Page 1 Report Substrate Materials for intersectoral biogas strategy Foreword



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Translated version of CPA report.pdf

Page 1

Report Substrate Materials for intersectoral biogas strategy

Foreword

In Climate Report (Meld. St. 21 (2011-2012)), the Government decided that it should develop a national, cross-sectoral strategy to increase the production and use of biogas in Norway. In November 2012 was Climate and Pollution Agency (CPA) in the Ministry of the Environment to prepare a support material to this strategy.

Biogas is a renewable source of energy that can be produced from resources that are seen as by-products or waste. This report briefly describes how biogas can be produced and applied to various purpose and how the residual product of biogas production - organic fertilizer - can be utilized. Furthermore, we provide a overview of the status of biogas production and use in Norway, before we look at the possibilities of increase production beyond current levels. Because it's remaining potential in the short term is utilization of organic waste and manure, it is these two raw materials we have looked at.

We compile cost and benefit effects for the production and use of biogas, focusing on use of biogas as fuel and feed into an existing natural gas network. Finally, we describe existing measures and barriers, before pointing to possible new instruments to trigger the various parts of the potential.

The report was prepared for the period November 2012-April 2013 by CPA with professional input from a reference group consisting of Transnova, Enova, the Norwegian Public Roads Administration (VD), Norwegian Agricultural Authority (SLF), Customs and Excise (TAD) and the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE). In addition conducted a survey to identify barriers and measures and to update cost figures, as well as a proposal meeting with about 50 participants from industry and individual meetings with several actors. Bioforsk v / Senior Tormod Briseid, Institute of Transport Economics (TOI) v / researcher RolfHagman and Waste Norway v / Henrik Lystad and Roy Ulvang has also provided technical input.

We thank everyone involved for valuable discussions and suggestions!

Oslo, April 2013

Audun Rosland

Deputy

Contents

Chapter 1 - General 29

How are 29

Advantages in the production and use of biogas and organic fertilizer............................ ................. 30

Distribution system for 33

How can biogas 33

How can bio fertilizer used .............................................. ................................................ 38

Value Chain 39

"Optimal production and use of biogas" - what does that mean?....................... 40

Biogas and Renewable Energy Directive 44

Chapter 2 - Status of biogas 47 48

Collection Construction - landfill gas .......................... .................................................. . 48

Production plants - 49

Production plants - Planned 52

Export of organic waste for biogas production in Denmark and Sweden ................................... 52

Use of 54

Other 54

Chapter 3 - Potential for production and use of biogas in Norway .............................. 57

Potential for biogas production in Norway ......................................................................... 57

Definition of potential and methodology ..................................................................... 57

The realistic potential for biogas production in Norway by 2020 ........................................ 58

The potential long- 61

Climate impact of the utilization of different feedstock .................... ....................................... 62

Regional distribution of 63

Chapter 4 - Economic evaluations of the production and use of biogas ................................... 73

Economics 74

Part 1 - Production 74

Page 6

6

Part 2 - 86

Business economics 97

Use of 101

Prospects, uncertainty and sensitivity analyzes ............................................. ........................ 103

Other uncertainties 105

Chapter 5 - Existing measures and barriers ........................................... ................................... 123

Existing 123

Existing measures - access to raw materials for biogas plants .......................................... .. 126

Existing instruments - the production of biogas ............................................ ......................... 127

Existing measures - use of biogas ............................................ .................................... 128

What is done in the second 129

Which barriers experienced? 132

Access to raw materials for 132

Production of 133

Use of 134

Summary of 136

Chapter 6 - New instruments, strengthening of existing measures and instruments menus. 137

Brief Summary of 137

Discussion of some relevant measures ............................................. ............................................. 140

"Push" or 140

Investment or production support? .................................................. ............................. 140

How fast increase of biogas production is desired? ........................................... ............................. 141

How to prevent fossil natural gas displaces biogas? .......................................... ............... 142

Use of tax on options for biogas ........................................... ....................................... 142

Discussion of legal and informational measures to increase the supply of organic waste to

biogas plants 143

Feedback from the survey - instruments ............................................. .............. 145

Examples of 146

Review of possible new measures ............................................. ........................................... 151

1 Measures to improve access to raw materials - organic waste and manure ...................... 154

1.1 Organic waste 154

2 Measures to increase the production of biogas ........................................... ............................... 163

3 Funding for increased use of biogas and bio fertilizer .......................................... ................. 166

3.1 Increased use of biogas 166

3.2 Increased use of 175

4 Transverse 179

183


Appendix 1: Potential for biogas production ........... ........................................... 187

Annex 2 a): Background figures with assumptions and sources............. .......................... 191

Annex 2 b): 197

Appendix 3 a) Existing and new instruments in the waste sector ........................... 209

Review of existing instruments .............................................. ................................... 209

New instruments 215

Appendix 3 b) Existing measures in the agricultural sector are significant for biogas plants ......... 219

Means direct 219

Indirect 220

Investment into biogas plant, box ............................................. ............................... 222

223

Appendix 3 c) Existing measures in the transport sector .......................................... ...................... 225



Investment and more from Transnova ............................................. ........................................ 225

What we have 225

Use Addicted 226

Taxes on gasoline, diesel, natural gas and electricity ......................................... .......................... 226

Non-user-dependent 227

One-time fee 227

Appendix 3 d) Existing instruments for use in other sectors ....................................... ................ 231

Electricity certificates 231

Natural Gas Act and the Natural Gas Regulations ............................................... 231

Appendix 3 e) Existing instruments - general .......................................... ................................. 233

Investment from Innovation Norway .............................................. ....................................... 233

Enova 233

Appendix 4: 235

Appendix 5: Industrial value chain for biogas Jæren ......................................... .............................. 237

Biogas production at 237

Upgrade 239

Distribution of upgraded biogas (biomethane) ........................................... ............................... 240

Summary 241



Summary

Biogas is a renewable energy source that can be produced by various organic materials and may

used for many different purposes such as electricity generation, heating and transport.

Production and use of biogas has many beneficial effects, such as reduction of

greenhouse gases and ammonia, recycling of nutrients, reduction of local air pollution and

production of biofuels without seizing arable land.



Potential

We estimate the realistic potential for biogas production in Norway to 2020 to be around 2.3

TWh. Only a small part of the potential has already triggered; currently produce around 0.5 TWh of

biogas. The remaining realistic potential for biogas production in the short term is dominated by

organic waste (less than 1 TWh) and manure (approximately 0.7 TWh). In the longer term,

other material such as forest waste, algae and sludge from aquaculture be appropriate for

biogas production and can increase the potential significantly. Improvements in the production process will increase

potential further.

The theoretical potential for biogas production in Norway is in earlier studies estimated to be

about 6 TWh. Not all the raw materials are available for biogas production, since some already applied for example, feed production or are very difficult to exploit for biogas production. We estimate the realistic potential for biogas production in the short term (to 2020) to be around 2.3 TWh. Only a small part of the potential is already triggered, currently produced around 0.5 TWh of biogas, see Figure 1 About half of the current production is collected landfill gas, of which an estimated half utilized for energy purposes and the remainder is flared. Production of biogas is now very common in treatment of sewage sludge where the majority of the potential is already exploited. This substrate is therefore not be discussed further in this report.

The remaining realistic potential for biogas production in the short term is therefore dominated by

organic waste (less than 1 TWh or 880 000 t of waste) and manure (approximately 0.7 TWh), see

Figure 2 Organic waste includes both food waste from households, large households and commerce,

as well as waste from commercial activities, such as waste from fish harvesting, bakeries, butchers etc.

assessment of the realistic potential is taken into account that part of the wet organic waste

already utilized for such feed production. As shown in Figure 2, the potential for

energy output divided almost equally between manure and waste, given that the potential is triggered

(880 000 tonnes of organic waste and 3.9 million tons of manure).

The potential for biogas production as we have assumed in this report are for biowaste

waste based on that 50% of food waste from households and 80% of food waste from

large households and commerce are separated and collected. Today's rejection rate for food waste from

households around 30%, which means that it requires a significant increase in sorting at source of

food waste to release all the realistic potential. The potential for manure implies that

30% of manure to be treated in biogas plants, cf. Report. 39 This is an ambitious

objective and it will require strong measures to trigger the supply of raw material to

biogas production by 2020. In the longer term, other feedstock such as forest waste, algae

and sludge from aquaculture be relevant for biogas production and thus increase the potential considerably.

Improvements in the manufacturing process could increase potential further.

Figure 1: Potential for biogas production in Norway 2020

Figure 2: Potential for biogas production in energy units based on manure and organic waste

Treatment of the entire realistic potential can be achieved by for example the following

combination of fixed size and number of plants:

 38 industrial facilities for manure at 110 000 tonnes / plant

 55 major public facilities for manure at 55 000 tonnes / plant

 16 plants for wet organic waste processing 55 000 tonnes / plant

We have used this as the basis for the calculations. However, also other combinations

be possible.




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