Australia is one of the most urbanised countries in the OECD and like the OECD generally, Australia is becoming more urbanised over time. Australia’s urban population is notably concentrated in relatively few major cities compared with most other OECD countries (OECD 2016b, p. 17). About 64 per cent of Australians live in Australia’s five largest cities (Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide) with about 40 per cent living in Greater Sydney and Greater Melbourne (ABS 2017l). The dominance of this small number of cities is unlike other comparable countries such as Canada which have a more even population spread (Tiffen and Gittins 2004, pp. 14–15).
59.Large urban centres are growing the fastest
Despite Australia’s population having grown by 40 per cent since 1991, 16 out of 89 FERs have experienced population decline over the past quartercentury (figure 3.16). Many of these are inland or remote regions and many have a high share of agricultural employment. The regions of Longreach (Queensland), Central East Wheatbelt (Western Australia) and Far West NSW – Lower Murray (New South Wales), have all had population decline of over 20 per cent since 1991. Capital cities and some other regions with large urban centres, especially near the coast have experienced high population growth. Between 1991 and 2016, 70 per cent of Australia’s population growth occurred in its five largest cities. Since the end of the mining investment boom in 2012, this has increased to about 80 per cent and is projected to continue into the future (PC 2017b, p. 124). In slower growth cities, like Adelaide and Hobart, population growth has also been faster than the rest of the state (figure 3.17).
Figure 3.16 Capital cities and coastal areas have grown fast
Average annual percentage change in population for functional economic regions, 1991 to 2016
Figure 3.17 Population growth has been highest in capital citiesa
Average annual percentage change in population, 1991 to 2016
a Capital city population defined by functional economic regions.
Source: ABS (Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2016, Cat. no. 3218.0).
Overseas migration is driving strong population growth in capital cities
Since 1991, over half (55 per cent in 2016) of Australia’s total population growth has come from net overseas migration (rather than natural growth) with its share increasing in recent times (ABS 2017b). Most migrants settle and live in cities, particularly Sydney and Melbourne and, to a lesser extent, Brisbane and Perth (Wilson and Charles-Edwards 2017). It is estimated that about 85 per cent of migrants live in cities with a population over 100 000, compared to 64 per cent of people born in Australia (ABS 2014). In New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia, overseas migration has been the major source of population growth in recent decades, with the majority of population growth concentrated in Sydney, Melbourne and Perth (figure 3.18). New migrants tend to live in the inner city, in pockets of affordable housing or within close proximity to higher education institutions (ABS 2014; Daley, Wood and Chivers 2017, p. 24; PC 2015, pp. 136–138).
Internal migration of young people (aged 1524) from regional areas to capital cities has also contributed to population growth in capital cities, with Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth being the most popular cities that young people have migrated to (ABS 2017j).
Figure 3.18 Net overseas migration has driven population growth
Sources of population growth by state, 1991 to 2016
Cities play a major role as hubs of economic activity and the large growth in services employment, particularly knowledgebased services, has attracted people to capital cities. Many of Australia’s high growth industries are in professional services that rely on the agglomeration benefits of large cities such as deep pools of specialised labour and knowledge spillovers. As cities grow, they provide greater agglomeration benefits to business, which acts as a stronger natural incentive for knowledgebased businesses to operate there (Kelly and Mares 2013, pp. 9–13; Puga 2010).
Aside from greater labour market and education opportunities, cities offer a wide variety of services including health and entertainment that suit many people’s lifestyle preferences. For migrants, cities can offer communities of people from similar cultural backgrounds, which can be important for developing social networks (Rudiger and Spencer 2003, p. 6).
Some small cities and regional centres are growing faster than capital cities
Some small cities and regional centres have also experienced high population growth, outstripping growth in capital cities in some instances. The Gold Coast and Sunshine Coast in Queensland, Busselton and Bunbury in Western Australia, and Victor Harbor in South Australia have experienced much higher population growth in recent decades than their respective capital cities (figure 3.19).
Much of the population growth in regional centres is a result of natural growth and net internal migration from both people leaving rural regions and large capital cities (Budge and Butt 2009, p. 13). Net overseas migration contributes only a small part of population growth outside of capital cities as few migrants settle there. The Sunshine Coast and Geelong are examples of cities that have experienced high internal migration. Internal migration to the Sunshine Coast has predominantly been from families and retirees leaving Sydney and Brisbane (Thomson 2014). Geelong’s high internal migration has largely come from retirees leaving Melbourne and young people (aged 1524 years) moving from west and southwest Victoria (ABS 2013a). Retirees make up a sizable proportion of migration to smaller cities in some instances (box 3.12). However, some smaller cities that are popular among retirees can struggle to attract people of working age (RAI 2016, p. 13).
Figure 3.19 Some small cities and regional centres have also grown quicklya
Annual average percentage change in population, 1991 to 2016
a Annual average population change for the four largest cities/regional centres for each state, and nonurban regions based on ABS Significant Urban Area Structure.
Source: ABS (Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2016, Cat. no. 3218.0).
Many of the fastest growing small cities and regional centres have attracted people because of their high natural amenity, particularly along the coast. These ‘sea change’ regions have been popular with families and retirees and have defied trends in population compared with other regional areas. Tourism has also been important in creating employment opportunities in many of these regions. For example, the Gold Coast, Sunshine Coast and Fraser Coast in southeast Queensland have all experienced strong population growth in recent decades and lifestyle factors have been a predominant reason for people moving there (Stimson and Minnery 1998).
Some small cities that have experienced high population growth in recent years have also experienced high rates of employment growth as economic activity becomes increasingly concentrated in larger centres. For example, Newcastle, Wollongong, Ballarat and Geelong have all experienced employment growth above the national average over the past five years (figure 3.2). These smaller cities also offer greater affordability (particularly for housing) and a different lifestyle to major cities, including less congestion and pollution (RAI 2016, p. 5). Small cities (including smaller capital cities) stand to gain from population growth, particularly people of working age, due to increased agglomeration benefits and further diversification (Regional Capitals Australia, sub. 30, p. 3).
Box 3.12 Some regional centres are popular among retirees
The most popular destinations for retirees are places along the coast, such as Mackay (Queensland), Geelong (Victoria), Newcastle and Port Stephens (New South Wales). Retirees make up a substantial proportion (in some cases over 30 per cent) of the population in some regions including the New South Wales South Coast, Shoalhaven and Southern Highlands. Although many retirees are leaving cities, there are also many who move to the inner city as they downsize. Inner city Melbourne and inner city Sydney have experienced some of the largest net influxes of people over the age of 65 in the past five years (ABS 2017k, 2017j).
60.Connectivity between regions is crucial
Connectivity is important in creating opportunities for regional communities undergoing transition. This has been seen in many agricultural regions (section 3.3). The importance of connectivity was outlined in a number of submissions. For example, Regional Capitals Australia (sub. DR78, p. 11) said: ‘creating regional hubs that are liveable and connected should be a priority for governments of all levels’.
Although smaller cities are areas of economic activity in their own right, their physical connectivity to capital cities is crucial in providing businesses with access to larger markets (box 3.13). In Victoria, over 33 000 people commute to Melbourne daily from the cities of Geelong, Ballarat, Bendigo and Latrobe, with most using the train (Vic DEDJTR 2015, p. 15). These centres have also benefited from public transport upgrades which have enabled more people from these regions to commute to Melbourne. Upgrades have coincided with population growth in these centres that has outpaced other regional centres, such as Shepparton, that lack similar rail access to Melbourne.
The importance of highspeed internet in facilitating connectivity was also raised in many submissions. Connectivity through high speed internet can attract businesses and people to a region. As highlighted by Regional Capitals Australia (sub. 30, p. 9): ‘better internet connections draw jobs to regions not just by attracting businesses, but by attracting workers for whom fast broadband is a baseline requirement to move to an area’. The rollout of the National Broadband Network and the Mobile Black Spot Program aim to narrow the telecommunications gap between capital cities and regional areas (PC 2017c).
Box 3.13 Connectivity of Ballarat
Ballarat, a city of more than 100 000 people in Victoria, has been a successful regional centre over recent decades. Located about 110 km northwest of Melbourne, Ballarat was originally founded as a gold mining town, but over a long period has diversified and now performs well on most indicators of regional performance. The Ballarat region has experienced high employment growth, particularly in recent times, and unemployment in Ballarat has been trending down over recent years (ABS 2017h).
Part of Ballarat’s success can be linked to connectivity. Compared with Melbourne, Ballarat has a lower cost of living and less urban congestion. Ballarat has been connected to Melbourne via a freeway since the 1990s and is on many major highways, which connect it to agricultural and industrial centres (Regional Capitals Australia, sub. 30, p. 4).
The commencement of a faster train service in 2006 has enabled commuters to travel to Melbourne in about one hour, comparable with many outer suburbs of Melbourne (Litras 2006). Reduced commuting times has seen the number of daily commuters to Melbourne increase rapidly. In 201314, an estimated 7400 people commuted to Melbourne each day, with 4700 (63 per cent) travelling by train (Vic DEDJTR 2015, p. 15).
The growth of satellite suburbs
Satellite suburbs21 have been some of the fastest growing areas in Australia over recent decades. Satellite suburbs offer people access to cheaper housing but still enable them to access the labour market of a larger city and the smorgasbord of services and attractions available. They may also offer a more regional lifestyle compared with metropolitan areas (Salt 2017). Improved connectivity has also been crucial to population growth in satellite suburbs. For example, upgrades to train services in 2006 coincided with higher population growth in Melton and Bacchus Marsh, which are satellite suburbs of Melbourne (ABS 2017b; box 3.11). Migration to satellite suburbs has predominantly been from families moving out of capital cities (ABS 2017j).
A small number of regional centres have experienced longterm population decline. They share some similar disadvantages, many of which are not easily amenable to change. The decline of industries that brought about the town’s development has contributed to their population decline, which in many cases reflects structural and technological change in the economy. Other factors have made transitioning to alternative economic activities challenging. Indeed, historical evidence suggests that single industry communities, particularly those based on nonrenewable resources, often do not survive the decline or depletion of their resource base (Storey 2010, p. 1171).
Some regional centres experiencing population decline have mineral deposits that are becoming more marginal as mines reach the end of their viable lives (box 3.14). Regional centres such as Broken Hill in New South Wales (26.0 per cent population decline), Whyalla (14.3 per cent), Port Pirie (5.9 per cent) and Port Augusta in South Australia (5.9 per cent), Moe – Newborough in Victoria (10.6 per cent) and Mount Isa in Queensland (10.4 per cent) have experienced significant population decline between 1991 and 2016. Regional centres experiencing population decline are generally isolated with relatively poor connectivity to capital cities (Martinez-Fernandez et al. 2012, p. 220). They also lack the scale to benefit from agglomerated industries and to move into fast growing service sectors. Furthermore, most of the people leaving are of working age (ABS 2017j). For remaining residents, population decline can see services provided to the community decline, which can reduce quality of life (Collits 2000).
Box 3.14 Population decline in Broken Hill
Located more than 1100 km from Sydney and more than 500 km from Adelaide by road, Broken Hill is an isolated regional centre in western New South Wales that has been experiencing significant population decline over recent decades. At its peak in the 1950s, Broken Hill was home to 30 000 people with over half of its employment in the mining industry. Currently, Broken Hill has a population of 18 000 people with employment in mining accounting for only 10 per cent of total employment (ABS 2017l).
The reduction in mining employment (due to a depleting mine and improved technology which requires fewer workers) has affected other businesses in the town and the number of businesses has been declining as Broken Hill loses mining, retail, transport and administrative services. The Broken Hill City Council has also been forced to undergo a major restructure and cut services in order to remain viable (Gooch 2016).
Utilising its natural advantages, Broken Hill has been part of the development of the largest solar power plant in the southern hemisphere and is set to become home to one of the largest wind farms in Australia. However, ongoing employment opportunities as a result of these developments will be small (AGL Energy 2017; Paton 2015).
Broken Hill’s isolation means it does not have the same connectivity as other regional centres and its relatively small size limits scope to move into other growth industries that generate employment. As such, transitioning away from mining employment to other industries with a large and stable employment base has been an ongoing challenge for the town.
The causes of population decline in isolated regional centres and internal migration to Australia’s small cities are somewhat different to those facing small towns in agricultural regions. In agricultural regions, declining smaller towns are a function of declining permanent agricultural employment and better transport connectivity. Migration patterns show that people in small agricultural towns have generally moved to larger urban centres within the same FER. By contrast, people who have left isolated regional centres with a declining population have had to move outside their FER.
Capital cities have experienced high population growth over the past 25 years. Growing demand for services and large increases in knowledgebased service employment has resulted in demographic change in Australia’s largest cities.
Many smaller cities and regional centres have also grown (in some cases more quickly than capital cities) due to movements of people from inland regions and the migration of families and retirees from capital cities. Connectivity to large cities and proximity to the coast are important drivers of the wellbeing of those living in smaller cities and regional centres.