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36.20

Negative Perception Of Islam Increasing

Poll Numbers in U.S. Higher Than in 2001








By Claudia Deane and Darryl Fears

Washington Post Staff Writers


Thursday, March 9, 2006

As the war in Iraq grinds into its fourth year, a growing proportion of Americans are expressing unfavorable views of Islam, and a majority now say that Muslims are disproportionately prone to violence, according to a new Washington Post-ABC News poll.

The poll found that nearly half of Americans -- 46 percent -- have a negative view of Islam, seven percentage points higher than in the tense months after the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, when Muslims were often targeted for violence.

The survey comes at a time of increasing tension; the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq show little sign of ending, and members of Congress are seeking to block the Bush administration's attempt to hire an Arab company to manage operations at six of the nation's ports. Also, Americans are reading news of deadly protests by Muslims over Danish cartoons depicting the prophet Muhammad.

Conservative and liberal experts said Americans' attitudes about Islam are fueled in part by political statements and media reports that focus almost solely on the actions of Muslim extremists.

According to the poll, the proportion of Americans who believe that Islam helps to stoke violence against non-Muslims has more than doubled since the attacks, from 14 percent in January 2002 to 33 percent today.

The survey also found that one in three Americans have heard prejudiced comments about Muslims lately. In a separate question, slightly more (43 percent) reported having heard negative remarks about Arabs. One in four Americans admitted to harboring prejudice toward Muslims, the same proportion that expressed some personal bias against Arabs.

Though the two groups are often linked in popular discourse, most of the world's Muslims are not of Arab descent. For example, the country with the largest Muslim population is Indonesia.

As a school bus driver in Chicago, Gary McCord, 65, dealt with many children of Arab descent. "Some of the best families I've ever had were some of my Muslim families," he said in a follow-up interview. "They were so nice to me." He now works for a Palestinian Christian family, whose members he says are "really marvelous."

But his good feelings do not extend to Islam. "I don't mean to sound harsh or anything, but I don't like what the Muslim people believe in, according to the Koran. Because I think they preach hate," he said.

As for the controversial cartoons of Muhammad, he said Arabs seem hypersensitive about religion. "I think it's been blown out of proportion," he said.

Frederick Cole, a welder in Roosevelt, Utah, acknowledged: "As far as being prejudiced against them, I'd have to say maybe a little bit. If I were to go through an airport and I saw one out of the corner of my eye, I'd say, 'I wonder what he's thinking.' " Still, Cole, 30, said, "I don't think the religion is based on just wanting to terrorize people."

A total of 1,000 randomly selected Americans were interviewed March 2-5 for this Post-ABC News poll. The margin of sampling error for the overall results is plus or minus three percentage points.


37.*

Turkey*

(Turk*, Turks*, Turkish*)


37.1

Turkey & the Armenian Genocide
Quite recently Turkey applied pressure on the United States, Switzerland, France, and Israel to prevent recognition of the Armenian genocide (1915-1917). Thus the West has barricaded itself into a historical negotionism that is the cornerstone of its economic, strategic, and security relationships with Muslim countries.
Robert Spencer, The Myth of Islamic Tolerance, p. 111.
37.2

Ottoman Turks Despoiled the Jews in Yemen
In 1881 the Jewish dhimmis of Yemen decided on a collective return to the Holy Land... and so strongly did this love break out in their heart, that they cast away all their money, selling all their houses and possessions at an eighth of the value, in order to find money for the expenses of the journey by land and by sea... A first caravan (of Yememites) was fortunate enough to arrive (at Jerusalem). The second caravan, and a third one recently arrived from Sanaa and its surrounding mountains, is blocked at Hodeida. The Turkish authorities have forbidden their departure for Jerusalem. This order is most iniquitous, for it was only after these poor people had sold to the Muslims the little which they possessed that the Governor General of Yemen decided to stop their departure.
Robert Spencer, The Myth of Islamic Tolerance, p. 143.

Peter Balakian, The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America’s Response, Harper Collins Publishers, New York, 2003.

G.S. Graber, Caravans to Oblivion: The Armenian Genocide, 1915, John Wiley & Sons, Toronto, 1996.
37.3

Churches Converted into Mosques in Turkey
In 1993-1994 the oldest known place of Christian worship in the world, existing from the time of the Apostle Paul at Urfa, the Church of St. John and St. James, was converted into a mosque.

Stuart Robinson, Mosques & Miracles, p. 95.


37.4

Turkey & Militant Islam
If Iran is moving away from militant Islam, Turkey is rushing in that very direction, led by Necmetting Erbaka – leading politican and fromer prime minister – his associates, and their variously named political parties. Their success results from a splintered political scene and their pervasive answers to the country’s problems. The most successful of these militant Islamic parties, Rafah Pasrtisi (Welfare Party), did so very well in March 1994 municipal elections; it not only won the mayoral positions in Istanbul, Ankara and 22 provinces but emerged as the single most popular political party in Turkey.
In a sense, the question is, which state will outlast the other: whether Turkey turns to militant Islam faster or slower than Iran leves it. The survivor can expect to have greater influence over the future course of the Muslim world. Unfortunately, Western states are not making it easy for Turkey to win this contest.
In Turkey, for example, the Nurcus and the Necmettin Erban’s Refah Partisi accepts the democratic process, while the Süleymancıs and the Milli Görüş do not.
Dr. Daniel Pipes, Militant Islam Reaches America, pp. 35-36 & 46.
37.5

Turkey & Secular Islam
Secular Muslims stress militant Islam’s resulting from poverty as an article of faith. Süleyman Demirel, the former Turkish president, says that “As long as there is poverty, inequality, injustice, and repressive political systems, militant Islamic tendancies will grow in the world.” Tansu Çiller finds that Islamists do so well in the 1994 ellections because “People reacted to the economy.”
Turks and those who flee militant Islamic states like Iran and Sudan usually want nothing to do with Islamic politics, nor do Sufis.

Dr. Daniel Pipes, Militant Islam Reaches America, p. 53 & 123.


37.6

Turkey Has a Family Law
Turkey was the first Muslim country to bring in a family law.
Colin Chapman, Cross and Crescent, p. 171.
37.7

Turkish “Tolerance” of Jews

A Sobering Historical Assessment
By Andrew G. Bostom

The recent tragic synagogue bombings in Istanbul, targeting the small remnant Jewish

community there, have been accompanied, somewhat understandably, by hagiographic

assessments of Jewish existence under Turkish suzerainty, dating back for over half a

millennium 1-4. Modern strategic alliances between a forcibly secularized, post-Kemalist Turkey,

and the state of Israel, however, should not obfuscate a sober analysis of the prevailing

conditions for Jews in the Turkish Ottoman Empire during more than five centuries of Muslim

theocratic governance under Shari’a law. This critical appraisal may be particularly important in

light of the burgeoning Islamist movement within present day Turkish society 5-7.

Professor Joseph Hacker’s seminal scholarship has focused on the fate of Jews during their initial

absorption into the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries. His meticulous research

debunks the uncritical view that from its outset the, “..Jewish experience” in the Ottoman Empire

“..was a calm, peaceful, and fruitful one..”. With characteristic understatement, Hacker notes:

“…It would seem to me that this accepted view of consistently good relations between the Ottomans and the Jews

during the 15th century should be modified in light of new research and manuscript resources.” 8

Hacker's balanced, objective conclusions are summarized below:

The Jews, like other inhabitants of the Byzantine Empire, suffered heavily from the Ottoman

conquests and policy of colonization and population transfer (i.e., the surgun system). This

explains the disappearance of several Jewish communities, including Salonica, and their

founding anew by Spanish Jewish immigrants. Hacker notes, specifically:

"…We possess letters written about the fate of Jews who underwent one or another of the Ottoman conquests. In

one of the letters which was written before 1470, there is a description of the fate of such a Jew and his community,

according to which description, written in Rhodes and sent to Crete, the fate of the Jews was not different from that

of Christians. Many were killed; others were taken captive, and children were brought to devshirme (i.e., the

Ottoman system of expropriating, and forcibly Islamizing dhimmi male children for service to the Empire, primarily

as slave soldiers)...Some letters describe the carrying of the captive Jews to Istanbul and are filled with anti-Ottoman

sentiments. Moreover, we have a description of the fate of a Jewish doctor and homilist from Veroia (Kara-Ferya)

who fled to Negroponte when his community was driven into exile in 1455. He furnished us with a description of

the exiles and their forced passage to Istanbul. Later on we find him at Istanbul itself, and in a homily delivered

there in 1468 he expressed his anti-Ottoman feelings openly. We also have some evidence that the Jews of

Constantinople suffered from the conquest of the city and that several were sold into slavery."9.

Strong anti-Ottoman feelings prevailed in some Byzantine Jewish circles in the first decades

after the fall of Constantinople. These feelings were openly expressed by people living under

Latin rule and to some extent even in Istanbul.

Mehmed II's policies toward non-Muslims made possible the substantial economic and social

development of the Jewish communities in the empire, and especially in the capital -

2

Istanbul. These communities were protected by him against popular hatred, and especially



from blood libels. However, this policy was not continued by Bayezid II and there is

evidence that under his rule the Jews suffered severe restrictions in their religious life.

The friendly policies of Mehmed on the one hand, and the good reception by Bayezid of

Spanish Jewry on the other, cause the Jewish writers of the sixteenth century to overlook

both the destruction which Byzantine Jewry suffered during the Ottoman conquests and the

later outbursts of oppression in the days of Bayezid II and Selim.

Formally trained as an historian (receiving his Ph.D. in 1924), Serb writer Ivo Andric was

awarded the 1961 Nobel Prize in Literature for historical novels (including “The Bridge on the

Drina”), short stories, and essays. Andric’s scholarly analysis (i.e., his Ph.D. thesis) “The

Development of Spiritual Life in Bosnia under the Influence of Turkish Rule”, was a detailed

examination of dhimmitude during five centuries of Ottoman rule. His assessment of the plight

of the Jews in Ottoman Bosnia, governed essentially under the ancient, discriminatory “Pact of

Umar”, which was valid for the entire Ottoman Empire, included these specific observations:

“..The Jews, though fewer in number [i.e. than the Christian communities], were well-to-do businessmen and

profitable targets for extortion. {Andric includes this footnote from, Levy, Moritz, Die Sephardim in Bosnien, 1911,

pp. 28,35: ‘..Acts of violence and extortion by the Pashas against the Jews plunged them into the depths of darkest

night…There were many unpleasant run-ins with the authorities from time to time, which however were susceptible

to settlement by means of money’.}… The Pinakes, mentioned above as the account books of the Sarajevo Jews,

offer a true picture in many ways of conditions as they were then. The year 1730 saw a disbursement of ‘720 puli for

the mutesilim, so as to be spared working Saturdays on the fortification [note: i.e., in unpaid, forced labor ‘corvees’.

Andric further indicates that Christians were deployed in such corvees on Sundays]. It was an outlay repeated in the

years to come.” 10

“…In the year 1794 the Jews of Sarajevo won permission through an imperial firman to rebuild their synagogue,

which had recently burned down. It hardly need be said that the usual stipulations applied. ‘No more than any of the

confessions are they allowed to enlarge such a structure by so much as a jot or a tittle in the process of reerecting it’.

And to the imperial firman were attached the usual formalities- permission of the vizier, permission of the kadi, two

separate commissions, and so on. All this took more than two years and cost a tidy sum.” 11

Professor Moshe Maoz has summarized the conditions of those Jews (and Christians) living

under Ottoman rule for centuries within their indigenous homeland of (Syro-) Palestine, as

follows:


“…the position of the Jews was in many ways precarious. Like their Christian fellow subjects, the Jews were

inferior citizens in the Muslim-Ottoman state which was based on the principle of Muslim superiority. They were

regarded as state protégés (dhimmis) and had to pay a special poll tax (jizya) for that protection and as a sign of their

inferior status. Their testimony was not accepted in the courts of justice, and in cases of the murder of a Jew or

Christian by a Muslim, the latter was usually not condemned to death. In addition, Jews as well as Christians were

normally not acceptable for appointments to the highest administrative posts; they were forbidden to carry arms

(thus, to serve in the army), to ride horses in towns or to wear Muslim dress. They were also not usually allowed to

build or repair places of worship and were often subjected to oppression, extortion and violence by both the local

authorities and the Muslim population. The Jews in Ottoman Palestine and Syria lived under such ambivalent and

precarious conditions for a number of centuries…” 12

3

And these prevailing conditions for Jews did not improve in a consistent or substantive manner



even after the mid 19th century treaties imposed by the European powers on the weakened

Ottoman Empire included provisions for the Tanzimat reforms. These reforms were designed to

end the discriminatory laws of dhimmitude for both Jews and Christians, living under the

Ottoman Shari’a. European consuls endeavored to maintain compliance with at least two

cardinal principles central to any meaningful implementation of these reforms: respect for the

life and property of non-Muslims; and the right for Christians and Jews to provide evidence in

Islamic courts when a Muslim was a party. Unfortunately, these efforts to replace the concept of

Muslim superiority over "infidels", with the principle of equal rights, failed. For example, in his

comprehensive study of the Jews of Palestine during the 19th century, Professor Tudor Parfitt

observed:

“…Inside the towns, Jews and other dhimmis were frequently attacked, wounded, and even killed by local Muslims

and Turkish soldiers. Such attacks were frequently for trivial reasons: Wilson [in British Foreign Office

correspondence] recalled having met a Jew who had been badly wounded by a Turkish soldier for not having

instantly dismounted when ordered to give up his donkey to a soldier of the Sultan. Many Jews were killed for less.

On occasion the authorities attempted to get some form of redress but this was by no means always the case: the

Turkish authorities themselves were sometimes responsible for beating Jews to death for some unproven charge.

After one such occasion [British Consul] Young remarked: ‘I must say I am sorry and surprised that the Governor

could have acted so savage a part- for certainly what I have seen of him I should have thought him superior to such

wanton inhumanity- but it was a Jew- without friends or protection- it serves to show well that it is not without

reason that the poor Jew, even in the nineteenth century, lives from day to day in terror of his life’.” 13

“…In fact, it took some time [i.e., at least a decade after the 1839 reforms] before these courts did accept dhimmi

testimony in Palestine. The fact that Jews were represented on the meclis [provincial legal council] did not

contribute a great deal to the amelioration of the legal position of the Jews: the Jewish representatives were tolerated

grudgingly and were humiliated and intimidated to the point that they were afraid to offer any opposition to the

Muslim representatives. In addition the constitution of the meclis was in no sense fairly representative of the

population. In Jerusalem in the 1870s the meclis consisted of four Muslims, three Christians and only one Jew- at a

time when Jews constituted over half the population of the city…Some years after the promulgation of the hatt-iserif

[Tanzimat reform edicts] Binyamin [note: from “Eight Years in Asia and Africa from 1846 to 1855”, p.44] was

still able to write of the Jews- ‘they are entirely destitute of every legal protection’…Perhaps even more to the point,

the courts were biased against the Jews and even when a case was heard in a properly assembled court where



dhimmi testimony was admissible the court would still almost invariably rule against the Jews. It should be noted

that a non-dhimmi [eg., foreign] Jew was still not permitted to appear and witness in either the mahkama [specific

Muslim council] or the meclis.” 14

During World War I in Palestine, the embattled Young Turk government actually began

deporting the Jews of Tel Aviv in the spring of 1917 - an ominous parallel to the genocidal

deportations of the Armenian dhimmi communities throughout Anatolia. Indeed, as related by

Professor Yair Auron,

“…Fear of the Turkish actions was bound up with alarm that the Turks might do to the Jewish community in

Palestine, or at least to the Zionist elements within it, what they had done to the Armenians. This concern was

expressed in additional evidence from the early days of the war, from which we can conclude that the Armenian

tragedy was known in the Yishuv [Jewish community in Palestine].” 15

Auron cites a Reuters press release regarding the deportation which states that,

“ on April 1 [1917] an order was given to deport all the Jews from Tel Aviv, including citizens of the Central

Powers, within forty-eight hours. A week before, three hundred Jews were expelled from Jerusalem: Jamal Pasha

[one of the triumvirate of Young Turk supreme leaders, Minister of the Navy, and commander of the Fourth Army

in the Levant] declared that their fate would be that of the Armenians; eight thousand deportees from Tel Aviv

4

were not allowed to take any provisions with them, and after the expulsion their houses were looted by Bedouin



mobs; two Yemenite Jews who tried to oppose the looting were hung at the entrance to Tel Aviv so that all might

see, and other Jews were found dead in the Dunes around Tel Aviv.” 16

Although Auron remains neutral as to why the looming slaughter of the Jews of Palestine did not

happen, he cites a very tenable hypothesis put forth at that time in a journal of the British Zionist

movement suggesting that the advance of the British army (from immediately adjacent Egypt)

and its potential willingness “..to hold the military and Turkish authorities directly responsible

for a policy of slaughter and destruction of the Jews” may have averted this disaster. 17

Ultimately, enforced abrogation of the laws and social practices of dhimmitude required the

dismantling of the Ottoman Empire, which only occurred during the European Mandate period

following World War I.



Conclusion

By any standard other than the dismal record of the countries of the Organization of the Islamic

Conference, particularly the Arab state members, Turkey’s progress since 1924 toward full

implementation of normative human rights standards (such as the US Bill of Rights and Article 18 of the

Universal Declaration of Human Rights), has been glacial. Yet important, discernible advances have been

achieved under the protective umbrella of Kemalism. These hard won gains- critical to the socio-political

advancement of post-Kemalist Turkey, its neighbors, and the international community at large- are

undermined by ahistorical, hagiographic accounts of the “ecumenism” and “tolerance” of the Ottoman

Empire with regard to its subjugated dhimmi communities living under the Shari’a- both Jews, and the

much more numerous Christian populations, in particular. Such distorted narratives, whether they appear

in lay or “scholarly” writings, are corrosive, and abet only the irredentist agenda of Turkey’s Islamist

movement.



Notes

1. “Istanbul synagogue bombings leave American travelers in disbelief” The Salt Lake Tribune,

November 16, 2003. http://www.sltrib.com/2003/Nov/11162003/utah/111462.asp

2. Presidential Statement on Istanbul Synagogue Bombings. November 15, 2003

http://usinfo.state.gov/xarchives/display.html?p=washfileenglish&

y=2003&m=November&x=20031115154446ebneergb0.9068415&t=usinfo/wflatest.

html

3. “The attack on Istanbul Jews is an attack on hope itself” The Guardian, November 17, 2003.



http://www.guardian.co.uk/turkey/story/0,12700,1086870,00.html

4. “In Turkey, a History Lesson in Peace”, The New York Times, November 18, 2003,

http://www.nytimes.com/2003/11/18/opinion/18BENH.html

5. “The Old Turkey”, National Review Online, April 14, 2003

http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/comment-eibner041403.asp

5

6. “Turkey’s Radical Turn” The New York Post, August 5, 2003,



http://www.danielpipes.org/article/1185

7. “Militant Islamic Groups Active in Turkey”, The Guardian, November 18, 2003

http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,1280,-3401826,00.html

8. From, "Ottoman Policy Toward the Jews and Jewish Attitudes toward the Ottomans during the

Fifteenth Century", by Joseph Hacker, pp. 117-126, in, Christians and Jews in the Ottoman

empire : the functioning of a plural society / edited by Benjamin Braude and Bernard Lewis

(New York : Holmes & Meier Publishers), 1982, p. 117.

9. Hacker, “Ottoman Policy”, p. 120

10. Andric, Ivo “The Development of Spiritual Life in Bosnia under the Influence of Turkish

Rule” 1924, English translation by Zelimir B. Juricic sand John F. Loud, Duke University Press,

1990, p. 37

11. Andric, “Spiritual Life in Bosnia”, p. 29

12. From, “Changes in the Position of the Jewish Communities of Palestine and Syria in the Mid-

Nineteenth Century”, pp. 142-163, by Maoz, Moshe, in Moshe Maoz (Editor), “Studies on

Palestine During the Ottoman Period”, The Magnes Press, 1975, p. 142.

13. Parfitt, Tudor, “The Jews of Palestine, 1800-1882” The Boydell Press, 1987, p. 168.

14. Parfitt, “The Jews of Palestine”, pp. 172-173.

15. Auron, Yair, “The Banality of Indifference”, Transaction Publishers, 2000, p. 75

16. Auron, “The Banality of Indifference”, p. 77

17. Auron, “The Banality of Indifference”, pp. 82-83
37.8

In Turkey nearly 40 percent of population has

negative view of Christians
ISTANBUL, December 4 (CDN) — More than half of the population of Muslim-majority Turkey opposes members of other religions holding meetings or publishing materials to explain their faith, according to a recently issued survey.

Fully 59 percent of those surveyed said non-Muslims either “should not” or “absolutely should not” be allowed to hold open meetings where they can discuss their ideas. Fifty-four percent said non-Muslims either “should not” or “absolutely should not” be allowed to publish literature that describes their faith.

The survey also found that almost 40 percent of the population of Turkey said they had “very negative” or “negative” views of Christians. In the random survey, 60 percent of those polled said there is one true religion; over 90 percent of the population of Turkey is Sunni Muslim.

Ali Çarkoglu, one of two professors at Sabanci University who conducted the study, said no non-Muslim religious gathering in Turkey is completely “risk free.”

“Even in Istanbul, it can’t be easy to be an observant non-Muslim,” Çarkoglu said.


38.*

Web Sites*
38.1

List of Web Sites about Islam


A Bibliography of Suggested Reading For Missions and Islamic Studies-- Middle East Resources

adishaki.org

al Injil: Good News for You
alkitab.org
al nour
al-qiyamah
alternative views on Islam
an answer to the claims of Islam
answeringchristianity.com
Answering Infidels

(focusses on atheists, but also has an Islam section)


Answering-Islam.org
Apologetics for Christians
Apologetics.org
ApologeticsIndex.org
apostatesofislam.com

(What Ex-Muslims say about Islam)



ArabicNews.com
arabicvoice.net
ArabsforIsrael.com
abrahamic-faith.com
Answering-islam.org
Answering Muslims
A Short Summary of Islamic Beliefs and Eschatology
Ask-Imam
awm.gospelcom.net
Background of Islam
Beyond the Wall
Bible and Quran
bible-koran.com
biblesociety.org.lb
BibleQuery.org
Biblical Christianity explained to Muslims
Center for Ministry to Muslims
Changes to the Quran

submission.org/quran/

protect.html
2.cibola.net
Center for Ministry to Muslims

cmmequip.org
Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry (CARM)
Christian Missions to Islam
Come Let Us Reason Together
Conversion tool for the Islamic calendar.

rabiah.com/convert/
Cracks in the Crescent, book
crescentproject.org/links.cfm
debate.org.uk

Critical Analysis of Islam
debate.domini.org/Newton

Muhammadanism
Dihimmiwatch.org
dreamsandvisions.com

Ali Pektaş conversion story
encounteringislam.org

Perspectives
fadetoblack.com/farrakhan
faithdefenders.com
faithfreedom.org/links.htm
Father Zakaria Butros

(a courageous Egyptian priest)


firstthings.com
Frontiers, Loving Muslims
Good news for the Crescent World
Gospelcom.net

(General Resources)


Gospelformuslims.org
grace-and-truth.org

for Christians about Muslims
Helping a Muslim understand the Bible
home.swipnet.se/islam
ibnzura.com
ichb.org
ict.org
Infowar.com
ingil.com
Institute for Islamic Studies
Internet toolbox for Islam-critics
Into the Light
Investigate Islam
IsaalMasih.net
Islam and Christianity
Islam, a primer, A Word Doc introducing Islam, please download.

islam.org
islam101.com
Islaam.com
Islam Examined
Islam explained
Islameyat
islamicity.com
Islamic Studies in Christian Perspective

rim.org/muslim/islam.htm
Islam is not what you think
IslamReview
Islam: the way, the truth and the light?
Islam Unveiled
ISR Resources
jihadwatch.com
jihadwatch.org
Islam Unveiled
Islamwatch.org

(Islam under scrutiny by Ex-Muslims)


LeaderU.com

(general resources with an apologetics section)


letusreason.org

Islam Examined
light-of-life.com

The Muslim Christian Debate
listislam.cjb.net

The complete list of sites offering an Alternative View of Islam


3lotus.com

Jihad Watch

lovemorocco.com
members.tripod.com
Middle East Forum:

MEForum.org
Middle East Resources
ministrytomuslims.com
muhammadanism.org
muslimbibleday.com/index.html
muslimhope.com
muslimnews.co.uk
news.faithfreedom.org

(an ex-Muslim website)


palestine-info.net
pathofpeace.org
persecution.com

The Voice of the Martyrs
PotomacInstitute.org
qudscall.com
rabiah.com/convert/

has the conversion tool for the Islamic calendar

Religion Research Institute
religioustolerance.org/

islam.htm

(a universalist website)


rim.org/muslim/islam.htm

Islam Unveiled
safeplace.net
SecularIslam.org
shalomjerusalem.com
Sharing your Faith with Muslims, A PDF Booklet, please download.

sonsofapesandpigs.com
Sons of Ishmael
SpecialOperations.com

(lists about 600 terrorist groups around the globe)


spotlight on Muslim misconceptions
steppingtogether.org

submission.org
terrorism.com
The Abraham Connection
The Center for Ministry to Muslims
The Debate Site
the-good-way-.com
The International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism

ict.org.il
thequran.com
thekoran.com
themodernreligion.com
The Muslim-Christian Debate Web site

debate.org.uk
thequran.com
thereligionofpeace.com
TheSpiritofIslam.com
TheQuran.com
The Tandoor
The Terrorism Research Center
The Tougher Answers
tiptopwebsite.com
truthnet.org

Islam
Waters of Life
What Christians need to Know about Muslims, a PDF Download
Why Muslims Become Christians

answering-islam.org.uk/Testimonies
WikiIslam
Witnessing to the Nation of Islam




38.2

Internet Forums for Critique of Islam

  • http://islam-deutschland.info/forum

(mostly in German, but you can also write in English, French, Spanish or Netherlands)

  • http://www.forum-die-gruene-pest.de/index.php (also in German)

  • http://www.faithfreedom.org/forum/

  • http://www.activistchat.com/phpBB2/index.php

  • http://www.amilimani.com/index/

  • http://www.formermuslims.com/forum/

  • http://www.indonesia.faithfreedom.org/forum/ (Indonesian forum)

  • http://loyalist.proboards101.com (Loyalist Party, US 3rd party against Islamic Hate - login required to view)

38.3

Websites by Ex-Muslims

  • Ibn Warraq

  • Dr.Ali Sina

  • Parvin Darabi

  • Taslima Nasrin

  • Wafa Sultan

  • Ayaan Hirsi Ali

  • Zak Gariba - Former Muslim Imam

  • Mark Gabriel - Former muslim imam, Al-azhar Islamic university professor

  • Walid Shoebat - A Former PLO Islamic Terrorist

  • Jeremiah Fard Muhammad - Former Muslim minister

  • Nonie Darwish - Freelance writer and public speaker

  • Dr. Ergun Mehmet Caner - Turkish Ex-Muslim(Dean of Liberty Theological Seminary in Lynchburg, Va)

  • Reverend Donald Fareed - Iranian Ex-Muslim, Persian Ministries

  • Dr. Abraham Sarker

  • Hussain Andaryas - Afgani Ex-Muslim

  • Afgan Converts WebSite

  • Nurudeen I. Adeojo

  • David Naseer

  • Emir Caner - Dean of The College at Southwestern

  • Dr. Nasir K. Siddiki - Muslim businessman

  • WL Cati- Zennah Ministries

  • Ajeenah El-Amin

  • Abdul Hakeem - Nur Ul alam Ministry

  • Yemeni ex-muslims

  • Iraqi ex-Muslims

  • Pastor Hormoz Shariat Ph.D, Scientist

  • Rev. Majed El Shafie

  • Simin - Iranian ExMuslim

  • Mohammed Altaf(Now Simon Altaf) - Pakistani ex-Muslim

  • One Anonymous muslim

  • Jerry Rassamni - Ex-Militant

  • Abdoul Rahim - "Building Bridges to the Truth" Ministries

  • http://www.apostatesofislam.com/

  • ladeeni.net (Arabic)

  • http://www.islamreview.org/

  • http://www.geocities.com/freethoughtmecca/

  • http://www.muslimsandislamic.faithweb.com/

  • http://www.mukto-mona.com/

  • http://www.geocities.com/ibn_rushd2

  • http://www.webspawner.com/users/hfali1/

  • http://www.assoaime.net/

38.4

A non-Muslim, critical view of the Koran and Islam

  • http://www.skepticsannotatedbible.com/quran/

  • http://www.faithfreedom.org/Articles/quran_teaches.htm

  • http://www.wsfi.net/Documents/WHAT%20IS%20THE%20KORAN%20BY%20TOBY%20LESTER.HTM

  • http://www.atheists.org/Islam/mohammedanism.html

  • http://www.answering-islam.org/Quran/Text/index.html

  • http://answering-islam.org/PQ/main.htm#MainIndex

  • http://syrcom.cua.edu/Hugoye/Vol6No1/HV6N1PRPhenixHorn.html

  • http://syrcom.cua.edu/Hugoye/Vol3No1/HV3N1Griffith.html

  • http://www.corkscrew-balloon.com/02/03/1bkk/04b.html

  • http://media.isnet.org/off/XIslam/GodWord/part1.html

  • http://www.faithfreedom.org/Articles/AbulKasem41205.htm

  • http://www.studytoanswer.net/myths_ch1.html
38.5
Critical texts, by non-Muslims and ex-Muslims

  • http://www.faithfreedom.org/library.htm

  • http://www.faithfreedom.org/Articles.htm

  • A small media gallery

  • Video of public execution by impalement

  • "Symposium: Gender Apartheid and Islam" by Robert Spencer and Ali Sina vs. Muslims

  • "Sirat Rasoul Allah", The earliest biography of Muhammad, an abridged version

  • "The Life of Muhammad", Sir William Muir

  • http://answering-islam.org.uk/Books/Muir/Life2/

  • http://answering-islam.org.uk/Books/Muir/Life3/

  • http://answering-islam.org.uk/Books/Muir/Life4/

  • "The Origins of the Koran - Classic Essays on Islam’s Holy Book" edited by Ibn Warraq

  • Summary of the book "The Origins of The Koran: Classic Essays on Islam's Holy Book" edited by Ibn Warraq

  • "A "Perfect" Qur'an" by Brother Mark

  • "Muhammad" by Maxime Rodinson, chapter 3

  • "Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam" by Patricia Crone, 231-250

  • "Law and Justice" by Jospeh Schacht, chapter 4

  • "The original sources of the Qur'an" by Tisdall

  • "The Codification of the Qur'an text" by John Gilchrist

  • "The Coran, Its Composition and Teaching, and the Testimony it Bears to the Holy Scriptures" by Sir William Muir

  • "The Historical Development of the Qur'an" by Edward Sell

  • "The Origin of Islam in its Christian Environment" by Richard Bell

  • Bell's Introduction to the Quran, Revised by Montgomery Watt

  • "The Collection of the Qur'an - from the hadiths" by John Burton

  • Prophet Of Doom - Islam's Terrorist Dogma in Muhammad's Own Words" by Craig Winn

  • "The Calcutta Quran Petition" by Sita Ram Goel

  • "Understanding Islam through Hadis - Religious Faith or Fanaticism?" by Ram Swarup

  • "Negationism in India - Concealing the record of Islam" by Koenraad Elst

  • "The Truth About Muhammad - a commentary on the life of Muhammad" by Henrik R Clausen

38.6

Non-Muslim Websites Critical of Islam

  • http://muslim-quotes.netfirms.com/

  • http://members.lycos.nl/whatsthisthen/

  • http://answering-islam.org/

  • http://www.tellthechildrenthetruth.com/

  • http://www.prophetofdoom.net/

  • http://www.thereligionofpeace.com/

  • http://westernresistance.com/

  • A large list of critical websites

    Terror Tracker
    Book by Neil Doyle, an expert in the fields of counter-terrorism, al-Qaeda, and the Internet. Information about Neil Doyle's book Terror Tracker including a forum with current news.






  • Internet Haganah
    The name Haganah is Hebrew and means defense. Internet Haganah is a global open-source intelligence network dedicated to confronting internet use by Islamist terrorist organizations, their supporters, enablers and apologists Internet Haganah is also a grass-roots activist organization which encourages businesses to not provide services to Islamic extremists.






  • Jihad Watch
    Site created by Robert Spencer, the author of"Onward Muslim Soldiers: How Jihad Still Threatens America and the West". Jihad Watch is dedicated to bringing public attention to the role that jihad theology plays in the modern world, and to correcting popular misconceptions about the role of jihad and religion in modern-day conflicts.






  • Religion of Peace
    Best source of news links and statistics about Islamic terrorism.






  • Mosque Watch
    Challenging "Islam is Peaceful": Articles about Islamic terrorism threatening the US. New web site with articles, news, jokes and multi media material about Islamic terrorism.






  • Winds Of Jihad
    Funny Blog by Sheik Yer'mami from Australia featuring original songs about Islam






  • Little Green Footballs
    Very popular political blog run by California web designer Charles Johnson.






  • Daniel Pipes
    Daniel Pipes is a Middle East expert hated by Muslims and political correct pseudo-intellectuals likewise. Daniel Pipes commenting the Middle East crisis







  • Answering Islam
    Devoted to refuting, and criticizing Islamic claims, doctrines, history, and the Koran. It is well-documented, and is one of the few anti-Islamic websites that is very careful to give the proper references, and thus one has all the more confidence in its pronouncements.







  • Prophet of Doom
    On line book by Craig Winn about Mohammad, printed version also available. Islam's Terrorist Dogma In Muhammad's Own Words






  • Faith Freedom International
    The Site sponsoring this Wiki by former Muslim Ali Sina with Debates and an active Forum. Has everything one might need.







  • Ayan Hirsi Ali
    Website in English, French, German and Dutch by a friend of the Dutch politician Ayan Hirsi Alì, and martyr of liberty Theo van Gogh. Ayan is an atheist libertarian ex-Muslim, from Somalia.







  • Official Website of the Prophet Mohammed
    Funny website containing lots of Islam-related pictures and commentary, purporting to be the official website of Muhammad.







  • An Atheist's Guide to Mohammedanism
    Islam explained rationally. Atheists debunking the myths about the Quran and the mystical figure of Mohammed.







  • Maryam Namazie
    Website by an Iranian woman about Islamic fundamentalism. Maryam Namazie is a committed activist for secularism in the Muslim world.







  • MEMRI TV
    Exposes what exactly the Muslims say in Arabic in their own TV channels. MEMRI's TV monitoring center focuses on political, cultural, religious, and other developments and debates in the Arab and Muslim world and in Iran. Website of the TV channel of the Middle East Media Research Institute with original video clips translated into English.







  • Skeptics Annotated Quran
    Categorizes the whole Quran in a very nice way with helpful visual tools.







Taslima Nasrin
Former Muslim from Bangladesh, whose books have been banned in her country. In 1993, Islamic fundamentalists announced a Fatwa against her, offering a bounty for her death.





38.7

About Treatment of ex-Muslims, Apostates from Islam

Persecution of Ex-Muslims

  • Ex-Muslims, Apostates from Islam, and death threats

  • http://muslim-canada.org/apostasy.htm

  • http://www.beautifulislam.net/articles/apostacy_blasphemy_islam.htm

  • http://answering-islam.org.uk/Hahn/Mawdudi/

  • http://www.light-of-life.com/eng/ilaw/l5721et1.htm#p19

  • http://islamonline.net/fatwaapplication/english/display.asp?hFatwaID=102152

  • http://www.islamonline.net/fatwa/english/FatwaDisplay.asp?hFatwaID=38268

  • http://thetruereligion.org/modules/wfsection/article.php?articleid=119

  • http://www.religioustolerance.org/isl_apos.htm

  • http://www.sunnah.org/msaec/articles/apostasy.htm

  • http://63.175.194.25/index.php?ln=eng&ds=qa&lv=browse&QR=12406&dgn=4

  • http://63.175.194.25/index.php?ln=eng&ds=qa&lv=browse&QR=811&dgn=3

  • http://63.175.194.25/index.php?ln=eng&ds=qa&lv=browse&QR=696&dgn=3

  • http://63.175.194.25/index.php?ln=eng&ds=qa&lv=browse&QR=42534&dgn=4

  • http://www.islam-qa.com/QA/5%7c Jurisprudence_and_Islamic_Rulings(Fiqh)/Al-Riddah_ (apostasy)/His_wife_has_left_Islam.23102000.7328.shtml

  • http://muslim-quotes.netfirms.com/femaleapostate.html]

  • http://debate.domini.org/leekk/Index/A/apostasy.html


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