and fear him, and keep his commandments and obey his voice, and you shall serve him and cleave to him. But that prophet or that dreamer of dreams shall be put to death, because he has taught rebellion against the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt and redeemed you out of the house of bondage, to make you leave the way in which the LORD your God commanded you to walk. So you shall purge the evil from the midst of you." Deuteronomy 13:1-5

"I appeal to you, brethren, to take note of those who create dissensions and difficulties, in opposition to the doctrine which you have been taught; avoid them. For such persons do not serve our Lord Christ, but their own appetites, and by fair and flattering words they deceive the hearts of the simple-minded." Romans 16:17-18

"I am astonished that you are so quickly deserting him who called you in the grace of Christ and turning to a different gospel -- not that there is another gospel, but there are some who trouble you and want to pervert the gospel of Christ. But even if we, or an angel from heaven, should preach to you a gospel contrary to that which we preached to you, let him be accursed. As we have said before, so now I say again, If any one is preaching to you a gospel contrary to that which you received, let him be accursed." Galatians 1:6-9

"And this is love, that we follow his commandments; this is the commandment, as you have heard from the beginning, that you follow love. For many deceivers have gone out into the world, men who will not acknowledge the coming of Jesus Christ in the flesh; such a one is the deceiver and the antichrist. Look to yourselves, that you may not lose what you have worked for, but may win a full reward. Any one who goes ahead and does not abide in the doctrine of Christ does not have God; he who abides in the doctrine has both the Father and the Son. If any one comes to you and does not bring this doctrine, do not receive him into the house or give him any greeting; for he who greets him shares his wicked work." 2 John 1:6-11

The Quran also agrees with this criterion since it says:

It is not (possible) that a man, to whom is given the Book, and Wisdom, and the prophetic office, should say to people: "Be ye my worshippers rather than God’s": on the contrary (He would say) "Be ye worshippers of Him Who is truly the Cherisher of all: For ye have taught the Book and ye have studied it earnestly." Nor would he instruct you to take angels and prophets for Lords and patrons. What! would he bid you to unbelief after ye have bowed your will (To God in Islam)? Behold! God took the covenant of the prophets, saying: "I give you a Book and Wisdom; then comes to you an apostle, CONFIRMING what is with you; do ye believe in him and render him help." God said: "Do ye agree, and take this my Covenant as binding on you?" They said: "We agree." He said: "Then bear witness, and I am with you among the witnesses." S. 3:79-81 Y. Ali

Other versions render Sura 3:81 slightly different:

AND, LO, God accepted, THROUGH THE PROPHETS, this solemn pledge [from the followers of earlier revelation]: "If, after all the revelation and the wisdom which I have vouchsafed unto you, there comes to you an apostle CONFIRMING the truth already in your possession, you must believe in him and succour him. Do you" - said He – "acknowledge and accept My bond on this condition?" They answered: "We do acknowledge it." Said He: "Then bear witness [thereto], and I shall be your witness." S. 3:81 Asad

Asad noted:

Lit., "the solemn pledge of the prophets". Zamakhshari holds that what is meant here is a pledge taken from the community as a whole: a pledge consisting in their acceptance of the messages conveyed through the prophets. (Source)

The late Muhammad Ali translated it similarly to Asad:

And when Allah made a covenant THROUGH THE PROPHETS: Certainly what I have been given you of Book and Wisdom – then a Messenger comes to you VERIFYING that which is with you, you shall believe in him, and you shall aid him. He said: Do you affirm and accept My compact in this (matter)? They said: We do affirm. He said: Then bear witness that I (too) am of the bearers of witness with you. M. Ali (Source)

Ali explains the reason for his formulation in a footnote:

81a. Mithaq al-nabiyyin means literally the covenant of the prophets, and may therefore signify either the covenant of the prophets with Allah or the covenant of the prophets with their people. As the words that follow are plainly addressed to the people, the Jews and the Christians being particularly addressed in the last two verses, I adopt the latter interpretation, and therefore translate the words as meaning a covenant through the prophets. Both Moses and Jesus especially laid an obligation on their people to accept the prophet about whom they prophesied. Thus, through Moses, Almighty God had warned the Israelites, after promising them "a prophet from among their brethren like unto thee", and that "Whosoever will not hearken unto My words which he shall speak in My name, I will require of him" (Deut. 18:19). And Jesus was equally emphatic when, prophesying the advent of the Comforter, he added: "He will guide you into all the truth; for he shall not speak of himself, but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak" (John 16:13). As a matter of fact the Prophet had his advent foretold by all the prophets of the world. The new Testament bears testimony to this: "Whom the heaven must receive until the time of restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all of His holy prophets since the world began. For Moses truly said unto the fathers, A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me: him shall ye hear in all things whatsoever he shall say unto you" (Acts 3:21, 22). The covenant referred to was made through each prophet separately as he appeared in the world. And just as all the prophets foretold the advent of the Prophet Muhammad and laid an obligation upon their people to accept him, so the Prophet Muhammad also told his followers to believe in all the prophets that had appeared among different people in different ages, and this is stated in what follows. The truth of the first statement that all the prophets foretold the advent of the Prophet Muhammad is borne out by the second statement that the Prophet would bear testimony to the truth of all the prophets of the world. (Source; bold emphasis ours)

The foregoing is significant for at least two reasons. First, Surah 3:81 is presupposing that the previous Scriptures, i.e. the Holy Bible, are the criteria determining whether a person is a true or false prophet. The author of the Quran essentially accepted the fact that all messengers must be in full agreement with the teachings of the Holy Bible, otherwise they would be rejected.

Second, the only way for Muhammad or anyone else claiming to be a messenger to be able to confirm the previous Scriptures is if these Books remained intact. If these texts were corrupted then the messenger wouldn’t be able to confirm them lest he be guilty of verifying scriptures that God had not inspired. And yet failing to confirm the Scriptures in the possession of the people before him would lead to a complete rejection of such a messenger. The people would consider such a person a false messenger for contradicting the Scriptures in their possession which they would view as being the uncorrupt revelations of God!

To put it in another manner, the only way for the community of the prophets such as the Jews and Christians to know whether someone like Muhammad was a messenger is if he confirmed their Holy Scriptures. But if these Scriptures had been corrupted then there would be no way for the people to know who that messenger was since they no longer had the authentic Scriptures for him to confirm. This would lead them to conclude that such a person was a false messenger for not confirming their religious texts!

It should not be hard for Muslims to see why this reasoning is valid. Just imagine another man coming today, claiming to be a prophet (or some other title to the effect that he is speaking with divine authority), and saying exactly what Muhammad said, i.e. he came to confirm what the earlier prophets said. Would Muslims accept him as a prophet because he claims to confirm what Muhammad had already said? The Muslim answer would obviously be no, since that person must not contradict the teachings of the Quran or Muhammad, and yet by claiming to be a prophet he would be contradicting the Quran’s testimony that Muhammad is the seal of the prophets.

In fact, isn’t that what Baha’ullah (founder of the Baha’is) and Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (founder of the Ahmadiyya) did? Both acknowledge (confirm) Muhammad as a prophet and the Quran as divine revelation, but they are adding their own words to it. Their additional writings are foundational for the movements they have started. Yet Muslims reject them as false. Why would they if these men satisfy this quranic criterion of confirming the revelation that came before them?

Just as Christians do, Muslims test the later claims to prophethood with the former revelation — and they are right in doing so. That has to be the principle.

The foregoing leaves Muslims in a quagmire. If the Quran is to be believed then Muslims must accept the fact that the previous Scriptures have been preserved and Muhammad had to confirm them as true revelations. Yet, since these previous Scriptures of the Jews and Christians (i.e. the Holy Bible) contradict the teachings of the Quran and Muhammad on essential issues, this therefore means that Muhammad is a false prophet.

In conclusion, Muhammad fails the very biblical criterion – accepted by the Quran itself – for determining whether a person is a true prophet or not.


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