Strengthening national biodiversity and forest carbon stock conservation through landscape-based collaborative management of Cambodia’s Protected Area System as demonstrated in the Eastern Plains Landscape (CAMPAS project)
Formal Education and Informal of Non-formal Education Formal Environmental Education Activities directly or indirectly related to formal environmental education include: curriculum and schools activities, training and capacity building workshops. Many of these activities are most traditionally linked with formal education in schools and universities. With the support of DEEC and a range of other partners the Ministry of Education Youth and Sport has been increasing the number of environmental topics in the curriculum.
Training is a major component of government and non-government activities alike, and as such there is an abundance of environmental training being given to participants by a large number of providers but with a great deal of variation in quality. Technical training aimed at developing environmentally sound practices contributes to improve the sustainability and productivity of resource based activities. However, for the interest of environmentally sound management and sustainability of natural resources it is vital that the quality of these trainings programs be assessed to ensure that the information provided and taught to participants is accurate and up-to-date, furthermore staff that are trained need supportive institutional structures and resources to effectively use these skills.
The focus of the DEEC Formal Education activities is through working with the Ministry of Education Youth and Sport (MoEYS) and the Flemish Association for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance (VVOB) for the integration or mainstreaming of environmental concepts into the curriculum. They are currently working with the National Institute of Education and potential support from UNESCO to revise adapt and test Biodiversity Learning kits to integrate Education for Sustainable Development into the curriculum. They also support this with an Environmental Education Primary School Teacher Guide, developed with Mlup Baitong, Save Cambodia’s Widllife and other partners. In-line with the ASEAN guidelines on Eco Schools (2013), they are piloting in Phnom Penh but there is potential for regional expansion, including Mondulkiri.
With limited resources the MoE Department of Environmental Education and Communication (DEEC) have developed a range of train the trainer materials on environmental topics that they use with teachers and key stakeholder representatives who then further spread the messages. They are also developing training or trainer materials on peace education as a tool in reducing natural resource conflict and promoting environmental management. In-line with the DEEC use of media for informal education, they have a well-trained broadcast unit and also conduct journalist trainings on environmental topics.
Non-formal and informal environmental education In addition to the above-mentioned initiatives in the formal education sector, the DEEC along with different ministries, international organizations, and international and local non-government organizations have carried out environmental activities in the non-formal (community and extra-curricula) and informal (media) education sectors, including the use of radio broadcasts, monk speeches, posters, TV, CDs VCDs and special events. Up to 80% of what we learn is done outside of formal education so it is a very important consideration for environmental education. The range of non-formal practitioners may not call what that they are doing environmental education but it can still be considered as such environmental education is diverse as the scope of environmental education is so broad. Some
These non-formal activities make up the bulk of environmental education in Cambodia. Non-formal environmental education initiatives are diverse. Current DEEC activities include: Print (MoE Environmental magazine, press releases, and articles for newspapers); Radio (support and involve in Mlup Baitong and radio call back shows – related to environmental issues); Television (debate program on environmental themes and video clips or documentaries); and website (new local language MoE website being developed – www.moe.gov.kh).
Information communications technology in Cambodia Cambodia has fully embraced information communication technology (ICT), through television, radio video, and mobile telephones. Some education campaigns have started to utilize ICT opportunities to spread key messages. While there are some televised environmental debates, environmental talk back on radio and videos with biodiversity related topics; it is the use of ICT on Health Education and Rural Development that has progressed most rapidly in Cambodia.
In Cambodia the ICT for Development (ICT4D) organization provides a platform to learn about positive ICT use in Cambodia. Marie Stopes recently won and innovation award for their use of Mobile Technology for Improved Family Planning Services (MOTIF) and Open Institute won an award for their use of “Structuring Partnerships for an Innovative Communications Environment” (SPICE). In relation to Biodiversity the Open Institute announced that SPICE and specifically the Interactive Voice Response (IVR) technology will “be used to help Cambodian ethnic minorities with unwritten languages hear the land law in their native languages. By creating an application that allows them to hear the law and an explanation, they will be able to better understand their land ownership rights” (ICT4D 2014). http://ict4dcambodia.org/?p=1081.
As part of their ICT Master Plan the Cambodian Ministry of Education Youth and Sport is seeking to enhance ‘information literacy’ and has used information communication technology to better manage its own operations. Teacher training centers have also included ICT training for all teachers since 2003 (MOEYS 2010). This serves as a potential model to enhance communication technologies for biodiversity and to better utilize ICT for the Ministry of Environment. Information communications technology is a field with significant potential for improving awareness of biodiversity values and promoting positive conservation and sustainable biodiversity use actions.
5 Population below international poverty line of USD 1.25 per day (%) 2007-2011
6 The UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre supports countries to address co-benefits in planning and implementing climate change mitigation measures, including REDD+. Support is adapted to the countries' needs and priorities, and includes maps on the distribution of carbon in relation to protected areas, biodiversity, and other ecosystem services. It also supports national efforts to prepare for REDD under the UN REDD Program.
7 The Forest Carbon Partnership Facility is a World Bank program that consists of a Readiness Fund and a Carbon Fund. FCPF assists developing countries to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, enhance and conserve forest carbon stocks, and sustainably manage forests (REDD+).
44 Cambodia’s priorities for GEF-5 under star-funding projects national project prioritization (July 2010 – June 2014), 2012
45 Royal Government of Cambodia’s Rectangular Strategy 2009-2013 (2004)
46 Aichi Biodiversity Targets are 20 ambitious goals that make up part of the CBD’s Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020, adopted in Nagoya, Japan, in 2010. The targets provide a framework for action by all stakeholders—including cities—to save biodiversity and enhance its benefits for people.
48 The International Tropical Timber Organization is an intergovernmental organization that promoted conservation of tropical forest resources and their sustainable management, use and trade
49 Partnership Against Transnational-crime through Regional Law-enforcement
50 Proclamations (Prakas): A proclamation is a ministerial or inter-ministerial decision signed by the relevant Minister(s)
51 Hansen, M. C., P. V. Potapov, R. Moore, M. Hancher, S. A. Turubanova, A. Tyukavina, D. Thau, S. V. Stehman, S. J. Goetz, T. R. Loveland, A. Kommareddy, A. Egorov, L. Chini, C. O. Justice, and J. R. G. Townshend. 2013. “High-Resolution Global Maps of 21st-Century Forest Cover Change.” Science 342 (15 November): 850–53. Data available on-line from:http://earthenginepartners.appspot.com/science-2013-global-forest.
52 Within this document, the term ‘Protected Area System or PAS’ refers jointly to areas under protection by MoE, FA, and FiA
53 Since 2001, the Cambodian National Biodiversity Steering Committee has functioned in support of national biodiversity, as opposed to just providing guidance into the implementation of projects
55 Project-sponsored action plan framework is developed through other funding sources
56 ‘Management of the Emerald Triangle Protected Forests Complex to Promote Cooperation for Trans-boundary Biodiversity Conservation between Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos’
57FLEGT - Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade
58 The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) presents the foundations of valuation of ecosystem services, dynamic interactions of people and ecosystems and their impacts on local communities, sub-national and national policy, and international agreements.
60 Royal Government of Cambodia’s Rectangular Strategy 2009-2013 (2004)
61 Biodiversity offsets such as those brought in to pursue of ‘no net loss of biodiversity’, as per International Financing Corporation (IFC) Performance Standard 6. Any IFC-funded projects in natural habitat must achieve “No Net Loss of Biodiversity where feasible”, this is defined by IFC as the point at which project-related impacts on biodiversity are balanced by measures taken to avoid and minimize the project’s impacts, to undertake on-site restoration and finally to offset significant residual impacts, if any, on an appropriate geographic scale (e.g. local, landscape-level, national, regional).
62 The SIPAR is a French NGO that works toward the reconstruction of Cambodia through education of the youth; its mission is to fight illiteracy.
63 UNODC, of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime is an office for drug control and crime prevention.
64Aichi Biodiversity Targets are 20 ambitious goals that make up part of the CBD’s Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020, adopted in Nagoya, Japan, in 2010.
65 Within this document, the term ‘Protected Area System or PAS’ refers jointly to areas under protection by MoE, FA, and FiA
66 The Cambodian national Biodiversity Steering Committee has been functioning since 2001 for biodiversity, as opposed to just projects