If you ..... to a doctor straight away as I advise, you ..... a great deal of discomfort.
A. would go/would have been spared
B. have gone/were spared
C. had gone/would have been spared
D. were going/have been spared
E. go/will have been spared
If ile başlayan bölüm (= yan tümce) ile ilgili önemli bir not:
If + will / may / might ... , ....
1.2. Second Condition
Şu an ya da geleceğe ait gerçekleşmesi pek mümkün olmayan olasılık anlatır.
If + Simple past, could / would (be able to) / might
(Eğer) ... -sE(ydI), ... -I/ErdI
If you were a man, I'd slap you here and now.
Were you a man, I'd slap you here and now.
Would you accept the offer if you ..... in my shoes.
B. can be
D. had been
E. should be
Was yerine were kullanımı önem taşır:
If I / she / you / it / they / ... WERE ....
Ayrıca şu yapılara dikkat:
Would you mind ...? Do you mind ... ?
Kim: I urgently need an envelope for this card.
Tom: Do you mind if I go and buy you one?
Tom: I'll be back in a minute.
A. Yes, and buy a pen as well, please.
B. Yes, this would be lovely.
C. No, not at all; most appreciated.
D. I'd better have an envelope immediately.
E. Actually, what I need is that one.
Progressive / Continuous kullanıma dikkat:
Would be + VingSecond Condition
She must be earning a lot. Otherwise, she ..... such a luxurious life.
A. couldn't have led
B. hasn't been leading
C. isn't leading
D. wasn't leading
E. wouldn't be leading
1.3. Third Condition
Geçmişe ait ve gerçekleşmesi artık mümkün olmayan olasılık anlatır.
A. If + Past Perfect, would /could / might + have + V3 
B. If + Past Perfect, would / could / might + V1 + (now) 
C. If + would / could + have + V3, would / could / might + have + V3 
(Eğer) -sEydi /-mIş olsaydı, ... -I/ErdI
If he had known the result he wouldn't have been so happy. 
(Eğer) -sEydi /-mIş olsaydı, (şimdi) ... -I/ErdI
If you had been more careful, you'd be earning more. 
(Eğer) -sEydi /-mIş olsaydı, ... -EbIlIrdI
I could have helped him if I could have swum. 
Had he been more careful, he could have won.
If I ..... you were coming I ..... you a lift.
A. knew/can give
B. know/have given
C. had known/could have given
D. have known/gave
E. will know/would give
1.4. If + should
Az gerçekleşme olasılığı gösterir.
If you should see him, let me know.
1.5. If + happen to
If + should yapısı ile aynı anlamdadır.
1.6. If + were to
Were to yapısı gelecekte gerçekleşme olasılığı az bir olayı anlatmada kullanılabilir.
What would you do if a war were to break out ?
Were to yapısı zorlayıcı bir öneri ifade edebilir.
If you were to move your chair a bit, we could all sit down comfortably.
If Turkey ..... to withdraw from the NATO alliance, certainly it ..... a global crisis.
A. had/will cause
B. was/would have caused
C. will have/causes
D. were/would cause
E. would have/had caused
1.7. If it weren't for
Bu yapı olayın bir başka olayı değiştirdiğini / etkilediğini göstermede "olmasa" anlamında kullanılır.
If it weren't for his wife's money, he'd never be a boss.
1.8. If it hadn't been for
If it weren't for yapısının geçmiş zaman halidir.
If it hadn't been for your help, she could have gone to prison.
1.9. But for
If it hadn't been for yapısı ile aynı anlamı taşır.
But for you, I could have given up long ago.
1.10. If only (= I wish ...)
A) If only + Past tense
If only I had more money, I could buy a drink.
If only you hadn't told Jackie the truth, everything would have been all right.
B) If only + would / could
Bu yapı istek / amaç belirtir.
If only she wouldn't speak all the time, she'd make a perfect guest.
If only he wouldn't snore !
If only we ..... more money on us, we wouldn't have got so embarrassed at the supermarket.
A. had taken
B. have taken
D. would have taken
E. would take
If only you ..... in my affairs that much! I really don't want to offend you.
A. don't interfere
B. hadn't interfered
C. haven't interfered
D. won't interfere
E. wouldn't interfere
2. AS LONG AS, SO LONG AS
as long as, so long as + tümce
- DIğI sürece/takdirde
She can come in as long as she promises to keep silent.
You can leave the room ..... you promise to tidy your things.
Careful though/as she was, she couldn't prevent the accident. (=Although she was ...)
Although ve though farkı:
Though, tümce içinde ve sonunda however anlamında kullanılabilir.
1.2. Even if / Even though
Türkçeye çevirisi although ile aynıdır. Even if "-sE bile" olarak aktarılabilir.
He borrowed my jacket even though I'd told him not to.
You have to be on time even if the lesson starts very early.
Türkçeye although gibi ya da "... ise de", "... iken" ile aktarılır.
Whereas he has plenty of money, he has no-one to trust.
1.4. While / Whilst
Türkçeye although gibi aktarılır.
While he is quite nice, sometimes he is a menace.
1.5. Despite / In spite of / Regardless of / Notwithstanding / Irrespective of + the fact that
Türkçeye "...( gerçeğin)e karşın / rağmen" ile aktarılırlar.
Despite the fact that he is rather nice, sometimes he is a menace. (=Although he is ...)
Devrik yapı durumunda "rağmen" anlamı taşıyabilir.
Tired as I was, I went on walking. (=Although I was tired ...)
Change your mind as you will, you will gain no support. (=Although you may change ...)
Bu yapı Reason veya Similarity Clause olarak da kullanılabilir.
As sözcüğü yerine that kullanıldığı da görülür.
Fool that he was, he made no mistakes.
1.7. As ... as
Bu yapı ender olarak kullanılır.
As widespread as his fame may be, he is not well-known in this part of the country. (=Although his fame may be widespread, ...)
2. TÜMCE İLE KULLANILMAYANLAR
2.1. Despite/In spite of
despite/in spite of + ad  / Ving 
yüklem + -mEsInE rağmen / karşın
ad + -E rağmen / karşın
He came in spite of his illness.  / being ill. 
He still chooses to play with his plastic toy gun despite the many electric toys he has.
A. Although he has many electric toys, he prefers to play with his plactic toy gun.
B. Due to the number of his toys, he's having difficulty in choosing between his plastic toy and electric toys.
C. He has electric toys as well, but today he is playing with his plastic toy gun.
D. He may choose to play with his plastic toy gun, but his favourite is his electric toy.
E. In spite of playing with his plastic toy gun, he still has some electric toys as well.
B. Owing to
C. Regardless of
D. In spite of
1.3. As long as
as long as + tümce
- DIğI sürece / müddetçe
As long as he doesn't disturb me, it is okay.
1.4. Inasmuch as, Insomuch as
Because anlamı taşıyan bu yapılar resmi durumlarda kullanılır.
Thomas is also guilty, insomuch as he knew what they were going to do.( ..., because he knew ...)
1.5. In that
in that + tümce
-mEsI açısından/yüzünden, -DIğI için
The evidence is invalid in that it was obtained through illegal ways.
1.6. Now that
Time Clause yapılarda ele alınan Now that ile aynı anlamı taşır.
1.7. (The reason) why
(The reason) why + tümce + be + because/that ...
-mE("kişi eki")In(In) nedeni/sebebi ... (-dIr)
The reason (why) they lost is that/because they did not know the rules.
She won't tell me the reason ..... she is leaving me!
while + tümce
hazır ... olduğuna göre/-mIş iken
While you are in the kitchen, can you bring me a knife ?
2. TÜMCE İLE KULLANILMAYANLAR
2.1. Because of, Due to, Owing to, On account of
because of / due to + owing to + on account of + ad + (Ving)  / + my / his /.. + Ving 
Türkçeye because ile aynı şekilde aktarılırlar.
Because of rain the rescue operation had to be stopped. 
Owing to his trying to save the situation, a scandal was prevented. 
2.2. Ving ...,
Önemli bir özellik:
Ving ile time ve reason anlatıldığı zaman, ana tümcenin ve yan tümcenin öznesinin aynı olması gerekir.
In any election campaign, we see that all the candidates promise to bring all essential facilities to the area, ......
A. bearing in mind the fact that it has a potential vote population
B. in that they were quite successful in bringing service
C. that has always been neglected by local politicians
D. which actually needed almost nothing other than a sewage system
E. whose political career depends on the leading party's policies
Seeing that it was likely to rain, he stayed in. (=Because / When he saw ...)
Knowing their tastes, she was able to bring a good gift. (=Because she knew ...)
Having completed the task, they had a break. (=Because / After they had completed ...)
2.3. Past participle (= V3)
Bu yapı edilgen özellik taşır.
Past Participle ile time ve reason anlatıldığı zaman, ana tümcenin ve yan tümcenin öznesinin aynı olması gerekir.
Constructed according to my specifications, the building was able to withstand the earthquake. (=Because it was constructed ...)
with + ad + Ving 
with + ad + to + yüklem 
"var iken", -mekte iken, -DIğI için, -DIğIndEn ötürü
With the exams coming, we have no time for a social life. 
With so many children to support, they both have to work. 
2.5. What with
Yukarıda ele alınan With yapısı ile aynıdır.
1. (In order) to, so as to
in order (not) to / so as (not) to + yüklem
yüklem + -mEk için
To open the lid, turn it left.
They left the door open in order for me to hear what they were talking about.
She has to hurry in order not to be late.
So as to yapısının aşağıdaki örnekte görülen kullanımına sık rastlanmaktadır.
He never stayed in one place so long as to be recognised.
He has been studying ..... fail again.
B. because of
C. in order not to
D. in spite of
E. even if
2. In order that
in order that + tümce
yüklem + -sIn diye / -mEk için
The school closes early in order that the children can get home before dark.
The young do not listen to the old. (= Young people do not listen to old people.)
Tekil kişiler için sıfat + person/man/.. kullanmak gerekir.
a / the young person / man / woman / ..
Farklı bir kullanım
the + police çoğul ad oluşturur.
5.9. the + yer adı = o yerin amacına uygun bir eyleme katılınmaması
She went to the prison ( mahkum olarak değil)
I would like to live near the sea.
5.10. the + yer = içinde bulunulan durumdan ötürü tanımlanabilen yer
Her insanın kendisine ait bir çevresi olduğu ve o kişinin o çevreye ait herşeyi tanımlayabileceği düşünülürse, o çevreye yakın olan bir kimse (akraba, arkadaş, aynı şehirli gibi) açısından da o çevre tanımlanabilir özelliktedir.
I must go to the bank
tümcesindeki the bank, konuşanı tanıyan bir kimse açısından belirgin bir bankayı niteler.
There is funny animal in the garden.
5.11. the + otel / tiyatro / sinema/.. adı
the theatre / cinema / opera / concert
5.12. the + çoğul yer adı
the United States
5.13. the + sayılabilir bir ad içeren yer adları
the Sues/Panama Canal
the English Channel
the Sahara (Desert)
the Gulf, the Gulf of Mexico
the British Isles, the Virgin Islands
the United Kingdom
the Rocky Mountains
the Indian Ocean
the Republic of Turkey
the (River) Nile
the Mediterranean (Sea)
the Gulf States
the Bering Straits
the Union of South Africa
Yer darlığından ötürü haritalarda the genelde kullanılmaz.
5.14. the + milliyet belirten sıfat
Bazı milliyetlerden söz ederken, çoğul ad kullanılır.
(the) Russians / Arabs / Turks / Scots / ..
5.15. the + bilim ve teknoloji ile ilgili sözcük
I hate the telephone.
5.16. the + müzik aleti
I'd like to learn the guitar.
Caz ve pop terminolojisinde genellikle the kullanılmaz.