Seventeen years ago the author of this work made his first trip abroad to gather material for a book on coffee. Subsequently he spent a year in travel among the coffee-producing countries. After the initial surveys, correspondents were appointed to make researches in the principal European libraries and museums; and this phase of the work continued until April, 1922. Simultaneous researches were conducted in American libraries and historical museums up to the time of the return of the final proofs to the printer in June, 1922.
Ten years ago the sorting and classification of the material was begun. The actual writing of the manuscript has extended over four years.
Among the unique features of the book are the Coffee Thesaurus; the Coffee Chronology, containing 492 dates of historical importance; the Complete Reference Table of the Principal Kinds of Coffee Grown in the World; and the Coffee Bibliography, containing 1,380 references.
The most authoritative works on this subject have been Robinson's The Early History of Coffee Houses in England, published in London in 1893; and Jardin's Le Café, published in Paris in 1895. The author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to both for inspiration and guidance. Other works, Arabian, French, English, German, and Italian, dealing with particular phases of the subject, have been laid under contribution; and where this has been done, credit is given by footnote reference. In all cases where it has been possible to do so, however, statements of historical facts have been verified by independent research. Not a few items have required months of tracing to confirm or to disprove.
There has been no serious American work on coffee since Hewitt's Coffee: Its History, Cultivation and Uses, published in 1872; and Thurber's Coffee from Plantation to Cup, published in 1881. Both of these are now out of print, as is also Walsh's Coffee: Its History, Classification and Description, published in 1893.
The chapters on The Chemistry of Coffee and The Pharmacology of Coffee have been prepared under the author's direction by Charles W. Trigg, industrial fellow of the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research.
The author wishes to acknowledge, with thanks, valuable assistance and numerous courtesies by the officials of the following institutions:
British Museum, and Guildhall Museum, London; Bibliothéque Nationale, Paris; Congressional Library, Washington; New York Public Library, Metropolitan Museum of Art, and New York Historical Society, New York; Boston Public Library, and Boston Museum of Fine Arts; Smithsonian Institution, Washington; State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis.; Maine Historical Society, Portland; Chicago Historical Society; New Jersey Historical Society, Newark; Harvard University Library; Essex Institute, Salem, Mass.; Peabody Institute, Baltimore.
Thanks and appreciation are due also to:
Charles James Jackson, London, for permission to quote from his Illustrated History of English Plate;
Francis Hill Bigelow, author; and The Macmillan Company, publishers, for permission to reproduce illustrations from Historic Silver of the Colonies;
H.G. Dwight, author; and Charles Scribner's Sons, publishers, for permission to quote from Constantinople, Old and New, and from the article on "Turkish Coffee Houses" in Scribner's Magazine;
Walter G. Peter, Washington, D.C., for permission to photograph and reproduce pictures of articles in the Peter collection at the United States National Museum;
Mary P. Hamlin and George Arliss, authors, and George C. Tyler, producer, for permission to reproduce the Exchange coffee-house setting of the first act of Hamilton;
Judge A.T. Clearwater, Kingston N.Y.; R.T. Haines Halsey, and Francis P. Garvan, New York, for permission to publish pictures of historic silver coffee pots in their several collections;
The secretaries of the American Chambers of Commerce in London, Paris, and Berlin;
Charles Cooper, London, for his splendid co-operation and for his special contribution to chapter XXXV;
Alonzo H. De Graff, London, for his invaluable aid and unflagging zeal in directing the London researches;
To the Coffee Trade Association, London, for assistance rendered;
To G.J. Lethem, London, for his translations from the Arabic;
L.P. de Bussy of the Koloniaal Institute, Amsterdam, Holland, for assistance rendered;
Burton Holmes and Blendon R. Campbell, New York, for courtesies;
John Cotton Dana, Newark, N.J., for assistance rendered;
Charles H. Barnes, Medford, Mass., for permission to publish the photograph of Peregrine White's Mayflower mortar and pestle;
Andrew L. Winton, Ph.D., Wilton, Conn., for permission to quote from his The Microscopy of Vegetable Foods in the chapter on The Microscopy of Coffee and to reprint Prof. J. Moeller's and Tschirch and Oesterle's drawings;
F. Hulton Frankel, Ph.D., Edward M. Frankel, Ph.D., and Arno Viehoever, for their assistance in preparing the chapters on The Botany of Coffee and The Microscopy of Coffee;
A.L. Burns, New York, for his assistance in the correction and revision of chapters XXV, XXVI, XXVII, and XXXIV, and for much historical information supplied in connection with chapters XXX and XXXI;
Edward Aborn, New York, for his help in the revision of chapter XXXVI;
George W. Lawrence, former president, and T.S.B. Nielsen, president, of the New York Coffee and Sugar Exchange, for their assistance in the revision of chapter XXXI;
Helio Lobo, Brazilian consul general, New York; Sebastião Sampaio, commercial attaché of the Brazilian Embassy, Washington; and Th. Langgaard de Menezes, American representative of the Sociedade Promotora da Defeza do Café;
Felix Coste, secretary and manager, the National Coffee Roasters Association; and C.B. Stroud, superintendent, the New York Coffee and Sugar Exchange, for information supplied and assistance rendered in the revision of several chapters;
F.T. Holmes, New York, for his help in the compilation of chronological and descriptive data on coffee-roasting machinery;
Walter Chester, New York, for critical comments on chapter XXVIII.
The author is especially indebted to the following, who in many ways have contributed to the successful compilation of the Complete Reference Table in chapter XXIV, and of those chapters having to do with the early history and development of the green coffee and the wholesale coffee-roasting trades in the United States:
George S. Wright, Boston; A.E. Forbes, William Fisher, Gwynne Evans, Jerome J. Schotten, and the late Julius J. Schotten, St. Louis; James H. Taylor, William Bayne, Jr., A.J. Dannemiller, B.A. Livierato, S.A. Schonbrunn, Herbert Wilde, A.C. Fitzpatrick, Charles Meehan, Clarence Creighton, Abram Wakeman, A.H. Davies, Joshua Walker, Fred P. Gordon, Alex. H. Purcell, George W. Vanderhoef, Col. William P. Roome, W. Lee Simmonds, Herman Simmonds, W.H. Aborn, B. Lahey, John C. Loudon, J.R. Westfal, Abraham Reamer, R.C. Wilhelm, C.H. Stewart, and the late August Haeussler, New York; John D. Warfield, Ezra J. Warner, S.O. Blair, and George D. McLaughlin, Chicago; W.H. Harrison, James Heekin, and Charles Lewis, Cincinnati; Albro Blodgett and A.M. Woolson, Toledo; R.V. Engelhard and Lee G. Zinsmeister, Louisville; E.A. Kahl, San Francisco; S. Jackson, New Orleans; Lewis Sherman, Milwaukee; Howard F. Boardman, Hartford; A.H. Devers, Portland, Ore.; W. James Mahood, Pittsburgh; William B. Harris, East Orange, N.J.
New York, June 17, 1922.
Some introductory remarks on the lure of coffee, its place in a rational dietary, its universal psychological appeal, its use and abuse
Civilization in its onward march has produced only three important non-alcoholic beverages--the extract of the tea plant, the extract of the cocoa bean, and the extract of the coffee bean.
Leaves and beans--these are the vegetable sources of the world's favorite non-alcoholic table-beverages. Of the two, the tea leaves lead in total amount consumed; the coffee beans are second; and the cocoa beans are a distant third, although advancing steadily. But in international commerce the coffee beans occupy a far more important position than either of the others, being imported into non-producing countries to twice the extent of the tea leaves. All three enjoy a world-wide consumption, although not to the same extent in every nation; but where either the coffee bean or the tea leaf has established itself in a given country, the other gets comparatively little attention, and usually has great difficulty in making any advance. The cocoa bean, on the other hand, has not risen to the position of popular favorite in any important consuming country, and so has not aroused the serious opposition of its two rivals.
Coffee is universal in its appeal. All nations do it homage. It has become recognized as a human necessity. It is no longer a luxury or an indulgence; it is a corollary of human energy and human efficiency. People love coffee because of its two-fold effect--the pleasurable sensation and the increased efficiency it produces.
Coffee has an important place in the rational dietary of all the civilized peoples of earth. It is a democratic beverage. Not only is it the drink of fashionable society, but it is also a favorite beverage of the men and women who do the world's work, whether they toil with brain or brawn. It has been acclaimed "the most grateful lubricant known to the human machine," and "the most delightful taste in all nature."
No "food drink" has ever encountered so much opposition as coffee. Given to the world by the church and dignified by the medical profession, nevertheless it has had to suffer from religious superstition and medical prejudice. During the thousand years of its development it has experienced fierce political opposition, stupid fiscal restrictions, unjust taxes, irksome duties; but, surviving all of these, it has triumphantly moved on to a foremost place in the catalog of popular beverages.
But coffee is something more than a beverage. It is one of the world's greatest adjuvant foods. There are other auxiliary foods, but none that excels it for palatability and comforting effects, the psychology of which is to be found in its unique flavor and aroma.
Men and women drink coffee because it adds to their sense of well-being. It not only smells good and tastes good to all mankind, heathen or civilized, but all respond to its wonderful stimulating properties. The chief factors in coffee goodness are the caffein content and the caffeol. Caffein supplies the principal stimulant. It increases the capacity for muscular and mental work without harmful reaction. The caffeol supplies the flavor and the aroma--that indescribable Oriental fragrance that wooes us through the nostrils, forming one of the principal elements that make up the lure of coffee. There are several other constituents, including certain innocuous so-called caffetannic acids, that, in combination with the caffeol, give the beverage its rare gustatory appeal.
The year 1919 awarded coffee one of its brightest honors. An American general said that coffee shared with bread and bacon the distinction of being one of the three nutritive essentials that helped win the World War for the Allies. So this symbol of human brotherhood has played a not inconspicuous part in "making the world safe for democracy." The new age, ushered in by the Peace of Versailles and the Washington Conference, has for its hand-maidens temperance and self-control. It is to be a world democracy of right-living and clear thinking; and among its most precious adjuncts are coffee, tea, and cocoa--because these beverages must always be associated with rational living, with greater comfort, and with better cheer.
Like all good things in life, the drinking of coffee may be abused. Indeed, those having an idiosyncratic susceptibility to alkaloids should be temperate in the use of tea, coffee, or cocoa. In every high-tensioned country there is likely to be a small number of people who, because of certain individual characteristics, can not drink coffee at all. These belong to the abnormal minority of the human family. Some people can not eat strawberries; but that would not be a valid reason for a general condemnation of strawberries. One may be poisoned, says Thomas A. Edison, from too much food. Horace Fletcher was certain that over-feeding causes all our ills. Over-indulgence in meat is likely to spell trouble for the strongest of us. Coffee is, perhaps, less often abused than wrongly accused. It all depends. A little more tolerance!
Trading upon the credulity of the hypochondriac and the caffein-sensitive, in recent years there has appeared in America and abroad a curious collection of so-called coffee substitutes. They are "neither fish nor flesh, nor good red herring." Most of them have been shown by official government analyses to be sadly deficient in food value--their only alleged virtue. One of our contemporary attackers of the national beverage bewails the fact that no palatable hot drink has been found to take the place of coffee. The reason is not hard to find. There can be no substitute for coffee. Dr. Harvey W. Wiley has ably summed up the matter by saying, "A substitute should be able to perform the functions of its principal. A substitute to a war must be able to fight. A bounty-jumper is not a substitute."
It has been the aim of the author to tell the whole coffee story for the general reader, yet with the technical accuracy that will make it valuable to the trade. The book is designed to be a work of useful reference covering all the salient points of coffee's origin, cultivation, preparation, and development, its place in the world's commerce and in a rational dietary.
Good coffee, carefully roasted and properly brewed, produces a natural beverage that, for tonic effect, can not be surpassed, even by its rivals, tea and cocoa. Here is a drink that ninety-seven percent of individuals find harmless and wholesome, and without which life would be drab indeed--a pure, safe, and helpful stimulant compounded in nature's own laboratory, and one of the chief joys of life!
A COFFEE THESAURUS
Encomiums and descriptive phrases applied to the plant, the berry, and the beverage Page XXVII
THE EVOLUTION OF A CUP OF COFFEE
Showing the various steps through which the bean passes from plantation to cup Page XXIX
DEALLING WITH THE ETYMOLOGY OF COFFEE
Origin and translation of the word from the Arabian into various languages--Views of many writers Page 1
HISTORY OF COFFEE PROPAGATION
A brief account of the cultivation of the coffee plant in the Old World, and of its introduction into the New--A romantic coffee adventure Page 5
EARLY HISTORY OF COFFEE DRINKING
Coffee in the Near East in the early centuries--Stories of its origin--Discovery by physicians and adoption by the Church--Its spread through Arabia, Persia, and Turkey--Persecutions and Intolerances--Early coffee manners and customs Page 11
INTRODUCTION OF COFFEE INTO WESTERN EUROPE
When the three great temperance beverages, cocoa, tea, and coffee, came to Europe--Coffee first mentioned by Rauwolf in 1582--Early days of coffee in Italy--How Pope Clement VIII baptized it and made it a truly Christian beverage--The first European coffee house, in Venice, 1645--The famous Caffè Florian--Other celebrated Venetian coffee houses of the eighteenth century--The romantic story of Pedrocchi, the poor lemonade-vender, who built the most beautiful coffee house in the world Page 25
THE BEGINNINGS OF COFFEE IN FRANCE
What French travelers did for coffee--the introduction of coffee by P. de la Roque into Marseilles in 1644--The first commercial importation of coffee from Egypt--The first French coffee house--Failure of the attempt by physicians of Marseilles to discredit coffee--Soliman Aga introduces coffee into Paris--Cabarets à caffè--Celebrated works on coffee by French writers Page 31
THE INTRODUCTION OF COFFEE INTO ENGLAND
The first printed reference to coffee in English--Early mention of coffee by noted English travelers and writers--The Lacedæmonian "black broth" controversy--How Conopios introduced coffee drinking at Oxford--The first English coffee house in Oxford--Two English botanists on coffee Page 35
THE INTRODUCTION OF COFFEE INTO HOLLAND
How the enterprising Dutch traders captured the first world's market for coffee--Activities of the Netherlands East India Company--The first coffee house at the Hague--The first public auction at Amsterdam in 1711, when Java coffee brought forty-seven cents a pound, green Page 43
THE INTRODUCTION OF COFFEE INTO GERMANY
The contributions made by German travelers and writers to the literature of the early history of coffee--The first coffee house in Hamburg opened by an English merchant--Famous coffee houses of old Berlin--The first coffee periodical and the first kaffee-klatsch--Frederick the Great's coffee roasting monopoly--Coffee persecutions--"Coffee-smellers"--The first coffee king Page 45
The romantic adventure of Franz George Kolschitzky, who carried "a message to Garcia" through the enemy's lines and won for himself the honor of being the first to teach the Viennese the art of making coffee, to say nothing of falling heir to the supplies of the green beans left behind by the Turks; also the gift of a house from a grateful municipality, and a statue after death--Affectionate regard in which "Brother-heart" Kolschitzky is held as the patron saint of the Vienna Kaffee-sieder--Life in the early Vienna café's Page 49
THE COFFEE HOUSES OF OLD LONDON
One of the most picturesque chapters in the history of coffee--The first coffee house in London--The first coffee handbill, and the first newspaper advertisement for coffee--Strange coffee mixtures--Fantastic coffee claims--Coffee prices and coffee licenses--Coffee club of the Rota--Early coffee-house manners and customs--Coffee-house keepers' tokens--Opposition to the coffee house--"Penny universities"--Weird coffee substitutes--The proposed coffee-house newspaper monopoly--Evolution of the club--Decline and fall of the coffee house--Pen pictures of coffee-house life--Famous coffee houses of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries--Some Old World pleasure gardens--Locating the notable coffee houses Page 53
HISTORY OF THE EARLY PARISIAN COFFEE HOUSES
The introduction of coffee into Paris by Thévenot in 1657--How Soliman Aga established the custom of coffee drinking at the court of Louis XIV--Opening of the first coffee houses--How the French adaptation of the Oriental coffee house first appeared in the real French café of François Procope--Important part played by the coffee houses in the development of French literature and the stage--Their association with the Revolution and the founding of the Republic--Quaint customs and patrons--Historic Parisian café's Page 91
INTRODUCTION OF COFFEE INTO NORTH AMERICA
Captain John Smith, founder of the Colony of Virginia, is the first to bring to North America a knowledge of coffee in 1607--The coffee grinder on the Mayflower--Coffee drinking in 1668--William Penn's coffee purchase in 1683--Coffee in colonial New England--The psychology of the Boston "tea party," and why the United States became a nation of coffee drinkers instead of tea drinkers, like England--The first coffee license to Dorothy Jones in 1670--The first coffee house in New England--Notable coffee houses of old Boston--A skyscraper coffee-house Page 105
HISTORY OF COFFEE IN OLD NEW YORK
The burghers of New Amsterdam begin to substitute coffee for "must," or beer, for breakfast in 1668--William Penn makes his first purchase of coffee in the green bean from New York merchants in 1683--The King's Arms, the first coffee house--The historic Merchants, sometimes called the "Birthplace of our Union"--The coffee house as a civic forum--The Exchange, Whitehall, Burns, Tontine, and other celebrated coffee houses--The Vauxhall and Ranelagh pleasure gardens Page 115
COFFEE HOUSES OF OLD PHILADELPHIA
Ye Coffee House, Philadelphia's first coffee house, opened about 1700--The two London coffee houses--The City tavern, or Merchants coffee house--How these, and other celebrated resorts, dominated the social, political, and business life of the Quaker City in the eighteenth century Page 125
THE BOTANY OF THE COFFEE PLANT
Its complete classification by class, sub-class, order, family, genus, and species--How the Coffea arabica grows, flowers, and bears--Other species and hybrids described--Natural caffein-free coffee--Fungoid diseases of coffee Page 131
THE MICROSCOPY OF THE COFFEE FRUIT
How the beans may be examined under the microscope, and what is revealed--Structure of the berry, the green, and the roasted beans--The coffee-leaf disease under the microscope--Value of microscopic analysis in detecting adulteration Page 149
THE CHEMISTRY OF THE COFFEE BEAN
By Charles W. Trigg.
Chemistry of the preparation and treatment of the green bean--Artificial aging--Renovating damaged coffees--Extracts--"Caffetannic acid"--Caffein, caffein-free coffee--Caffeol--Fats and oils--Carbohydrates--Roasting--Scientific aspects of grinding and packaging--The coffee brew--Soluble coffee--Adulterants and substitutes--Official methods of analysis Page 155
PHARMACOLOGY OF THE COFFEE DRINK
By Charles W. Trigg
General physiological action--Effect on children--Effect on longevity--Behavior in the alimentary régime--Place in dietary--Action on bacteria--Use in medicine--Physiological action of "caffetannic acid"--Of caffeol--Of caffein--Effect of caffein on mental and motor efficiency--Conclusions Page 174
THE COMMERCIAL COFFEES OF THE WORLD
The geographical distribution of the coffees grown in North America, Central America, South America, the West India Islands, Asia, Africa, the Pacific Islands, and the East Indies--A statistical study of the distribution of the principal kinds--A commercial coffee chart of the world's leading growths, with market names and general trade characteristics Page 189