As the war in Iraq grinds into its fourth year, a growing proportion of Americans are expressing unfavorable views of Islam, and a majority now say that Muslims are disproportionately prone to violence, according to a new Washington Post-ABC News poll.
The poll found that nearly half of Americans -- 46 percent -- have a negative view of Islam, seven percentage points higher than in the tense months after the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, when Muslims were often targeted for violence.
The survey comes at a time of increasing tension; the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq show little sign of ending, and members of Congress are seeking to block the Bush administration's attempt to hire an Arab company to manage operations at six of the nation's ports. Also, Americans are reading news of deadly protests by Muslims over Danish cartoons depicting the prophet Muhammad.
Conservative and liberal experts said Americans' attitudes about Islam are fueled in part by political statements and media reports that focus almost solely on the actions of Muslim extremists.
According to the poll, the proportion of Americans who believe that Islam helps to stoke violence against non-Muslims has more than doubled since the attacks, from 14 percent in January 2002 to 33 percent today.
The survey also found that one in three Americans have heard prejudiced comments about Muslims lately. In a separate question, slightly more (43 percent) reported having heard negative remarks about Arabs. One in four Americans admitted to harboring prejudice toward Muslims, the same proportion that expressed some personal bias against Arabs.
Though the two groups are often linked in popular discourse, most of the world's Muslims are not of Arab descent. For example, the country with the largest Muslim population is Indonesia.
As a school bus driver in Chicago, Gary McCord, 65, dealt with many children of Arab descent. "Some of the best families I've ever had were some of my Muslim families," he said in a follow-up interview. "They were so nice to me." He now works for a Palestinian Christian family, whose members he says are "really marvelous."
But his good feelings do not extend to Islam. "I don't mean to sound harsh or anything, but I don't like what the Muslim people believe in, according to the Koran. Because I think they preach hate," he said.
As for the controversial cartoons of Muhammad, he said Arabs seem hypersensitive about religion. "I think it's been blown out of proportion," he said.
Frederick Cole, a welder in Roosevelt, Utah, acknowledged: "As far as being prejudiced against them, I'd have to say maybe a little bit. If I were to go through an airport and I saw one out of the corner of my eye, I'd say, 'I wonder what he's thinking.' " Still, Cole, 30, said, "I don't think the religion is based on just wanting to terrorize people."
A total of 1,000 randomly selected Americans were interviewed March 2-5 for this Post-ABC News poll. The margin of sampling error for the overall results is plus or minus three percentage points.
(Turk*, Turks*, Turkish*)
Turkey & the Armenian Genocide Quite recently Turkey applied pressure on the United States, Switzerland, France, and Israel to prevent recognition of the Armenian genocide (1915-1917). Thus the West has barricaded itself into a historical negotionism that is the cornerstone of its economic, strategic, and security relationships with Muslim countries.
Robert Spencer, The Myth of Islamic Tolerance, p. 111.
Ottoman Turks Despoiled the Jews in Yemen In 1881 the Jewish dhimmis of Yemen decided on a collective return to the Holy Land... and so strongly did this love break out in their heart, that they cast away all their money, selling all their houses and possessions at an eighth of the value, in order to find money for the expenses of the journey by land and by sea... A first caravan (of Yememites) was fortunate enough to arrive (at Jerusalem). The second caravan, and a third one recently arrived from Sanaa and its surrounding mountains, is blocked at Hodeida. The Turkish authorities have forbidden their departure for Jerusalem. This order is most iniquitous, for it was only after these poor people had sold to the Muslims the little which they possessed that the Governor General of Yemen decided to stop their departure.
Robert Spencer, The Myth of Islamic Tolerance, p. 143.
Peter Balakian, The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America’s Response, Harper Collins Publishers, New York, 2003.
Churches Converted into Mosques in Turkey In 1993-1994 the oldest known place of Christian worship in the world, existing from the time of the Apostle Paul at Urfa, the Church of St. John and St. James, was converted into a mosque.
Stuart Robinson, Mosques & Miracles, p. 95.
Turkey & Militant Islam If Iran is moving away from militant Islam, Turkey is rushing in that very direction, led by Necmetting Erbaka – leading politican and fromer prime minister – his associates, and their variously named political parties. Their success results from a splintered political scene and their pervasive answers to the country’s problems. The most successful of these militant Islamic parties, Rafah Pasrtisi (Welfare Party), did so very well in March 1994 municipal elections; it not only won the mayoral positions in Istanbul, Ankara and 22 provinces but emerged as the single most popular political party in Turkey.
In a sense, the question is, which state will outlast the other: whether Turkey turns to militant Islam faster or slower than Iran leves it. The survivor can expect to have greater influence over the future course of the Muslim world. Unfortunately, Western states are not making it easy for Turkey to win this contest.
In Turkey, for example, the Nurcus and the Necmettin Erban’s Refah Partisi accepts the democratic process, while the Süleymancıs and the Milli Görüş do not.
Dr. Daniel Pipes, Militant Islam Reaches America, pp. 35-36 & 46.
Turkey & Secular Islam Secular Muslims stress militant Islam’s resulting from poverty as an article of faith. Süleyman Demirel, the former Turkish president, says that “As long as there is poverty, inequality, injustice, and repressive political systems, militant Islamic tendancies will grow in the world.” Tansu Çiller finds that Islamists do so well in the 1994 ellections because “People reacted to the economy.”
Turks and those who flee militant Islamic states like Iran and Sudan usually want nothing to do with Islamic politics, nor do Sufis.
Dr. Daniel Pipes, Militant Islam Reaches America, p. 53 & 123.
Turkey Has a Family Law Turkey was the first Muslim country to bring in a family law.
Colin Chapman, Cross and Crescent, p. 171.
Turkish “Tolerance” of Jews
A Sobering Historical Assessment By Andrew G. Bostom
The recent tragic synagogue bombings in Istanbul, targeting the small remnant Jewish
community there, have been accompanied, somewhat understandably, by hagiographic
assessments of Jewish existence under Turkish suzerainty, dating back for over half a
millennium 1-4. Modern strategic alliances between a forcibly secularized, post-Kemalist Turkey,
and the state of Israel, however, should not obfuscate a sober analysis of the prevailing
conditions for Jews in the Turkish Ottoman Empire during more than five centuries of Muslim
theocratic governance under Shari’a law. This critical appraisal may be particularly important in
light of the burgeoning Islamist movement within present day Turkish society 5-7.
Professor Joseph Hacker’s seminal scholarship has focused on the fate of Jews during their initial
absorption into the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries. His meticulous research
debunks the uncritical view that from its outset the, “..Jewish experience” in the Ottoman Empire
“..was a calm, peaceful, and fruitful one..”. With characteristic understatement, Hacker notes:
“…It would seem to me that this accepted view of consistently good relations between the Ottomans and the Jews
during the 15th century should be modified in light of new research and manuscript resources.” 8
Hacker's balanced, objective conclusions are summarized below:
The Jews, like other inhabitants of the Byzantine Empire, suffered heavily from the Ottoman
conquests and policy of colonization and population transfer (i.e., the surgun system). This
explains the disappearance of several Jewish communities, including Salonica, and their
founding anew by Spanish Jewish immigrants. Hacker notes, specifically:
"…We possess letters written about the fate of Jews who underwent one or another of the Ottoman conquests. In
one of the letters which was written before 1470, there is a description of the fate of such a Jew and his community,
according to which description, written in Rhodes and sent to Crete, the fate of the Jews was not different from that
of Christians. Many were killed; others were taken captive, and children were brought to devshirme (i.e., the
Nineteenth Century”, pp. 142-163, by Maoz, Moshe, in Moshe Maoz (Editor), “Studies on
Palestine During the Ottoman Period”, The Magnes Press, 1975, p. 142.
13. Parfitt, Tudor, “The Jews of Palestine, 1800-1882” The Boydell Press, 1987, p. 168.
14. Parfitt, “The Jews of Palestine”, pp. 172-173.
15. Auron, Yair, “The Banality of Indifference”, Transaction Publishers, 2000, p. 75
16. Auron, “The Banality of Indifference”, p. 77
17. Auron, “The Banality of Indifference”, pp. 82-83
In Turkey nearly 40 percent of population has
negative view of Christians ISTANBUL, December 4 (CDN) — More than half of the population of Muslim-majority Turkey opposes members of other religions holding meetings or publishing materials to explain their faith, according to a recently issued survey.
Fully 59 percent of those surveyed said non-Muslims either “should not” or “absolutely should not” be allowed to hold open meetings where they can discuss their ideas. Fifty-four percent said non-Muslims either “should not” or “absolutely should not” be allowed to publish literature that describes their faith.
The survey also found that almost 40 percent of the population of Turkey said they had “very negative” or “negative” views of Christians. In the random survey, 60 percent of those polled said there is one true religion; over 90 percent of the population of Turkey is Sunni Muslim.
Ali Çarkoglu, one of two professors at Sabanci University who conducted the study, said no non-Muslim religious gathering in Turkey is completely “risk free.”
“Even in Istanbul, it can’t be easy to be an observant non-Muslim,” Çarkoglu said.
Web Sites* 38.1
List of Web Sites about Islam
A Bibliography of Suggested Reading For Missions and Islamic Studies-- Middle East Resources
al Injil: Good News for You alkitab.org al nour al-qiyamah alternative views on Islam an answer to the claims of Islam answeringchristianity.com Answering Infidels
(focusses on atheists, but also has an Islam section)
Answering-Islam.org Apologetics for Christians Apologetics.org ApologeticsIndex.org apostatesofislam.com
(What Ex-Muslims say about Islam)
ArabicNews.com arabicvoice.net ArabsforIsrael.com abrahamic-faith.com Answering-islam.org Answering Muslims A Short Summary of Islamic Beliefs and Eschatology Ask-Imam awm.gospelcom.net Background of Islam Beyond the Wall Bible and Quran bible-koran.com biblesociety.org.lb BibleQuery.org Biblical Christianity explained to Muslims Center for Ministry to Muslims Changes to the Quran
protect.html 2.cibola.net Center for Ministry to Muslims
cmmequip.org Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry (CARM) Christian Missions to Islam Come Let Us Reason Together Conversion tool for the Islamic calendar.
rabiah.com/convert/ Cracks in the Crescent, book crescentproject.org/links.cfm debate.org.uk
Critical Analysis of Islam debate.domini.org/Newton
Perspectives fadetoblack.com/farrakhan faithdefenders.com faithfreedom.org/links.htm Father Zakaria Butros
(a courageous Egyptian priest)
firstthings.com Frontiers, Loving Muslims Good news for the Crescent World Gospelcom.net
for Christians about Muslims Helping a Muslim understand the Bible home.swipnet.se/islam ibnzura.com ichb.org ict.org Infowar.com ingil.com Institute for Islamic Studies Internet toolbox for Islam-critics Into the Light Investigate Islam IsaalMasih.net Islam and Christianity Islam, a primer, A Word Doc introducing Islam, please download.
islam.org islam101.com Islaam.com Islam Examined Islam explained Islameyat islamicity.com Islamic Studies in Christian Perspective
rim.org/muslim/islam.htm Islam is not what you think IslamReview Islam: the way, the truth and the light? Islam Unveiled ISR Resources jihadwatch.com jihadwatch.org Islam Unveiled Islamwatch.org
(Islam under scrutiny by Ex-Muslims)
(general resources with an apologetics section)
Islam Examined light-of-life.com
The Muslim Christian Debate listislam.cjb.net
The complete list of sites offering an Alternative View of Islam
lovemorocco.com members.tripod.com Middle East Forum:
MEForum.org Middle East Resources ministrytomuslims.com muhammadanism.org muslimbibleday.com/index.html muslimhope.com muslimnews.co.uk news.faithfreedom.org
Terror Tracker Book by Neil Doyle, an expert in the fields of counter-terrorism, al-Qaeda, and the Internet. Information about Neil Doyle's book Terror Tracker including a forum with current news.
Internet Haganah The name Haganah is Hebrew and means defense. Internet Haganah is a global open-source intelligence network dedicated to confronting internet use by Islamist terrorist organizations, their supporters, enablers and apologists Internet Haganah is also a grass-roots activist organization which encourages businesses to not provide services to Islamic extremists.
Jihad Watch Site created by Robert Spencer, the author of"Onward Muslim Soldiers: How Jihad Still Threatens America and the West". Jihad Watch is dedicated to bringing public attention to the role that jihad theology plays in the modern world, and to correcting popular misconceptions about the role of jihad and religion in modern-day conflicts.
Religion of Peace Best source of news links and statistics about Islamic terrorism.
Mosque Watch Challenging "Islam is Peaceful": Articles about Islamic terrorism threatening the US. New web site with articles, news, jokes and multi media material about Islamic terrorism.
Winds Of Jihad Funny Blog by Sheik Yer'mami from Australia featuring original songs about Islam
Little Green Footballs Very popular political blog run by California web designer Charles Johnson.
Daniel Pipes Daniel Pipes is a Middle East expert hated by Muslims and political correct pseudo-intellectuals likewise. Daniel Pipes commenting the Middle East crisis
Answering Islam Devoted to refuting, and criticizing Islamic claims, doctrines, history, and the Koran. It is well-documented, and is one of the few anti-Islamic websites that is very careful to give the proper references, and thus one has all the more confidence in its pronouncements.
Prophet of Doom On line book by Craig Winn about Mohammad, printed version also available. Islam's Terrorist Dogma In Muhammad's Own Words
Faith Freedom International The Site sponsoring this Wiki by former Muslim Ali Sina with Debates and an active Forum. Has everything one might need.
Ayan Hirsi Ali Website in English, French, German and Dutch by a friend of the Dutch politician Ayan Hirsi Alì, and martyr of liberty Theo van Gogh. Ayan is an atheist libertarian ex-Muslim, from Somalia.
Official Website of the Prophet Mohammed Funny website containing lots of Islam-related pictures and commentary, purporting to be the official website of Muhammad.
An Atheist's Guide to Mohammedanism Islam explained rationally. Atheists debunking the myths about the Quran and the mystical figure of Mohammed.
Maryam Namazie Website by an Iranian woman about Islamic fundamentalism. Maryam Namazie is a committed activist for secularism in the Muslim world.
MEMRI TV Exposes what exactly the Muslims say in Arabic in their own TV channels. MEMRI's TV monitoring center focuses on political, cultural, religious, and other developments and debates in the Arab and Muslim world and in Iran. Website of the TV channel of the Middle East Media Research Institute with original video clips translated into English.
Skeptics Annotated Quran Categorizes the whole Quran in a very nice way with helpful visual tools.
Taslima Nasrin Former Muslim from Bangladesh, whose books have been banned in her country. In 1993, Islamic fundamentalists announced a Fatwa against her, offering a bounty for her death.
About Treatment of ex-Muslims, Apostates from Islam
Persecution of Ex-Muslims
Ex-Muslims, Apostates from Islam, and death threats