Co-Sponsored by HSBA Real Property and Financial Services Section &
William S. Richardson School of Law
January 17-18, 2002, Honolulu, Hawai`i, Ala Moana Hotel
Recent Developments Regarding Hawaii’s Endangered Species OUTLINE I. INTRODUCTION II. HAWAI`I LISTINGS A. Current List of Threatened & Endangered Species - see attached chart
current list at
B. Federal Listing Moratorium - Nov. 2000
C. Recent Congressional Action
D. Listing as Endangered of 12 Species of Hawaiian picture-wing flies (Drosophila) (judicial deadline of July 31, 2001)
E. Conservation Council for Hawaii v. Babbitt, unpublished decision (D. Haw. July 20, 1999) (Judge Gillmor ordered FWS to finalize a proposed rule to list 10 Hawaiian plant taxa as endangered by Aug. 31, 1999; plants found in Maui Nui group (Maui, Molokai, Lanai, and Kahoolawe)
F. Center for Biological Diversity v. FWS, settlement, Nov. 19, 1999 (settlement requires FWS to take final action on adding four Hawaiian invertebrates to the ESA list by Jan. 26, 2000 and designate critical habitat)
III. RECENT HAWAII CRITICAL HABITAT DESIGNATIONS A. Conservation Council of Hawaii v. Babbitt, 2 F. Supp. 2d 1280 (D. Haw. Mar. 9, 1998) (Judge Kay decision requiring FWS to move forward to designate critical habitat for 245 Hawai`i plant species)
B. Conservation Council of Hawaii v. Babbitt, 24 F. Supp. 1074 (D. Haw. Aug. 10, 1998) (Judge Kay decision directing FWS to publish designation or nondesignation of critical habitat for 100 or 245 species by Nov. 30, 2000; publish rules for remaining 145 species by Apr. 30, 2002; no particular order of species required)
1. Designation of CH for 77 Plants from Kaua`i and Ni`ihau (judicial deadline of Dec. 16, 2001)
2. Designation of CH for 58 Plants on Big Island (judicial deadline of Apr. 30, 2002)
3. Designation of CH for 50 Plants on Moloka`i & 2 Maui-Nui Complex (settlement agreement deadline of Mar. 20, 2002)
4. Designation of CH for 8 Plants on Northwest Islands (judicial deadline Nov. 30, 2001)
5. Designation of CH for 33 Plants on Lana`i & 2 Maui-Nui Complex (settlement agreement deadline of Feb. 16, 2002)
6. Designation of CH for 63 Plants from Mau`i and Kaho`olawe (judicial deadline of Nov. 30, 2001)
7. Designation of CH for 103 O`ahu Plants (settlement agreement deadline Apr. 30, 2002)
C. O`ahu `Elepaio (66,000 acres on O`ahu) (judicial deadline Dec. 30, 2001) - see attached newsclip
D. Designation of CH for 2 Cave Invertebrates from Kaua`i (Kaua`i cave amphipod and Kaua`i cave wolf spider) (judicial deadline of Jan. 1, 2002)
E. Designation of CH for Newcomb’s Snail (judicial deadline Nov. 2001)
F. Designation of CH for 6 Guam species (two mammals, Little Mariana fruit bat, Marianna fruit bat, four birds, Guam broadbill, Marianna crow, Guam Micronesian kingfisher, and Guam Bridled white-eye) (settlement agreement deadline June 1, 2002)
III. HAWAII’S FIRST SAFE HARBOR AGREEMENTS See Darcy Kishida (Class of 2001), Safe Harbor Agreements Under the Endangered Species Act: Are They Right for Hawai'i? (Summer 2001). Two versions available: 1) on-line on the Environmental Law Program web site: www2.hawaii.edu/~elp/publications/moolelo/, or 2) (same title), 23 U. Haw. L. Rev. 507 (2001).
A. Approved: Pu`u O Hoku Ranch (Nene) SHA - Approved by Board of Land and Natural Resources June 8, 2002; Signed by all parties and registered at Bureau of Conveyances on Sept. 5, 2002 - see attached newsclip. See also 65 Fed. Reg. 24222 (Apr. 25, 2000) (FWS notice). * SHA attached
B. Approved: Umikoa Ranch (Multispecies) SHA - Approved by BLNR Sept. 28, 2002; signed and registered Dec. 10, 2002 - see attached newsclip. See also 66 Fed. Reg. 30746 (June 7, 2001) (FWS notice).
C. Pending: Kilauea River, Kaua`i - private landowner seeking to restore degraded land proposing native plant restoration and Nene introduction on 150 acres - currently under review by the State Endangered Species Recovery Committee.
D. Pending: Wa`ahila Ridge, O`ahu - UH group project proposing restoration of 140 acres of dry forest; candidate snail habitat. Under review by State Endangered Species Recovery Committee. On hold under DLNR proposed legislation to allow SHA-HCPs on state and county land (now limited to private fee simple land).
E. Pending: Endangered Palms, Big Island - details not publicly available
F. Pending: Ranch dryland forest restoration project, Maui - details not available
G. Pending: Lanai upper elevation forest restoration - details not available
H. For more information, contact Tim Male, DLNR-DOFAW (587-0166) and/or Gina Shultz, FWS (541-3441)
IV. PENDING INCIDENTAL TAKE PERMITS & HABITAT CONSERVATION PLANS
A. Pending: Cyanotech Corp., Big Island - endangered Hawaiian stilt habitat - proposal printed at 67 Federal Register 98 (Jan. 2, 2002) (written comments due Feb. 1, 2002). Cyanotech take results from ongoing operation and maintenance of its aquaculture facility at Keahole Point. The HCP proposes to implement deterrence measures designed to eliminate stilt foraging and nesting at the Cyanotech facility and create new suitable nesting habitat onsite.
This will be Hawai`i’s first HCP. Approval expected in February 2002. Full approval may await passage of DLNR’s proposed bill to expand State ESA’s definition of landowner to cover state and county lands.
B. Pending: North-South Road, Abutilon Menziesii, Kapolei - see attached Environment Hawaii article - details not publicly available; full review depending on DLNR bill to expand definition of landowner in State ESA to cover state and county lands
C. Pending: other pending proposals in conceptual stage not public
V. SPECIAL CONSIDERATION FOR PLANTS UNDER HAWAII ESA A. Differential Statutory Treatment under Federal and State ESAs
B. Hawaii’s New Plant Permit Rules: Hawaii Administrative Rules Chapter 13-107 (adopted May 15, 1997) - allowing licenses for collecting, possessing, transporting, propagating, and outplanting T&E plants from wild populations, to be approved by BLNR, for propagation, education, cultural, or scientific purposes, or to enhance the survival of the species.
VI. HAWAII ESA LITIGATION 1. Malama Makua v. Rumsfeld, 163 F. Supp. 2d 1202 (D. Haw. Jul. 16, 2001) (Judge Mollway)
Malama Makua v. Rumsfeld, 136 F. Supp. 2d 1155 (D. Haw. Mar. 1, 2001)
2. Palila v. Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources -
- 246 F.2d 675 (9th Cir. Dec. 14, 2000)
- 73 F. Supp. 2d 1181 (D. Haw. Oct. 13, 1999)
- 852 F.2d 1106 (9th Cir. Jul. 22, 1988)
- 118 F.R.D. 125 (D. Haw. June 30, 1987)
- 649 F. Supp. 1070 (D. Haw. Nov. 18, 1986)
- 631 F. Supp. 787 (D. Haw. Dec. 6, 1985)
- 512 F. Supp. 1006 (D. Haw. Apr. 21, 1981)
- 639 F.2d 495 (9th Cir. Feb. 9, 1981)
- 471 F. Supp. 985 (D. Haw. Jun. 6, 1979)
3. `Alala: Hawaiian Crow (Alala) v. Lujan, 906 F. Supp. 549 (D. Haw. 1991) (Judge Ezra standing decision only; main lawsuit settlement unreported)
VII. SELECTED ADDITIONAL REFERENCES A. Articles Rufus C. Young, Using Federal Laws and Regulations To Control Land Use: 2001 Update: The Federal Endangered Species Act and How It Affects Land Use, SG021 ALI-ABA 277 (Aug. 16-18, 2001)
Craig Arnold, Conserving Habitats and Building Habitats: The Emerging Impact of The Endangered Species Act on Land Use Development, 10 STAN. ENVTL. L. J. 1 (1991)
Robert Meltz, Where the Wild Things Are: The Endangered Species Act and Private Property, 24 ENVTL. L. 369 (1994)
Daniel Slone et al., The Birds and the Trees: What Every Developer Should Know About the Endangered Species Act, 9 APR. PROB. & PROP. 51 (1995)
J.B. Ruhl, How To Kill Endangered Species, Legally: The Nuts and Bolts of Endangered Species Act “HCP” Permits for Real Estate Development, 5 ENVTL. L. 345 (1999)