SUPERIOR FRICTION AND WEAR CONTROL IN ENGINES AND TRANSMISSIONS
ADMINISTRATIVE FINAL REPORT
Period: from Dec. 2001 to March 2007
Version 1.0 / 31.7.2007
This Report has been prepared by the Management Committee of the Action and was submitted to the COST Materials, Physical and Nanosciences domain in August, 2007.
Action Identification Data
COST Action 532
TRIBOSCIENCE AND TRIBOTECHNOLOGY:
SUPERIOR FRICTION AND WEAR CONTROL IN ENGINES AND TRANSMISSIONS
TC Recommendation: 28-29/05/2001
First MC meeting:22/03/2002
Last MC meeting:12/06/2007
Final Report:(day/month/year) (2)
Duration: 63 months
Evaluation Report:(day/month/year) (2)
Number of signatories: 28
Signatories and date of signature:
Serbia & Monte. 04/10/2004
Czech Rep. 17/05/2002
United Kingdom 10/04/2002
Institutes of non-COST countries:
Institute for Problems of Materials Science (Ukraine)
Oak Ridge National Laboratory/Department of Energy (USA)
Domain: Materials, Physical and Nanosciences (previous Materials)
Action Web site:http://ltds.ec-lyon.fr/cost532/
Prof. Kenneth Holmberg Tel.: 358 20 722 5370
VTT Industrial Systems Fax: 358 20 722 7077
P.O. Box 1000 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
FIN- 02044 VTT
TC Rapporteur:Dr. Axel Kranzmann, Germany
TC Rapporteur:Prof. Hugo Tass, Belgium (from start to spring 2006)
External Evaluator:Title, name, affiliation, country
External Evaluator:Title, name, affiliation, country
(1) Date of the first MC meeting.
(2) When the report is received by TC Secretariat
2. Objectives The main objective of the Action is to generate new scientific knowledge about the fundamental physical, chemical and mechanical phenomena governing friction, wear and lubrication. This knowledge will be used to develop novel low friction, wear control and environmentally adaptable lubrication solutions to solve the functionality of future engines and transmissions such as engines working with hydrogen fuels, micro-lubricated and dry lubricant free transmission applications.
The benefit of the action is that the engine and transmission producing industry in Europe, that is especially the automotive industry, but also other sectors such as ship and rail industry, power plants and automated production, will be better prepared to meet the new challenges presented by changes taking place in our society and will be competitive on a global scale in the future. The aim is that European related industry will have a leading role when developing more sustainable solutions in transportation and industrial production.
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION AND IMPLEMENTATION
The first call for project proposals was launched in April 2002. A large number of proposals was submitted, altogether 32 proposals with more than 50 research laboratories involved. In order to achieve a good interaction between fundamental research and applications to focus on the Management Committee decided after discussion at the evaluation meeting in Lyon 8.11.2002 to regroup the technical work and the projects in the following three working groups:
Working Group 1: ENGINE SYSTEMS, Coordinators: Amaya Igartua, ES and Kristian Tönder, NO. Research topics: low friction engines, environmental impact reduction, chemical factors in engine wear, microsurface triboeffects and wear reducing coatings.
Working Group 2: TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS, Coordinators: Jože Vižintin, SI and Marian Szczerek, PL. Research topics: oil-free powertrain, tribocomponents, springs and clutches, contact fracture and fatigue, high performance lubricants and thin PVD/CVD coatings for energy reduction.
Working Group 3: TRIBOCHEMISTRY, Coordinators: Sture Hogmark, SE, Jean-Pierre Celis, BE and Bojan Podgornik, SI. Research topics: lubricant/hard coating interaction, self-lubricating coatings, additive/surface interaction, water contaminant effect on fatigue, oxidation of non-toxic greases, tribo-corrosion and nano-structured coatings.
The new structure has turned out to be good as the two first working groups are application oriented and combine the scientific work around problems related to the two application areas. The third one is more scientifically oriented. It focuses on the main tribological challenge in this action, to find new and innovative tribological solutions by combining in a creative way the physical phenomena, the material behaviour and the chemical reactions and their interactions at the top surface where friction and wear takes place. The scientific topics mentioned in the MoU are integrated in these three working groups. The COST Materials Technical Committee approved the regrouping when accepting the Action Annual Report at its meeting in Berlin 3-4.11.2003.
The final status in the working groups is by the end of the Action the following:
- WG1 - ENGINE SYSTEMS: 11 projects, 8 of them were finished and total realisation was 92%. Total work effort was 34 person years. Funding was 2.491.000 Euro distributed as 56 % public, 18 % industrial and 26 % own funding and 19 companies were involved.
- WG2 – TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS: 17 projects, 9 of them were finished and total realisation was 92%. Total work effort was 143 person years. Funding was 7.369.000 Euro distributed as 40 % public, 30 % industrial and 30 % own funding and 47 companies were involved.
- WG3 – TRIBOCHEMISTRY: 14 projects, 11 of them were finished and total realisation was 93%. Total work effort was 83 person years. Funding was 2.233.000 Euro distributed as 42 % public, 25 % industrial and 33 % own funding and 37 companies were involved.
A full list of COST 532 projects and their status is in Appendix 1. A summary slide-show is in Appendix 2. New project proposals were accepted to end of 2005 and after that the Action was closed for new proposal submissions.
The COST 532 Action included a total work effort of 260 person years in 42 projects. The total funding was 12.093.000 Euro distributed as 43 % public, 27 % industrial and 30 % own funding and 103 companies, 58 universities and research institutes from 27 countries were involved in the project research work.
The work in the working groups was coordinated by the WG coordinators. Secretarial functions related to the meetings, STCM, budget etc was taken care of by the Scientific Officer at the COST Office. A responsible coordinator for the STSM was appointed. The vice-chairman was responsible for the action web site. The MC chairman and vice-chairman were coordinating the whole action.
HU Magosz National Association of Hungarian Engineering Industry
LI Balzers Liechtenstein
MT Surface Engineering Limited
SE GE Energy
SE Haldex Traction
SE Scania CV
SE Statoil Lubricants
SE SKF Engineering and Research Centre
SE SKF Sverige
SE Volvo Technology Corporation
SE Volvo Car Corporation, Transmission Development
SE Scania CV, Materials Technology
SK EKL-IN Slovakia
Meetings of the Management Committee
1st MC meeting: 22/03/2002, Brussels (BE), 29 participants from 19 countries
2nd MC meeting: 8/11/2002, Lyon (FR), 24 participants from 18 countries
3rd MC meeting: 3/10/2003, Radom (PL), 30 participants from 22 countries
4th MC meeting: 31/5/2004, Tromsö (NO), 22 participants from 18 countries
5th MC meeting: 17/10/2004, Ghent (BE), 30 participants from 23 countries
6th MC meeting: 18/02/2005, Prague (CZ), 28 participants from 22 countries
7th MC meeting: 15/10/2005, Porto (PT), 23 participants from 21 countries
8th MC meeting: 21/04/2006, Dubrovnik (HR), 35 participants from 18 countries
9th MC meeting: 03/11/2006, Uppsala (SE), 42 participants from 20 countries
10th MC meeting: 12/06/2007, Ljubljana (SI), 40 participants from 23 countries
Meetings of the Working Groups
Evaluation meeting: 7/11/2002, Lyon (FR), 22 participants from 17 countries
Kick-off meeting: 2/10/2003, Radom (PL), 35 participants from 22 countries
WG meetings: 19-20/2/2003, Brussels (BE), 29 participants from 20 countries
WG meetings: 1-3/6/2004, Tromsö (NO), 25 participants from 18 countries
WG meetings: 18-19/10/2004, Ghent (BE), 104 participants from 26 countries
WG meetings: 17/02/2005, Prague (CZ), 44 participants from 24 countries
WG meetings: 12-14/10/2005, Porto (PT), 95 participants from 26 countries
WG meetings: 19-20/04/2006, Dubrovnik (HR), 34 participants from 22 countries
WG meetings: 2/11/2007, Uppsala (SE), 42 participants from 20 countries
WG meetings: 12/06/2007, Ljubljana (SI), 210 participants from 35 countries
Short-term scientific missions (STSM)
Prof. Luis Ferreira was appointed responsible coordinator for the STSM and he, together with the three WG coordinators, formed the STSM Office that evaluated the applications and the reports. The following STCM:s were carried out:
1) Lidia Benea, University of Galati, Romania, 19.4.-18.5.2004 to Trento University, Italy,
2) Bojan Podgornik, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, 19-29.1.2004 to Uppsala Univ., Sweden,
3) Ivan Kramer, University of Zagreb, Croatia, 5-17.12.2004 to University of Bratislava, Slovakia, 4) Kresimir Grilec, University of Zagreb, 2-30.4.2004 to Inst. of Terotechnology, Radom, Poland,
5) Suzana Jakovljevic, University of Zagreb, Croatia, 17-30.4.2005 to VITO, Mol, Belgium,
6) Jarmila Trpcevska, University of Kosice, Slovakia, 28.6.-8.7.2005 to Univ. of Kielce, Poland,
7) Javier Barriga, Tekniker, Spain, 18-22.7.2005 to Haute Ecole, Le Loc, Switzerland,
8) Lidia Benea, University of Galati, Romania, 20.6.-19.7.2005 to Ecole Centrale de Paris, France,
9) Suzana Jakovljevic, University of Zagreb, Croatia, 10-23.9.2006 to VITO, Mol, Belgium,
10) Lidia Benea, University of Galati, Romania, 15.10.-18.11.2006 to Ecole Centrale de Paris, France and
11) Ann Tedesco Triccas, University of Malta, Malta, 11.11 – 25.11.2006 to University of Zagreb, Croatia.
5. SUMMARY OF RESULTS The COST 532 Action has focused European research work to solve friction, wear and lubrication related problems in engines and transmissions. The work was carried out in three working groups:
WG1 – ES Engine System with research and development activities focusing on low friction engines, chemical factors in engine wear, microsurface triboeffects, wear reducing coatings and environmental impact reduction.
WG2 – TS Transition Systems with research and development activities focusing on development of oil-free power train, contact fatigue and fracture, PVD/CVD coatings for energy reduction, high performance lubricants and development of new tribological solutions for components such as clutches, gears, brakes and springs.
WG3 – CH Tribochemistry with research and development activities focusing on lubricant-hard coating interaction, additive surface interaction, water contaminant effect on fatigue, oxidation effects, tribocorrosion, nanostructured coatings and self lubricating materials and coatings.
Major scientific results:
A scientific breakthrough was to clarify the basic mechanisms related to carbon-based low friction coatings in lubricated contacts. The one micrometer thick vacuum deposited diamond-like carbon surfaces can in dry conditions reduce the friction with up to two orders of magnitude. Now their interaction with lubricants and additives has been explained and new coating-additive chemical compositions were developed. The results were reported in 33 journal articles. Projects: CH5, CH7, TS2, TS4.
New nanocomposite, doped structured, multilayer and duplex coated surfaces for low wear applications in tools, machine parts and medical implants were developed, 34 journal articles, CH1, CH13, CH14, ES3, TS15, TS17.
New methods for coated surface optimisation by microFEM modelling and simulation, 9 journal articles, TS3.
New lubricant formulations for low friction, 13 journal articles, CH2.
New tribocorrosion surface protection methods, 8 journal articles, CH6, CH10.
New lubricant contamination and degradation (water, oxidation etc) control methods, 4 journal articles, CH3, CH4.
Much work was focused on improving the understanding of environmentally adaptable fluids in engines and transmissions. New techniques for emission reduction in engines by use of biogas, advanced lubricants, coatings and light weight materials were developed.
Major new technological solutions:
A detailed theoretical and experimental study on a new piston-ring design where the hydrodynamic microlubrication was generated by a textured topography containing microdimples resulted in 4 % fuel consumption reduction in engine tests, ES8.
Transmission systems were redesigned to improve the frictional conditions resulting in a power loss reduction of up to 74 %, TS1.
Improved understanding of engine friction and wear control by additive tribochemistry, fuel chemistry, contamination rate and surface texturing, ES1, ES2, ES5, ES8.
Fuel consumption and emission reduction in engines by use of biogas, advanced lubricants, coatings and light weight materials, ES6.
Tribological guidelines for improved wet clutch and brake performance, TS7, TS9, TS13.
New electromagnetic oil free cylinder head design, TS1.
New tribolgically improved grease composition for sliding springs in mechanical watches, TS11.
The results are benefited in new industrial products and improvements in production methods in the 103 companies directly involved in the research work. The 42 projects carried out have already by now when the 5 year Action comes to an end resulted in 32 industrial improvements in commercial use.
6. DISSEMINATION OF RESULTS
Publications and Reports
The technical and scientific results from the action are in detail reported in:
The Scientific Final Report, 346 pages,
The proceedings of the final reporting event, the ECOTRIB 2007 International Conference held in Ljubljana, Slovenia, 13-15.6.2007, 1078 pages,
Special Issue of the international refereed journal Wear, to appear 2008,
Special Issue of the international refereed journal Tribology International, to appear 2008,
Special Issue of the international refereed journal Tribotest, to appear 2008,
The proceedings of the Workshop in Ghent 18-19.10.2004, 298 pages,
The proceedings of the Workshop in Porto 13-14.10.2005, 248 pages,
A complete list of published reports is found in the Scientific Final Report for each project and at the Action web page. A proceedings on 289 pages including 29 technical presentations was published in connection with the Workshop in Ghent 18-19.10.2004. A proceedings on 248 pages including 28 technical presentations was published in connection with the Workshop in Porto 13-14.10.2005. A proceedings on 1078 pages including 108 technical presentations was published in connection with the Final Conference ECOTRIB 2007 in Ljubljana, Slovenia 13-15.6.2007.
Conferences and Workshops
The first COST 532 Workshop was held 18-20.10.2004 at Ghent University, Belgium, as a joint conference with EC 5th FP Oil-Free Powertrain group and the European Virtual Tribology Institute (VTI). The two first days were six invited keynote lectures and 23 technical reports presented. The presentations are documented in the conference proceedings. The third day was arranged by the VTI and it consisted of six special invited lectures related to Challenges in Surface Engineering and the lectures were followed by discussion sessions. The lectures were distributed as printed copies at the workshop. The joint conference was considered very successful as altogether 104 delegates from 26 countries participated.
The second COST 532 Workshop was held 12-14.10.2005 at Porto University, Portugal, as a joint conference with EC 5th FP Oil-Free Powertrain group and the Surface Texturing program of International Energy Agency Implementation Agreement for Advanced Material for Transportation (IEA IA AMT). The first day 15 invited papers were presented on the topic Surface texturing. The two following days were 8 invited keynote lectures and 27 technical reports presented. The presentations are documented in the conference proceedings. The joint conference was very successful as altogether 93 delegates from 26 countries participated.
The third COST 532 Final Reporting Workshop was held 12-15.6.2007 at Ljubljana University, Slovenia, as a joint conference with the ECOTRIB 2007 International Conference, the EC 5th FP Oil-Free Powertrain group and the Surface Texturing program of International Energy Agency Implementation Agreement for Advanced Material for Transportation (IEA IA AMT). The first day 9 invited papers were presented on the topic Surface texturing. The three following days were 15 invited keynote lectures, 91 technical reports and 18 posters presented. The presentations are documented in the conference proceedings. The joint conference was very successful as altogether 210 delegates from 35 countries participated.
The COST 532 homepage was central for the action communication. There is information about the action, guidelines for submitting proposals, evaluation information, information about STSM, information about next meetings, project status and results reports and other documentation. Ecole Centrale de Lyon manages the page: http://ltds.ec-lyon.fr/cost532/
Scientific and Technical Co-operation
In the 32 projects approved at the first evaluation meeting in November 2002 were the total number of partners 77, which shows that the projects already at the starting phase included a considerable pattern of cooperation. This has further developed and increased during the action as new countries and institutes have joined the action. By the end of the action it included 58 universities and research institutes and 103 companies.
The EC 5FP project “Oil-free powertrain” including a large consortium from Germany, Austria, Hungary and Czech Republic had objectives in line with the COST 532 action and was integrated in the action as project WG2/TS1. Joint workshops were arranged in October 2004, October 2005 and June 2007.
A joint workshop was arranged together with the EC funded Virtual Tribology Institute on Surface Engineering in Ghent, Belgium in October 2004.
In USA has the Department of Energy launched a research programme "Integrated Engineered Surface Technology to Reduce Friction and Increase Durability" that is coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and runs over the period 1.7.2004-1.6.2008. This program is the Annex IV within the International Energy Agency Implementation Agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (IEA IP AMT). The COST action decided about collaboration with this programme. The USA/ORNL applied to join the COST 532 action and their representatives were invited to MC meetings from 2004. Joint conferences were held in Porto, Portugal 12th October, 2005 and in Ljubljana, Slovenia 12th June, 2007.
Transfer of results
The transfer of results has mainly been done through the strong involvement of companies during the realisation of the research and development work, the annual open workshops and publications. At the joint Working Group meeting in Uppsala, 2nd November 2006 were 12 industrial improvements in commercial use generated from the research projects presented and discussed. By the end of the Action has the following industrial improvements in commercial use been reported:
Duplex coatings for tools and implant , Inst. Terotechnol., Poland – ES3
HVOF coatings, Tech. Univ. Kosice, Slovakia – ES7
Oil-free powertrain, Tech. Univ. München (Coord), Germany – TS1
Environmentally adapted lubricants, Luleå Univ., Sweden – CH12
Selflubricating nano-coating, Univ. Targu-Mores, Romania – CH13
Contacts in the ERA
The COST 532 action was in close connection with the EC funded Virtual Tribology Institute coordinated by VITO in Belgium and the EC 5th FP project Oil-Free Powertrain. The progress of the action was regularly reported to the International Tribology Council. The action was in cooperation with the activities of the EUREKA ENIWEP program and presentations on this were presented at the Workshop 14.10.2005, the MC meetings 15.10.2005 and 12.6.2007.
COST budget €
Total COST exp.
Action total manpower in person year
8. SELF EVALUATION
The COST 532 Action was considered very successful by the participants. In a very interdisciplinary field, such as tribology - involving material science, physics, chemistry and mechanical engineering - the achieved scientific and technological results would not have been possible without a large networked research activity. This kind of networking is, however, a slow process but the COST 532 could take advantage of the first stage of networking in the field taken place in the COST 516 Tribology Action carried out 1994-2000.
It is interesting that even a very small funding of only 401.000 € COST funding for the Action coordination can have such a large leverage resulting in a more than 12 million € research activity. The COST mechanism is considered very efficient as it in this case turned out in management costs being only 3% of the total research programme volume. This is, indeed, a very low number in international research programmes. The Management Committee strongly supports increased EC funding for this kind of efficient research networking and organisation activity.
Scientific and technical results
The Action resulted in major scientific results:
A scientific breakthrough was to clarify the basic mechanisms related to carbon-based low friction coatings in lubricated contacts. The one micrometer thick vacuum deposited diamond-like carbon surfaces can in dry conditions reduce the friction with up to two orders of magnitude. Now their interaction with lubricants and additives has been explained and new coating-additive chemical compositions were developed, 33 journal articles.
New nanocomposite, doped structured, multilayer and duplex coated surfaces for low wear applications in tools, machine parts and medical implants, 34 journal articles.
New methods for coated surface optimisation by microFEM modelling and simulation, 9 journal articles.
New lubricant formulations for low friction, 13 journal articles.
New tribocorrosion surface protection methods, 8 journal articles.
New lubricant contamination and degradation (water, oxidation etc) control methods, 4 journal articles.
Improved tribological properties of environmentally adaptable lubricants, 17 journal articles.
The action resulted in major technological new solutions:
4 % fuel reduction in engines by use of optimal designed micro-hydrodynamic lubrication by micro-dimples on cylindrical piston rings.
Up to 74 % reduction in transmission power loss by new gear tooth design for improved tribological performance.
Improved understanding of engine friction and wear control by additive tribochemistry, fuel chemistry, contamination rate and surface texturing.
Fuel consumption and emission reduction in engines by use of biogas, advanced lubricants, coatings and light weight materials.
Tribological guidelines for improved wet clutch and brake performance.
New electromagnetic oil free cylinder head design.
New tribolgically improved grease composition for sliding springs in mechanical watches.
The results are benefited in new industrial products and improvements in production methods in the 103 companies involved in the research work. The 42 projects carried out have already by now when the 5 year Action comes to an end resulted in 32 industrial improvements in commercial use.
Three Workshops and Conference were arranged, 2004 in Ghent, Belgium, 2005 in Porto, Portugal and 2007 in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The Workshops were arranged jointly with the European Virtual Tribology Institute, the EU 5th FP project Oil-free powertrain, National Institute of Standards and Technology coordinating the programme on Surface Texturing under the US Department of Energy and the EUREKA ENIWEB programme. All three workshops were well attended with 100-200 participants and were of very high scientific level including highly ranked experts from e.g. Australia, Japan, China, USA, Canada, Korea in addition to the European scientists.
The best 51 papers presented at the Final COST532 and ECOTRIB 2007 Conference were chosen to be published in Special Issues of three highly ranked peer reviewed tribology journals: Wear, Tribology International and Tribotest.
The reporting activity was extremely good. The project results were documented and published in 628 reports. As many as 166 of them are published in international peer reviewed journals, 318 in proceedings of international conferences and 144 as national reports.
There was a quick starting up of the action after it was officially launched in early 2002. The first call for project proposals resulted in 32 submitted proposals from 15 different countries including altogether 77 project partners. The action included all together 58 universities and research institutes and 103 companies. The European dimension was very good as the action included 30 countries, 27 of them from Europe and in addition Ukraine, Israel and USA.
There was some unfortunate delay because of the COST budgetary restrictions in 2003 which delayed the first kick-off meeting with 6 months and resulted in limitations in number of delegates that could be reimbursed both at the first kick-off meeting and the first working group meetings. However, the delay was in many projects used for funding arrangements so the effect was not serious.
To ensure the transformation of the results to the European industry there was a large number of companies involved. Eleven STSM:s were carried out and this turned out to be an important instrument for improving the contacts between partners.
The action was carried out as a successful large European tribology research and networking activity according to the action plan and schedule.
Appendix 1: Project Status Summary / 4.6.2007
Appendix 2: COST 532 Final Report / 12.6.2007, Slide-show
Appendix 3: Highlights of Scientific and Technical Results / 12.9.007, Slide-show
COST 222/03 dm
COST 532 Administrative Final Report, Dec. 2001-March 2007, Version 1.0 / 31.7.2007