All About Coffee



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CHAPTER XX

CULTIVATION OF THE COFFEE PLANT

The early days of coffee culture in Abyssinia and Arabia--Coffee cultivation in general--Soil, climate, rainfall, altitude, propagation, preparing the plantation, shade, wind breaks, fertilizing, pruning, catch crops, pests, and diseases--How coffee is grown around the world--Cultivation in all the principal producing countries Page 197

CHAPTER XXI

PREPARING GREEN COFFEE FOR MARKET

Early Arabian methods of preparation--How primitive devices were replaced by modern methods--A chronological story of the development of scientific plantation machinery, and the part played by English and American inventors--The marvelous coffee package, one of the most ingenious in all nature--How coffee is harvested--Picking--Preparation by the dry and the wet methods--Pulping--Fermentation and washing--Drying--Hulling, or peeling, and polishing--Sizing, or grading--Preparation methods of different countries Page 245

CHAPTER XXII

THE PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF COFFEE

A statistical study of world production of coffee by countries--Per capita figures of the leading consuming countries--Coffee-consumption figures compared with tea-consumption figures in the United States and the United Kingdom--Three centuries of coffee trading--Coffee drinking in the United States, past and present--Reviewing the 1921 trade in the United States Page 273

CHAPTER XXIII

HOW GREEN COFFEES ARE BOUGHT AND SOLD

Buying coffee in the producing countries--Transporting coffee to the consuming markets--Some record coffee cargoes shipped to the United States--Transport over seas--Java coffee "ex-sailing vessels"--Handling coffee at New York, New Orleans, and San Francisco--The coffee exchanges of Europe and the United States--Commission men and brokers--Trade and exchange contracts for delivery--Important rulings affecting coffee trading--Some well-known green coffee marks Page 303

CHAPTER XXIV

GREEN AND ROASTED COFFEE CHARACTERISTICS

The trade values, bean characteristics, and cup merits of the leading coffees of commerce, with a "Complete Reference Table of the Principal Kinds of Coffee Grown in the World"--Appearance, aroma, and flavor in cup-testing--How experts test coffee--A typical sample-roasting and cup-testing outfit Page 341

CHAPTER XXV

FACTORY PREPARATION OF ROASTED COFFEE

Coffee roasting as a business--Wholesale coffee-roasting machinery--Separating, milling, and mixing or blending green coffee, and roasting by coal, coke, gas, and electricity--Facts about coffee roasting--Cost of roasting--Green-coffee shrinkage table--"Dry" and "wet" roasts--On roasting coffee efficiently--A typical coal roaster--Cooling and stoning--Finishing or glazing--Blending roasted coffees--Blends for restaurants--Grinding and packaging--Coffee additions and fillers--Treated coffees, and dry extracts Page 379

CHAPTER XXVI

WHOLESALE MERCHANDISING OF COFFEE

How coffees are sold at wholesale--The wholesale salesman's place in merchandising--Some coffee costs analyzed--Handy coffee-selling chart--Terms and credits--About package coffees--Various types of coffee containers--Coffee package labels--Coffee package economies--Practical grocer helps--Coffee sampling--Premium method of sales promotion Page 407

CHAPTER XXVII

RETAIL MERCHANDISING OF ROASTED COFFEE

How coffees are sold at retail--The place of the grocer, the tea and coffee dealer, the chain store, and the wagon-route distributer in the scheme of distribution--Starting in the retail coffee business--Small roasters for retail dealers--Model coffee departments--Creating a coffee trade--Meeting competition--Splitting nickels--Figuring costs and profits--A credit policy for retailers--Premiums Page 415

CHAPTER XXVIII

A SHORT HISTORY OF COFFEE ADVERTISING

Early coffee advertising--The first coffee advertisement in 1587 was frank propaganda for the legitimate use of coffee--The first printed advertisement in English--The first newspaper advertisement--Early advertisements in colonial America--Evolution of advertising--Package coffee advertising--Advertising to the trade--Advertising by means of newspapers, magazines, billboards, electric signs, motion pictures, demonstrations, and by samples--Advertising for retailers--Advertising by government propaganda--The Joint Coffee Trade publicity campaign in the United States--Coffee advertising efficiency Page 431

CHAPTER XXIX

THE COFFEE TRADE IN THE UNITED STATES

The coffee business started by Dorothy Jones of Boston--Some early sales--Taxes imposed by Congress in war and peace--The first coffee-plantation-machine, coffee-roaster, coffee-grinder, and coffee-pot patents--Early trade marks for coffee--Beginnings of the coffee urn, the coffee container, and the soluble-coffee business--Chronological record of the most important events in the history of the trade from the eighteenth century to the twentieth Page 467

CHAPTER XXX

DEVELOPMENT OF THE GREEN AND ROASTED COFFEE BUSINESS IN THE UNITED STATES

A brief history of the growth of coffee trading--Notable firms and personalities that have played important parts in green coffee in the principal coffee centers--Green coffee trade organizations--Growth of the wholesale coffee-roasting trade, and names of those who have made history in it--The National Coffee Roasters Association--Statistics of distribution of coffee-roasting establishments in the United States Page 475

CHAPTER XXXI

SOME BIG MEN AND NOTABLE ACHIEVEMENTS

B.G. Arnold, the first, and Hermann Sielcken, the last of the American "coffee kings"--John Arbuckle, the original package-coffee man--Jabez Burns, the man who revolutionized the roasted-coffee business by his contributions as inventor, manufacturer, and writer--Coffee trade booms and panics--Brazil's first valorization enterprise--War-time government control of coffee--The story of soluble coffee Page 517

CHAPTER XXXII

A HISTORY OF COFFEE IN LITERATURE

The romance of coffee, and its influence on the discourse, poetry, history, drama, philosophic writing, and fiction of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and on the writers of today--Coffee quips and anecdotes Page 541

CHAPTER XXXIII

COFFEE IN RELATION TO THE FINE ARTS

How coffee and coffee drinking have been celebrated in painting, engraving, sculpture, caricature, lithography, and music--Epics, rhapsodies, and cantatas in praise of coffee--Beautiful specimens of the art of the potter and the silversmith as shown in the coffee service of various periods in the world's history--Some historical relics Page 587

CHAPTER XXXIV

THE EVOLUTION OF COFFEE APPARATUS

Showing the development of coffee-roasting, coffee-grinding, coffee-making, and coffee-serving devices from the earliest time to the present day--The original coffee grinder, the first coffee roaster, and the first coffee pot--The original French drip pot, the De Belloy percolator--Count Rumford's improvement--How the commercial coffee roaster was developed--The evolution of filtration devices--The old Carter "pull-out" roaster--Trade customs in New York and St. Louis in the sixties and seventies--The story of the evolution of the Burns roaster--How the gas roaster was developed in France, Great Britain, and the United States Page 615

CHAPTER XXXV

WORLD'S COFFEE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS

How coffee is roasted, prepared, and served in all the leading civilized countries--The Arabian coffee ceremony--The present-day coffee houses of Turkey--Twentieth century improvements in Europe and the United States Page 655

CHAPTER XXXVI

PREPARATION OF THE UNIVERSAL BEVERAGE

The evolution of grinding and brewing methods--Coffee was first a food, then a wine, a medicine, a devotional refreshment, a confection, and finally a beverage--Brewing by boiling, infusion, percolation, and filtration--Coffee making in Europe in the nineteenth century--Early coffee making in the United States--Latest developments in better coffee making--Various aspects of scientific coffee brewing--Advice to coffee lovers on how to buy coffee, and how to make it in perfection Page 693

A COFFEE CHRONOLOGY

Giving dates and events of historical interest in legend, travel, literature, cultivation, plantation treatment, trading, and in the preparation and use of coffee from the earliest time to the present Page 725

A COFFEE BIBLIOGRAPHY

A list of references gathered from the principal general and scientific libraries--Arranged in alphabetic order of topics Page 738

INDEX Page 769

[Illustration]

ILLUSTRATIONS



Color Plates

Facing page

Coffee branches, flowers, and fruit (painted by Blendon Campbell) Frontispiece v



Coffea arabica; leaves, flowers, and fruit (painted by M.E. Eaton) 1

The coffee tree bears fruit, leaf, and blossom at the same time 16

A close-up of ripe coffee berries 32

Coffee under the Stars and Stripes 144

Coffee scenes in British India 160

Picking and sacking coffee in Brazil 176

Mild-coffee culture and preparation 192

Coffee scenes in Java 200

Coffee scenes in Sumatra 216

Coffee preparation in Central and South America 248

Typical coffee scenes in Costa Rica 336

Principal varieties of green-coffee beans, natural size and color 352

Coal-roasting plant, New York 408

Coffee scenes in the Near and Far East 544

Primitive transportation methods, Arabia 640

Hulling coffee in Aden, Arabia 656



Black and White Illustrations

Page

Coffee tree in flower 4

De Clieu and his coffee plant 7

Legendary discovery of coffee drink 10

Title page of Dufour's book 13

Frontispiece from Dufour's book 15

Turkish coffee house, 17th century 21

Serving coffee to a guest, Arabia 23

First printed reference to coffee 24

An 18th-century Italian coffee house 26

Nobility in an early Venetian café 27

Goldoni in a Venetian coffee house 28

Florian's famous coffee house 29

Title page of La Roque's work 32

Coffee tree as pictured by La Roque 32

Coffee branch in La Roque's work 33

First printed reference in English 37

Reference in Sherley's travels 39

References in Biddulph's travels 40

Mol's coffee house at Exeter 41

Reference in Sandys' travels 42

Richter's coffee house, Leipsic 46

Coffee house, Germany, 17th century 47

Kolschitzky in his Blue Bottle coffee house 48

First coffee house in Leopoldstadt 50

Statue of Kolschitzky 51

First advertisement for coffee 55

First newspaper advertisement 57

Coffee house, time of Charles II 60

London coffee house, 17th century 61

Coffee house, Queen Anne's time 62

Coffee-house keepers' tokens (plate 1) 63

A broadside of 1663 64

Coffee-house keepers' tokens (plate 2) 65

A broadside of 1667 68

A broadside of 1670 70

A broadside of 1672 70

A broadside of 1674 71

White's and Brooke's coffee houses 78

London coffee-house politicians 78

Great Fair on the frozen Thames 79

Lion's head at Button's 80

Trio of notables at Button's 81

Vauxhall Gardens on a gala night 82

Rotunda in Ranelagh Gardens 83

Garraway's coffee house 84

Button's coffee house 84

Slaughter's coffee house 85

Tom's coffee house 85

Lloyd's coffee house 86

Dick's coffee house 87

Grecian coffee house 87

Don Saltero's coffee house 88

British coffee house 88

French coffee house in London 89

Ramponaux' Royal Drummer café 90

La Foire St.-Germain 92

Street coffee vender of Paris 92

Armenian decorations in Paris café 93

Corner of historic Café de Procope 93

Café de Procope, Paris 95

Cashier's desk in coffee house, Paris 96

Café Foy 97

Café des Mille Colonnes 99

Café de Paris 101

Interior of a typical Parisian café 103

Chess at the Café de la Régence 104

Types of colonial coffee roasters 106

Early family coffee roaster 106

Historic relics, early New England 107

Mayflower "coffee grinder" 108

Crown coffee house, Boston 108

Coffee devices, Massachusetts colony 109

Coffee devices of western pioneers 110

Coffee pots of colonial days 110

Green Dragon tavern, Boston 111

Metal coffee pots, New York colony 112

Exchange coffee house, Boston 113

President-elect Washington's official welcome at Merchants Coffee House 114

King's Arms coffee house, New York 116

Burns coffee house 117

Merchants coffee house 119

Tontine coffee house 121

Tontine building of 1850 122

Niblo's Garden 122

Coffee relics, Dutch New York 122

New York's Vauxhall Garden of 1803 123

Tavern and grocers' signs, old New York 124

Second London coffee house, Philadelphia 127

Selling slaves, old London coffee house 128

City tavern, Philadelphia 129

Coffee-house scene in "Hamilton" 130

Coffee tree, flowers and fruit 132

Germination of the coffee plant 133

Brazil coffee plantation in flower 134

Coffea arabica, Porto Rico 135

Coffea arabica, flower and fruit, Costa Rica 135

Young Coffea arabica, Kona, Hawaii 136

Survivors of first Liberian trees in Java 136

Coffea arabica in flower, Java 137

Liberian coffee tree, Lamoa, P.I. 138



Coffea congensis, 2-1/2 years old 138

Flowering of 5-year-old Coffea excelsa 139

Branches of Coffea excelsa 140

Coffea stenophylla 140

Near view of Coffea arabica berries 141

Wild caffein-free coffee tree 142

Coffee bean characteristics 142



Coffea arabica berries 143

Robusta coffee in flower 144

One-year-old robusta estate 145



Coffea Quillou flowers 146

Quillou coffee tree in blossom 147

Coffea Ugandæ 148

Coffea arabica under the microscope 149

Cross-section of coffee bean 150

Cross-section of hull and bean 150

Epicarp and pericarp under microscope 151

Endocarp and endosperm under microscope 152

Spermoderm under microscope 152

Tissues of embryo under microscope 152

Coffee-leaf disease under microscope 153

Green and roasted coffee under microscope 153

Green and roasted Bogota under microscope 154

Cross-section of endosperm 156

Portion of the investing membrane 157

Structure of the green bean 157

Ground coffee under microscope 167

Coffee tree in bearing, Lamoa, P.I. 196

Early coffee implements 198

Cross-section of mountain slope, Yemen 198

First steps in coffee-growing 199

Coffee nursery, Guatemala 200

Coffee under shade, Porto Rico 201

Boekit Gompong estate, Sumatra 202

Estate in Antioquia, Colombia 203

Weeding and harrowing, São Paulo 204

Fazenda Dumont, São Paulo 205

Fazenda Guatapara, São Paulo 206

Picking coffee, São Paulo 207

Intensive cultivation, São Paulo 207

Private railroad, São Paulo 208

Coffee culture in São Paulo 209

Heavily laden coffee tree, Bogota 210

Picking coffee, Bogota 211

Altamira Hacienda, Venezuela 212

Carmen Hacienda, Venezuela 213

Heavy fruiting, Coffea robusta, Java 214

Road through coffee estate, Java 215

Native picking coffee, Sumatra 216

Administrator's bungalow, Java 216

Administrator's bungalow, Sumatra 217

Coffee culture in Guatemala 218

Indians picking coffee, Guatemala 219

Bungalow, coffee estate, Guatemala 220

Thirty-year-old coffee trees, Mexico 221

Mexican coffee picker 222

Receiving coffee, Mexico 223

Heavily laden coffee tree, Porto Rico 224

Coffee cultivation, Costa Rica 225

Picking Costa Rica coffee 226

Mountain coffee estate, Costa Rica 226

Mysore coffee estate 227

Coffee growing under shade, India 228

Coffee estate at Harar 229

Wild coffee near Adis Abeba 231

Mocha coffee growing on terraces 232

Picking Blue Mountain berries, Jamaica 233

Coffee pickers, Guadeloupe 234

Coffee in blossom, Panama 235



Robusta coffee, Cochin-China 237

Bourbon trees, French Indo-China 238

Picking coffee in Queensland 239

Coffee in bloom, Kona, Hawaii 240

Coffee at Hamakua, Hawaii 241

Coffee trees, South Kona, Hawaii 242

Plantation near Sagada, P.I. 243

Coffee preparation, São Paulo 244

Walker's original disk pulper 246

Early English coffee peeler 246

Group of English cylinder pulpers 247

Copper covers for pulper cylinders 248

Granada unpulped coffee separator 249

Hand-power double-disk pulper 249

Tandem coffee pulper 250

Horizontal coffee washer 251

Vertical coffee washer 251

Cobán pulper, Venezuela 252

Niagara power coffee huller 252

British and American coffee driers 253

American Guardiola drier 254

Smout peeler and polisher 254

Smout peeler and polisher, exposed 255

O'Krassa's coffee drier 255

Six well-known hullers and separators 256

El Monarca coffee classifier 257

Hydro-electric installation, Guatemala 258

Preparing Brazil coffee for market 259

Working coffee on the drying flats 260

Fermenting and washing tanks, São Paulo 260

Drying grounds, Fazenda Schmidt 261

Preparing Colombian coffee for market 262

Old-fashioned ox-power huller 263

Street-car coffee transport, Orizaba 264

Coffee on drying floors, Porto Rico 264

Sun-drying coffee 265

Drying patio, Costa Rica 266

Early Guardiola steam drier 266

Indian women cleaning Mocha coffee 267

Cleaning-and-grading machinery, Aden 268

Drying coffee at Harar 269

Preparing Java coffee for market 270

Coffee transport in Java 271

Meeting of Amsterdam coffee brokers, 1820 291

Bill of public sale of coffee, 1790 292

Last sample before export, Santos 304

Stamping bags for export 304

Preparing Brazil coffee for export 305

Grading coffee at Santos 306

The test by the cups, Santos 306

New York importers' warehouse, Santos 307

Pack-mule transport in Venezuela 308

Coffee-carrying cart, Guatemala 308

Pack-oxen fording stream, Colombia 308

Coffee transport, Mexico and South America 309

Donkey coffee-transport at Harar 310

Coffee camels at Harar 310

Selling coffee by tapping hands, Aden 310

Packing and transporting coffee, Aden 311

Coffee camel train at Hodeida 312

Methods of loading coffee, Santos 313

Coffee freighter, Cauca River, Colombia 314

Coffee steamers on the Magdalena 314

Loading heavy cargo on Santa Cecilia 315

Unloading Java coffee from sailing vessel 317

Receiving piers for coffee, New York 318

Unloading coffee, covered pier, New York 319

Receiving and storing coffee, New York 320

Tester at work, Bush Terminal, New York 321

Loading lighters, Bush Docks, Brooklyn 321

New Terminal system on Staten Island 322

Motor tractor, Bush piers 322

Unloading with modern conveyor 323

Coffee handling, New Orleans piers 324

Coffee in steel-covered sheds, New Orleans 325

Unloading and storing coffee, San Francisco 326

Modern device for handling green coffee 327

Handling green coffee at European ports 328

New York Coffee and Sugar Exchange 329

Coffee section, Coffee and Sugar Exchange 330

Blackboards, Coffee Exchange 331

"Coffee afloat" blackboard 332

Well known green-coffee marks 339

Bourbon-Santos beans, roasted 343

Flat and Bourbon-Santos beans, roasted 343

Rio beans, roasted 343

Mexican beans, roasted 347

Guatemala beans, roasted 347

Bogota (Colombia) beans, roasted 348

Maracaibo beans, roasted 349

Mocha beans, roasted 351

Washed Java beans, roasted 353

Sample-roasting and cup-testing outfit 357

Modern gas coffee-roasting plant 380

Sixteen-cylinder coal roasting plant 382

Green-coffee separating and milling machines 384

English gas coffee-roasting plant 385

German gas coffee-roasting plant 386

French gas coffee-roasting plant 387

Jumbo coffee roaster, Arbuckle plant 388

Roasting plant of Reid, Murdoch & Co. 389

Complete gas coffee-plant installation 390

Burns Jubilee gas roaster 391

Burns coal roaster 392

Open perforated cylinder with flexible back head 392

Trying the roast 394

Monitor gas roaster 394

A group of roasting-room accessories 394

Dumping the roast 395

A four-bag coffee finisher 396

Burns sample-coffee roaster 396

Lambert coal coffee-roasting outfit 397

Coles No. 22 grinding mill 398

Monitor coffee-granulating machine 398

Challenge pulverizer 398

Burns No. 12 grinding mill 399

Monitor steel-cut grinder, separator, etc 399

Johnson carton-filling, weighing, and sealing machine 400

Ideal steel-cut mill 400

Smyser package-making and filling machine 401

Automatic coffee-packing machine 402

Complete coffee-cartoning outfit 403

Automatic coffee-weighing machines 404

Units in manufacture of soluble coffee 405

Types of coffee containers 411

Fresh-roasted-coffee idea in retailing 414

Premium tea and coffee dealer's display 416

Chain-store interior 417

Familiar A & P store front 418

Specialist idea in coffee merchandising 419

Monitor gas roaster, cooler, and stoner 420

Royal gas coffee roaster for retailers 420

Burns half-bag roaster, cooler, and stoner 421

Lambert Jr. roasting outfit for retailers 421

Faulder and Simplex gas roasters 422

Coffee roasters used in Paris shops 423

Small German roasters 424

Popular French retail roaster 424

Uno cabinet gas roaster and cooler 424

Educational window exhibit 425

Better-class American grocery, interior 426

Prize-winning window display 427

Americanized English grocer's shop 429

Famous package coffees 430

First coffee advertisement in U.S. 433

Coffee advertisement of 1790 434

First colored handbill for package coffee 435

Reverse side of colored handbill 435

St. Louis handbill of 1854 436

Advertising-card copy, 1873 437

Handbill copy of the seventies 437

Box-end sticker, 1833 438

Chase & Sanborn advertisement, 1888 438

A Goldberg cartoon, 1910 439

Copy used by Chase & Sanborn, 1900 439

An effective cut-out 442

How coffee is advertised to the trade 443

Joint Coffee Trade Publicity Committee 447

Magazine and newspaper copy, 1919 449

Copy that stressed helpfulness of coffee, 1919-20 450

Joint Committee's house organ 451

Introductory medical-journal copy 451

Telling the doctors the truth, 1920 452

Joint Committee's attractive booklets 453

More medical journal copy, 1920 454

Magazine and newspaper copy, 1921 455

Educating the doctor, 1922 456

Magazine and newspaper copy, 1922 457

Specimen of early Yuban copy 459

Historical association in advertising 459

Package coffee advertising in 1922 460

The social distinction argument 461

Drawing upon history for atmosphere 461

An impressive electric sign, Chicago 462

How coffee is advertised outdoors 463

Attractive car cards, spring of 1922 464

Effective iced-coffee copy 465

European advertising novelty, New York 465

Coenties Slip, in days of sailing vessels 466

First U.S. coffee-grinder patent 469

Carter's Pull-out roaster patent 469

First registered trade mark for coffee 470

Original Arbuckle coffee packages 471

Merchants coffee house tablet 473

Departed dominant figures in New York green coffee trade 476

"Their association with New York green coffee trade dates back nearly fifty years" 477

Green coffee trade-builders who have passed on 478

"Their race is run, their course is done" 479

112 Front Street, New York, 1879 480

At 87 Wall Street, New York, years ago 480

Wall and Front Streets, New York, 1922 481

Front Street, New York, 1922 483

In the New Orleans coffee district 486

Green coffee district, New Orleans 487

California Street, San Francisco 488

San Francisco's coffee district 489

Pioneer coffee roasters, New York City 493

Oldtime New York coffee roasters 495

Pioneer coffee roasters of the North and East, U.S. 500

Pioneer coffee roasters of the South and West, U.S. 504

Ground coffee price list of 1862 507

Organization convention, N.C.R.A., 1911 510

Former presidents, N.C.R.A. 512

Earliest coffee manuscript 540

Song from "The Coffee House" 555

Dr. Johnson's seat, the Cheshire Cheese 567

Original coffee room, old Cock Tavern 568

Morning gossip in the coffee room 569

"His Warmest Welcome at an Inn" 571

Alexander Pope at Button's, 1730 577

Dutch coffee house, 1650 (by Van Ostade) 586

White's coffee house, 1733 (by Hogarth) 588

Tom King's, 1738 (by Hogarth) 589

Petit Déjeuner (by Boucher) 590

Coffee service in the home of Madame de Pompadour (by Van Loo) 590

Madame Du Barry (by Decreuse) 591

Coffee house at Cairo (by Gérôme) 592

Kaffeebesuch (by Philippi) 593

Coffee comes to the aid of the Muse (by Ruffio) 593

Mad dog in a coffee house (by Rowlandson) 594

Napoleon and the Curé (by Charlet) 595

Coffee, a chanson (music by Colet) 596

Statue of Kolschitzky 597

Betty's Aria, Bach's coffee cantata 598

Café Pedrocchi, Padua 599

Coffee grinder set with jewels 600

Italian wrought-iron coffee roaster 600

Seventeenth-century tea and coffee pots 601

Lantern coffee pot, 1692 602

Folkingham pot, 1715-16 602

Wastell pot, 1720-21 603

Dish of coffee-boy design, 1692 603

Chinese porcelain coffee pot 604

Silver coffee pots, early 18th century 604

Silver coffee pots, 18th century 605

Pottery and porcelain pots 606

Silver coffee pots, late 18th century 607

Porcelain pots, Metropolitan Museum 608

Vienna coffee pot, 1830 609

Spanish coffee pot, 18th century 609

Silver coffee pots in American collections 610

Coffee pot by Win. Shaw and Wm. Priest 611

Pot of Sheffield plate, 18th century 611

Pot by Ephraim Brasher 611

French silver coffee pot 612

Green Dragon tavern coffee urn 612

Coffee pots by American silversmiths 613

Twentieth-century American coffee service 613

Turkish coffee set, Peter collection 614

Oldest coffee grinder 616

Grain mill used by Greeks and Romans 616

First coffee roaster 616

First cylinder roaster, 1650 616

Historical relics, U.S. National Museum 617

Turkish coffee mill 618

Early French wall and table grinders 618

Bronze and brass mortars, 17th century 619

Early American coffee roasters 619

Roaster with three-sided hood 620

Roasting, making, and serving devices, 17th century 620

English and French coffee grinders 621

Eighteenth-century roaster 621

Original French drip pot 621

Belgian, Russian, and French pewter pots 622

17th and 18th century pewter pots 623

Count Rumford's percolator 623

Drawings of early French coffee makers 624

Early French filtration devices 624

Early American coffee-maker patents 625

French coffee makers, 19th century 625

First English commercial roaster patent 626

Early French coffee-roasting machines 627

Battery of Carter pull-out machines 628

Early English and American roasters 630

Early Foreign and American coffee-making devices 632

Dakin roasting machine of 1848 633

Globe stove roaster of 1860 634

Hyde's combined roaster and stove 634

Original Burns roaster, 1864 635

Burns granulating mill, 1872-74 636

Napier's vacuum machine 637

German gas and coal roasting machines 638

Other German coffee roasters 639

Original Enterprise mill 640

Max Thurmer's quick gas roaster 640

An English gas coffee-roasting plant 641

French globular roaster 642

Sirocco machine (French) 642

English roasting and grinding equipment 643

Magic gas machine (French) 644

Burns Jubilee gas machine 644

Double gas roasting outfit (French) 645

Lambert's Victory gas machine 646

One of the first electric mills 647

English electric-fuel roaster 648

Ben Franklin electric coffee roaster 648

Enterprise hand store mill 649

Latest types electric store mills 650

Italian rapid coffee-making machines 651

Working of Italian rapid machines 652

La Victoria Arduino Mignonne 652

N.C.R.A. Home coffee mill 653

Manthey-Zorn rapid infuser and dispenser 653

Tricolette, single-cup filter device 654

Moorish coffee house in Algiers 656

Coffee house in Cairo 656

Coffee service in Cairo barber shop 657

Coffee-laden camels, Arabia 658

Arabian coffee house 658

Mahommedan brewing coffee for guest 659

Native café, Harar 661

Early coffee, tea, and chocolate service 661

Nubian slave girl with coffee service 662

Persian coffee service, 1737 663

In a Turkish coffee house 664

Roasting coffee outside a Turkish café 664

Turkish caffinet, early 19th century 665

Coffee-making in Turkey 666

Street coffee vender in the Levant 666

A coffee house in Syria 667

Cafetan--garb of oriental café-keeper 668

Street coffee service in Constantinople 668

Riverside café in Damascus 669

Coffee al fresco in Jerusalem 671

Café Schrangl, Vienna 672

Favorite English way of making coffee 673

A café of Ye Mecca Company, London 673

Groom's coffee house, London 674

Café Monico, Piccadilly Circus, London 674

Gatti's, The Strand, London 675

Tea lounge, Hotel Savoy, London 675

Two popular places for coffee in London 676

Temple Bar restaurant, London 677

Tea balcony, Hotel Cecil, London 677

One of Slater's chain-shops, London 677

St. James's restaurant, Picadilly, London 678

An A.B.C. shop, London 678

Halt of caravaners at a serai, Bulgaria 678

Café de la Paix, Paris 679

Sidewalk annex, Café de la Paix 680

Café de la Régence, Paris 681

Café de la Régence in 1922 682

One of the Biard cafés, Paris 683

Restaurant Procope, 1922 683

Morning coffee at a Boulevard café 684

Café Bauer, Unter den Linden, Berlin 684

Café Bauer, exterior 685

Kranzler's Unter den Linden, Berlin 685

Swedish coffee boilers 687

Sidewalk café, Lisbon 687

Coffee rooms replacing hotel bars, U.S. 688

Britannia coffee pot--a Lincoln relic 690

Coffee service, Hotel Astor, New York 691

Early coffee-making in Persia 694

Napier vacuum coffee maker 700

Napier-List steam coffee machine 700

Finley Acker's filter-paper coffee pot 700

Kin-Hee pot in operation 701

Tricolator in operation 701

King percolator 701

Three American coffee-making machines in operation 702

How the Tru-Bru pot operates 702

Coffee-making devices used in U.S. 703

English hotel coffee-making machines 706

Well-known makes of large coffee urns 707

Popular German drip pot 708

Section of roasted bean, magnified 719

Cross-section of roasted bean, magnified 720

Coarse grind under the microscope 720

Medium grind under the microscope 721

Fine-meal grind under the microscope 721

Portraits

Ach, F.J. 447, 512

Akers, Fred 495

Ames, Allan P. 447

Arbuckle, John 523

Arnold, Benjamin Greene 476, 517

Arnold, F.B. 476

Bayne, William 479

Bayne, William, Jr. 447

Beard, Eli 493

Beard, Samuel 493

Bennett, William H. 479

Bickford, C.E. 478

Boardman, Thomas J. 500

Boardman, William 500

Brand, Carl W. 512

Brandenstein, M.J. 504

Burns, Jabez 527

Canby, Edward 500

Casanas, Ben C. 512

Cauchois. F.A. 493

Chase, Caleb 500

Cheek, J.O. 504, 515

Closset, Joseph 504

Coste, Felix 447

Crossman, Geo. W. 479

Devers, A.H. 504

Dwinell, James F. 500

Eppens, Fred 495

Eppens, Julius A. 495, 497

Eppens, W.H. 493, 495

Evans, David G. 504

Fischer, Benedickt 493

Flint, J.G. 500

Folger, J.A., Jr. 504

Folger, J.A., Sr. 504

Forbes, A.E. 504

Forbes, Jas. H. 504

Geiger, Frank J. 500

Gillies, Jas. W. 493

Gillies, Wright 493

Grossman, William 500

Harrison, D.Y. 500

Harrison, W.H. 500

Haulenbeek, Peter 493

Hayward, Martin 500

Heekin, James 500

Jones, W.T. 504

Kimball, O.G. 478

Kinsella, W.J. 504

Kirkland, Alexander 495

Kolschitzky, Franz George 50

McLaughlin, W.F. 500

Mahood, Samuel 500

Mayo, Henry 495

Meehan, P.C. 477

Menezes, Th. Langgaard de 446

Meyer, Robert 511

Peck, Edwin H. 477

Phyfe, Jas. W. 478

Pierce, O.W., Sr. 500

Pupke, John F. 495

Purcell, Joseph 476

Reid, Fred 495

Reid, Thomas 493, 495

Roome, Col. William P. 499

Russell, James C. 478

Sanborn, James S. 500

Schilling, A. 504

Schotten, Julius J. 504, 512

Schotten, William 504

Seelye, Frank R. 512

Sielcken, Hermann 476, 519

Simmonds, H. 477

Sinnot, J.B. 504

Smith, L.B. 493

Smith, M.E. 504

Sprague, Albert A. 500

Stephens, Henry A. 500

Stoffregen, Charles 504

Stoffregen, C.H. 447

Taylor, James H. 477

Thomson, A.M. 500

Van Loan, Thomas 498

Weir, Ross W. 447, 512

Westfeldt, George 479

Widlar, Francis 500

Wilde, Samuel 493

Withington, Elijah 493

Woolson, Alvin M. 500

Wright, George C. 500

Wright, George S. 447

Young, Samuel 500

Zinsmeister, J. 504



Maps, Charts, and Diagrams

Map of London coffee-house district, 1748 76

Formula for Caffein 160

Commercial coffee chart 191

Eiffel and Woolworth towers in coffee 272

World's coffee cup and largest ship 275

Coffee exports, 1850-1920 277

Coffee exports, 1916-1920 277

Brazil coffee exports, 1850-1920 278

World's coffee consumption, 1850 286

Coffee imports, 1916-1920 286

World trend of consumption of tea and coffee, 1860-1920 288

Coffee map of World (folded insert) facing 288

Pre-war annual average production of coffee by continents 294

Pre-war annual average production of coffee by countries 294

Pre-war average annual imports of coffee into U.S. by continents 295

Pre-war average annual imports of coffee into U.S. by countries 295

Pre-war coffee-imports chart 297

Pre-war consumption and price chart 297

Coffee map, Brazil 342

Coffee map, São Paulo, Minãs, and Rio 344

Mild-coffee map, 1 346

Coffee map, Africa and Arabia 352

Mild-coffee map, 2 354

Complete reference table (21 pp.) 358

Plan of milling-machine connections 381

Plan of green-coffee-mixer connections 383

Layout for coffee and tea department 418

Chart, advertising of coffee and coffee substitutes, 1911-20 440

Charts, per capita consumption of coffee, and coffee and substitute advertising 441

Chart, plan of advertising campaign 448

Chart, private-brand advertising, 1921 458

A COFFEE THESAURUS

Encomiums and descriptive phrases applied to the plant, the berry, and the beverage

The Plant

The precious plant This friendly plant Mocha's happy tree The gift of Heaven The plant with the jessamine-like flowers The most exquisite perfume of Araby the blest Given to the human race by the gift of the Gods



The Berry

The magic bean The divine fruit Fragrant berries Rich, royal berry Voluptuous berry The precious berry The healthful bean The Heavenly berry The marvelous berry This all-healing berry Yemen's fragrant berry The little aromatic berry Little brown Arabian berry Thought-inspiring bean of Arabia The smoking, ardent beans Aleppo sends That wild fruit which gives so beloved a drink



The Beverage

Nepenthe Festive cup Juice divine Nectar divine Ruddy mocha A man's drink Lovable liquor Delicious mocha The magic drink This rich cordial Its stream divine The family drink The festive drink Coffee is our gold Nectar of all men The golden mocha This sweet nectar Celestial ambrosia The friendly drink The cheerful drink The essential drink The sweet draught The divine draught The grateful liquor The universal drink The American drink The amber beverage The convivial drink The universal thrill King of all perfumes The cup of happiness The soothing draught Ambrosia of the Gods The intellectual drink The aromatic draught The salutary beverage The good-fellow drink The drink of democracy The drink ever glorious Wakeful and civil drink The beverage of sobriety A psychological necessity The fighting man's drink Loved and favored drink The symbol of hospitality This rare Arabian cordial Inspirer of men of letters The revolutionary beverage Triumphant stream of sable Grave and wholesome liquor The drink of the intellectuals A restorative of sparkling wit Its color is the seal of its purity The sober and wholesome drink Lovelier than a thousand kisses This honest and cheering beverage A wine which no sorrow can resist The symbol of human brotherhood At once a pleasure and a medicine The beverage of the friends of God The fire which consumes our griefs Gentle panacea of domestic troubles The autocrat of the breakfast table The beverage of the children of God King of the American breakfast table Soothes you softly out of dull sobriety The cup that cheers but not inebriates[1] Coffee, which makes the politician wise Its aroma is the pleasantest in all nature The sovereign drink of pleasure and health[2] The indispensable beverage of strong nations The stream in which we wash away our sorrows The enchanting perfume that a zephyr has brought Favored liquid which fills all my soul with delight The delicious libation we pour on the altar of friendship This invigorating drink which drives sad care from the heart

EVOLUTION OF A CUP OF COFFEE

Showing the various steps through which the bean passes from plantation to cup

1 Planting the seed in nursery 2 Transplanting into rows 3 Cultivating and pruning 4 Picking the cherries 5 Pulping 6 Fermenting 7 Washing 8 Drying in the parchment 9 Hulling 10 Polishing 11 Grading 12 Transporting to the seaport 13 Buying and selling for export 14 Transhipment overseas 15 Buying and selling at wholesale 16 Shipment to the point of manufacture 17 Separating 18 Milling 19 Mixing or blending 20 Roasting 21 Cooling and stoning 22 Buying and selling at retail 23 Grinding 24 Making the beverage

[Illustration: COFFEE ARABICA; LEAVES, FLOWERS AND FRUIT

Painted from nature by M.E. Eaton--Detail sketches show anther, pistil, and section of corolla]




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