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1. Walker’s Report, 1862

2. List of Children [in Taplin’s 1865 Report, modified up to 1867]

3. Ordinary Daily Routine at Pt McLeay Native School and Store, 1889

4. Principals since the inception of the Point McLeay/Raukkan School

5. Progress Report of the Royal Commission on the Aborigines 1913

6. Ministries, South Australia, 1885 – 1970s

7. Lawrie’s Proposal: 1918

8. McCoy’s Proposals: 1920

9. Draft Indenture Form, 1920

10. AFA Recommendations: 1921

11. Lawrie’s Suggested Curriculum, 7.6.1922

12. Conference Of Commonwealth And State Aboriginal Authorities

-- April, 1937: Agenda.

13. Summary of Native Requests, Pt. McLeay, 1938

14. Commonwealth And States Native Welfare Conference, 1951: Agenda














Walker (1862)

Report to House of Assembly on visit to Pt McLeay, 17 – 23 July 1862.

‘During the absence of the Superintendent [for health reasons] the duties of his office were satisfactorily performed by Mr. Stapley a young man appointed about three months ago, assistant teacher (without salary) by the Committee of the AFA. In conducting the business of the institution, the following is the course pursued during the winter season.

‘The bell rings at 7 a.m., when inmates of the institution rise from their beds, and the old and infirm people leave their wurleys and assemble at the storeroom to receive their daily allowance of food provided by the Government; at the same hour the natives engaged in daily labour take breakfast, and afterwards go to their respective employments.

‘At 8.30 the children have breakfast; then morning prayers follow.

‘From 9 to 12.30 school is open; and an hour after closing, which is devoted to play, the children and laborers dine together.

‘The school re-opens at 2 pm and closes at 3.30 after which the Superintendent visits the wurleys for the purpose of administering to the spiritual and temporal wants of the sick.

‘At 5.30 the children and laborers have supper, and at 6.30 there is evening prayer, after which the former retire to bed and their rooms are locked; the latter remain in school until 8 o’clock.

‘On Saturdays the girls are employed in cleaning the rooms, and the boys in carrying firewood during the hours devoted on other days to school.

‘On Sunday there is morning worship at 11 am and school from 2 pm till 4 pm after which there is Divine Service for the benefit […], and evening worship at the usual hour.

‘The scale of rations for the children is 1 lb of bread, 1/2 lb of meat, soup, rice or pudding, 1/4 oz of tea, and 2 ozs sugar per diem; which judging from their excellent state of health and their contented looks, appears an ample allowance.

‘The number of native children living at the Institution and attending school, is twenty-five. They are divided into three classes, and each class receives instruction in reading, spelling, scripture history, writing and arithmetic – the first having also lessons in geography.

‘The objects kept in view by their teachers, are to secure to these poor children an education which will qualify them for the ordinary business of life, and especially to communicate to them the knowledge and bring them under the power of religious truth, which is their only safeguard against the corrupting and degrading influences to which they will hereafter be exposed.’

Etc. re-read.

Re use of language: translations of the gospels in order to reach old people: ‘much good would be accomplished amongst the old people were the children able to read the Bible to them in their own language.’

Buildings far too small: ‘many children have been refused admittance because of the want of accommodation – as many, it is said, as thirty during the first quarter. The Wellington blacks have often expressed a desire to send their children but they see there is not room.’

‘ .. The young men are anxious to obtain work on the station, that they may still enjoy the benefits of instruction in the evenings when their labor is over.’
‘The usual rate of wages is 1s. per diem with rations – viz. 2 lbs of bread, 1 lb meat, rice or soup,

1/4 oz of tea, and 2 ozs sugar.’

Numbers on the station




Adults, able-bodied

Ditto, old and infirm

Ditto, sick

Children at school

Ditto, not at school




















List of Children Who Have Been at Our School showing What Became of Them

[in 1865 Report, modified up to 1867]
BOYS - April 1865

1. Waukeri Died of consumption

2. Koolmatere Living with the tribe

3. Jimmy Klaesman Living with the tribe

4. ippoo Living with the tribe

5. Weellee Living with tribe

6. J. Sumner In situation - Dr. Walker's

7. J. Muinke

8. David Living with tribe. (Dead)

9. W. Mak Hughes At school

10. Koolmateriol Living with tribe.

11. Pompey In situation - Mr. Babbage's

12. Wullumme In situation - Mr. Young's

13. Wullumol Dead - Hydrocephalus

14. Katyirene Dead - Consumption

15. Tippuol Dead - Brain Disease

16. Ewilare Dead

17. Mokooni Dead - Inflammation

18. Pantuni Living with tribe

19. Bulpuminne at school - Dead

20. Mikeriol - Employed at Campbell House

21. Mewiltare Living with tribe

22. Yerarapinyeri Living with tribe

23. John Wilkin Apprenticed

24. Harry Wilkin At school

25. Ben At school

26. Ngiampinyeri Dead

27. Turtle Dead

28. Takkuri Mak With tribe

29. J. Bulpuminne With tribe

30. Pethuwenunkar With tribe

31. George With tribe.

[added in 1867]

32. Allan Macfarlane 33. Archie

34. Antar 35. Melcombenderu

36. Sam Dodd 37. Richard

38. Jim 39. Daniel

40. Willie 41. Proctor

42. Eli Chulker 43. Willie Bewes

44. Archie Harding 45. Bradley

46. Alexander 47. Alfred (Spender)

48. Edward Norman 49. Bertie (Tripp)

50 Reuben Jordan 51. Benbow

52. Crofton (Giles) 53. Karloan

54. Ben Woolford 55. Phillip

56. Mark 57. Fred

58. Samuel 59. Frank

60. Pewemmine 61. Arthur

62. Denis 63. Tim.

1. Agnes Married 2. Pombingga Married

3. Nourailinyeri Married 4. Petembitepiri Married

5. Jean Parry Married Baptized 6. Petembitepirri Married

7. Nyitinyeri Married 8. Maratinyeri Married

9. Hannah Married 10. Lumba Lumbe Dead - Consumption

11. Annie Married 12. Theloinyeri married

13. Nymbulda With tribe 14. Nahraminyeri With tribe

15. Charlotte At school 16. Kuldinyeri With tribe

17. Susan Wilkin At school 18. Eliza Wilkin At school

19. Lizzy Wilkin Married 20. Munyuninyeri With tribe

21. Turulartumme With tribe 22. Landiture At school

23. Christina With tribe 24. Isabella At school

25. Minminare With tribe 26. Tungkungutte Dead

27. Annie Waukowere Dead 28. Wilhelmina With tribe

29. Maggie Married 30. Lizzie Proctor at School

31. Louisa With tribe 32. Neurilinyeri With tribe

33. Ellen Married
34. Tycarabbe Married 35. Tycarabbeol Married

36. Inyelooke With tribe 37. Waldaninyeri

38. Becky 39. Maggie

40. Amy 41. Bessie

42. Lisha 44. Fanny Cooke

45. Aggie 46. Eva

47. Priscilla 48. Sally

49. Werungara 50. Minukulare

51. Sarah 52. Kundiuwe

53. Lizzie 54. Margaret

55. Alice 56. Clara

57. Ringgarte 58. Lily

59. Jenny 60. Jane

61. Eva Reed 62. Rose

63. Alice 64. Mary Jane

65. Ngerumme

Letter from David Blackwell, Superintendent, to Secretary: AFA, 8 October 1892
8 October 1892


I feel it my duty to suggest getting a more suitable person as Teacher in place of Mr. Gregory. While giving credit for his store keeping, there is a great lack of interest in the general welfare of the Station, which may be caused by his age and deafness. Now would be a fitting time to organise a change, if you agree.
Ordinary Daily Routine at Point McLeay Native School and Store.

1st Bell. 6.30 in Summer, 7 AM in winter, calls children to rise and dress. Master attend to store etc.

Viz. issue rations to cottagers (bread) daily. On Saturday morning, tea, sugar, rice, kerosene, soap, as per scale allowed for the week.

2nd Bell. 7.45 a.m. Calls children to morning prayer in schoolroom, after which they have breakfast.

3rd Bell. 9 a.m. The Master having dispatched the mail, begins the school work. From 10.30 to 11 is allowed for recess, controlled only by the master’s whistle.

4th Bell. 12 a.m. Dinner.

5th Bell. 2 PM School till 3.30.

6th Bell. Evening meal for children and master attend to store. Following these duties evening prayers for children. When there is a meeting [2] in the church the children attend under the care of the master.

If the Superintendent is away or deterred by other duties it is usual for the Master to issue the Government rations to any who are entitled to receive any. This is done from about 9.30 am on Saturday. Or by mutual arrangement the farm overseer may do it.

On Sunday morning the master rings the bell at 7 am and gives out clean clothes to children, and should see that order is maintained until 7.45 when he rings the bell for prayers and breakfast.

Sunday School at 2.30 pm is presided over by the master. The children attend the services under the control of the master, 11 am and 6.30 pm.

Public Worship: Occasionally in the absence of the Supt it [is ] desirable that the master shall conduct the services in the church.

The master is expected to [3] work in union with the matron in all matters of discipline & order, and to uphold her in controlling the children & servants. The matron sees that the meals are cooked & served on to the tables, the master being responsible for the conduct of children & young men during mealtimes.

The master living close to the school buildings should at all times have authority to check rowdy behaviour, or bad language therein. At 9 PM each night he should take away the lights from [the] children’s room.

The order and details of these rules may be altered by the superintendent as need may require.

D. Blackwell

Supt A.F.A.

Point McLeay

Novr 5th 1892

[16] Principals since the inception of the School

(from E. Leta Padman, The Story of Narrung.)

G. Taplin [1859-1866]

J. A. Ophel [1866-1874, 1875-1886]

Mr Gellert [1875]

Walter Hutley [1887-1889]

Charles Gregory [1889-1892]

William Holman [1892-1902]

William Chapman [1903]

Patrick W. Francis [1904-1914]

Wilfred T. Lawrie [1914-1951]

R. A. Lawry

B.J. Kearney

E. C. McDougall

R. Zoerner

L. Cutting

I. McArthur

A. Buckingham

I. Quirke

J. Thilthorpe

D. Huppatz

A. Hoft

M. Sankey

J. Bishop




4. The largest Mission Station in South Australia, from the point of view of population, is that of Point McLeay, where there are (including land on the Coorong) aboriginal reserves of a total area of 5,513 acres, which are at present vested in the Aborigines’ Friends’ Association. This Association was established in 1858 and incorporated in 1879, and its principal aims are--
(1) To instruct the natives in such industrial pursuits as may make them useful on the land,

and enable them to earn their own living.

(2) To encourage and assist native families in forming civilized homes.

(3) To instruct them in the doctrines, precepts, and duties of the Christian religion.

(4) To maintain a boarding school, where the children of the natives may receive gratuitously the ordinary elements of an English education, and be trained in civilized habits.
The thanks of the community are due to the gentlemen connected with the Association for their philanthropic and disinterested work amongst the natives, but it was admitted by most of the witnesses, including the officials of the Association that the work at Point McLeay has not been a success.
The Missionary work amongst the natives has no doubt been attended with good results, but the first of the four objects mentioned above, namely, to instruct the natives in such industrial pursuits as may make them useful on the land and enable them to earn their own living, has not been realised. As a rule the Government grant to the Association has been £1,000 per annum; occasionally it has been increased to £1,500, and last year the total grant was £2,128, including a special grant of £1,128, that being an accumulation of three years. The grant is conditional on the salaries of the superintendent and his assistant being raised by private subscription, and this appears to have been done, the subscriptions and donations last year being £257 8s. 4d.
The station, however, even with Government assistance, is not a success financially. According to the evidence this is largely due to the fact that the area of land attached to the station, some of which is undoubtedly of an inferior character, is not sufficient to maintain the number of people living on the place. No systematic effort appears to have been made to make the best use of the means at the disposal of the Association, and the consequence is that the Mission is languishing, the aborigines and half-castes are being reared for the most part in idleness, and instead of the natives being trained to useful work, they have, to a great extent, become dependent on charity. Some of the natives occasionally take work from adjoining landowners, but after a few weeks they return to the station, preferring either to receive less remuneration for the station work or to live in idleness. These facts have also been made public in the reports of the Chief Protector of Aborigines.
After having visited Point McLeay and taken evidence from those in charge, from the natives themselves, and from the adjoining landowners, we are strongly convinced that under more direct Government control much better results could easily be secured. Some of the natives stated that they are discontented because they cannot get more work to do at the station.

Ministries, 1885-1945

  1. Colton

  2. Downer


1890 Playford

1893 Kingston (Radical Liberal)

1899 Holder

1905 Price (Labour-Radical Liberal)

1909 Peake

1912 Peake

1915 Vaughan

1920 Barwell

1922 Barwell

1927 Butler

1930 Hill

1938 Playford

1945 Playford

1965 Walsh (Labour)

1968 Steele (LCL)

1970 Dunstan (Labour)

1979 Corcoran (Labour)

1980 Tonkin (Liberal)

1982 Bannon (Labour)

1992 Arnold (Labour)

1992 Brown (Liberal)

1996 Olsen (Liberal)

SRG 139/1/11/19: Lawrie Proposal: 6.4.18

Suggestions to the Advisory Council of Aborigines.

Subject: Education of half-caste and Aboriginal children of Point McLeay.
1.a. That the school at Point McLeay be for Native children only.

As there is another school 21/2 miles distant, there is no necessity for white children to attend the Point McLeay School.

White children would be likely to suffer morally and physically by daily association

with the natives.

That white pupils would work to a different standard and a different timetable, thus the teacher could not devote himself entirely to the greater problem.

  1. 2. That attendance at school be compulsory up to the age of 16 years:

Tests conducted by Dr. G. Halley and Mr. Porteus in 1915 suggested that Aboriginal children are 11/2 to 2 years below the white children’s average intelligence for age. Thus at 14 years of age, these children cannot be expected to have attained a fair standard of education.

At present native children leaving school at 14 years, go to casual employment and in most cases soon tire of their occupations and then wander aimlessly about, sowing seeds of indolence and undisciplined habits.

14 – 16 are two important and impressionable years which could be better spent under proper control and training.

  1. That between the ages of 14 and 16 the work be mainly of a practical nature with the

aim of teaching the boys a trade and the girls domestic arts.

  1. Boys, instead of becoming the most casual laborers, would become to a certain extent skilled workers and encouraged to apply their energies in a definite direction.

  2. Girls at present grow up and marry with practically no knowledge of housekeeping. They become mothers with no knowledge of hygiene and care of the sick.

  3. Indifferent, badly prepared food, careless habits and ignorance are the causes of the excessive amount of sickness and the high death-rate among the children.

  1. That the teacher have control of the children all the time.

  1. This was the system until December 31, 1915. Since then the children have been practically a law unto themselves when outside the school-ground. Parents in most cases have no control, thus the school training is counterbalanced by obvious evils.

  2. Parents should not be permitted to take their children away from the school for lengthy periods and so interfere with the continuity of the training.


  1. That all Aboriginal and Half-caste children of the Lakes District be sent to Point McLeay for education and training.

  1. Point McLeay should be regarded as the centre for the training of the Aboriginal children of the State.

  2. At present there are children at Poltalloch Station, a few miles distant, receiving no education – They should be brought to Point McLeay to receive the benefits of the Day and Sunday Schools.

  3. The teaching at Point Mcleay should be more effective with native children than that arranged in other schools for average whites.

  1. That native children from other parts of the State and south of Peterborough, who do not appear to be under satisfactory guardianship be sent to Point Mcleay for education and training.

  1. To place such children in the ordinary State institutions is to place them among foreigners who have no knowledge of native habits of thought or motives and their life is unhappy. To the children this would be like imprisonment.

  2. Since the native child is carefully studied and his needs catered for and the whole system evolved from intimate knowledge of such children here – Point McLeay should be regarded as the proper home for him during the growing period.

  1. That children from other Missions where the special advanced training is not given, be sent to Point Mcleay on reaching the age of 14 years.

  1. As each institution has but a few children of this age it would be impossible to provide each with the necessary apparatus and buildings and the expenditure per capita would be excessive.

  2. The technical or advanced department of the school here should be regarded as the High School for natives.

  3. This would mean economy, an even standard, and provide the greater number of children necessary for a proper study of the problem and the determination of the special methods required.

  1. That after leaving school, the children be under the control of the Superintendent until 18 years of age – under apprenticeship conditions.

  1. This would be necessary for the purpose of lengthening the period in which the energies of the youth would be directed in a particular channel until steady habits are formed.

  2. Children from other institutions should serve this apprenticeship in their own country under their own officers.

[3] Curriculum, 14 to 16 years:

Boys Carpentry and Joinery






Girls Domestic Training


Hygiene and care of the sick
For the purpose of carrying out the scheme, the following will be necessary:

  1. Re-establishment of the Dormitory or Children’s Home on an improved basis.

  2. A small cottage of 3 rooms for Domestic Training.

  3. Workshops and appliances.

  4. Appointment of specially qualified lady assistant, teacher to the school.

  5. Appointment of a specially qualified matron for the Children’s Home.

GRG 18/2/1725/1920

Memo from Dir. of Ed. to Min. of Ed. 23.6.1920

Forming Enclosure to ED, No. 1725, 1920.

Memorandum to the Honorable the Minister of Education.

Point McLeay School.
I visited the school at the Point McLeay Aborigines Station on Friday the 18th instant, and was much pleased with the work being done by Mr. W.T. Lawrie, the teacher, and his wife. These people are eminently suited for this special work; they are interested in it, and possess the true missionary spirit so essential to the successful handling of this class of children.

Two problems occur to me in connection with the school which should not be difficult to solve –

  1. The character of the instruction that should be given in the school.

  2. The retention of the services of Mr. Lawrie and his wife as teachers at this school on account of their special fitness for the work.


The school consists of from 50 to 60 children, a very few full-blooded blacks, and the majority half-castes, quadroons and octoroons. It is generally conceded that the mentality of such children is two years below that of English children. Their position in the scheme of things after the age of 14 years must be that of hewers of wood and drawers of water. The instruction given in the school should, in my opinion, be based on this assumption, less time being given to formal instruction, and more to the development of manual dexterity. The children of both sexes should be taught reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic and drawing up to the standard of the Fifth Grade, and after the age of 11 years, their afternoons should be devoted entirely to manual work – the girls should be taught needlework, cookery, housewifery, laundry work, etc., and the boys to handle tools in woodwork, and in the school garden.

So far as the boys are concerned the necessary equipment of two benches with tools for both woodwork and gardening are already supplied. All that needs to be done is to extend the scope of the work, and after a time to give the wood models a utilitarian character.

In the case of the girls, however, no manual work but needlework is attempted. If the Aborigines Department would find a suitable room, say 20’ x 16’, and this room were equipped with the necessary wood stove, tubs etc., Mrs. Lawrie, or some other suitable person could be appointed to undertake the necessary tuition in all subjects mentioned above, in addition to the needlework.

At the age of 14 years the children could be boarded out in accordance with the scheme already under consideration. Training such as is indicated above would render them useful, and they would surely be sought after to a greater extent than the neglected children who are at present boarded out by the State Children’s Department, if only because of the suitable training they would receive.


This school is graded as “Special” under Regulation XXXIII, Clause 18, but the salary has never been fixed by the Minister as provided in that Regulation. This fact unsettles Mr. Lawrie who is constantly on the lookout for promotion to some other school. If he gains it his special gifts and talents will be lost to the State.

Mr. Lawrie was offered Blyth School in October, 1919, but representations were made by the Protector of Aborigines and others, to the effect that he was practically indispensable at the Station, and he was allowed to remain at the school. Had he accepted the Blyth School he would now be in receipt of £ 240 per annum, with a prospect of rising to £ 230 per annum. He is receiving at present £ 230 per annum. It appear to me fair that the salary for this school should be fixed at £ 250 - £ 300 so long as Mr. Lawrie remains in charge. The work and responsibilities are quite worth this amount.

Mrs. Lawrie at present teaches needlework, and is paid in accordance with Regulation XI, Clause 23. She draws a total of about £ 10 per annum, for one afternoon’s work per week. As a matter of fact she does much more than she is paid for, and works in the school for more than the prescribed time.

If the ideas mentioned above in regard to the curriculum were carried out, employment could be found for Mrs. Lawrie for at least three afternoons each per week. A fair salary would be £ 12 per annum per afternoon.

Having regard to all the circumstances of the case, I recommend -

(1) That the Aborigines Department be asked to provide suitable accommodation for the

teaching of cookery and laundry work to the girls.

(2) That the Education Department provide the necessary equipment at a probable cost of £40.

  1. That the instruction given in the school be modelled on the lines indicated in this minute.

  2. That the salary of Mr. Lawrie be fixed at £ 250 - £ 300 per annum from 1st January next.

  3. That the teacher employed in connection with the domestic work (probably Mrs Lawrie) be paid at the rate of £ 6 per annum for one hour’s work per week: £ 24 per annum.

W. T. McCoy, Director of Education.

23rd June, 1920.

Note appended: Approved except No. 4 which is to stand over for general revision of salaries by Govt. G.R., M.E., 23/6/20.

South Australia


MEMORANDUM of AGREEMENT made this day of 19 , in pursuance of the Aborigines Act, 1911, between

of Adelaide, Chief Protector of Aboriginals, acting in his capacity as the Legal Guardian of the Employee hereinafter mentioned (hereinafter called “the Guardian”) of the first part:

[Full name of aboriginal or half-caste] of [ Address ]

[ Occupation ] (hereinafter called “the Employee’) of the second part:

and [ Full name of Employer ] of [ Address ] [Occupation] (hereinafter called “the Employer”) of the third part:

WHEREBY it is agreed as follows, that is to say:--

1. In consideration of the agreements hereinafter contained on the part of the Guardian and the Employee, the Employer hereby agrees with the Guardian and with the Employee:

(a) that the Employer will employ the Employee [as a farm labourer, domestic helper, shop assistant, carpenter-apprenctice] in or upon the Employer’s [farm or house of business of ….. ] at from the date of these presents until the Employee attains the age of 21 years, at the following wages:-

For the first year per week

For the second year per week

For the third year per week

For the fourth year per week

For the fifth year per week

For the sixth year per week

For the seventh year per week

  1. that the said wages shall be payable as follows:--

During the first year per week

During the second year per week

During the third year per week

During the fourth year per week

During the fifth year per week

During the sixth year per week

During the seventh year per week

Shall be paid to the Employee for clothing and for pocket money, and the balance (less the cost of any medical or surgical attention and medicine procured for the Employee as hereinafter mentioned) shall be paid monthly to the Guardian, or his appointee, to be paid by him, applied as hereinafter mentioned;

and medicine procured for the Employee by the Employer as hereinbefore mentioned.

(c) that all such wages with the interest thereon paid to the Guardian by the Employer as aforesaid shall be held by the Guardian, or his appointee, and be applied FIRSTLY for the benefit of the Employee when and in such manner as the Guardian from time to time deems advisable, and SECONDLY any balance (subject as hereinafter provided) shall be paid to the employee upon the Employee attaining the age of 21 years.

  1. The Employee hereby further agrees with the Guardian that if the Guardian is satisfied that the Employee is guilty of misbehaviour, or of wilful neglect of duty, it shall be lawful for the Guardian, by writing under his hand, to forfeit any moneys held by the Guardian under this agreement on behalf of the Employee, or any part of such moneys, and in the event of any such forfeiture, the moneys so forfeited shall be applied in such manner as the Guardian may direct.

4. It is hereby agreed by and between the parties hereto as follows:

(a) the Employer shall, with the consent in writing of the Guardian first had and obtained, have the right at any time during the currency of this agreement, if the Employee is guilty of such misconduct as would justify a master in dismissing a servant without notice, or for any other reason which appears good and sufficient to the Guardian, to dismiss the Employee;

(b) that the Guardian, and every Protector of Aboriginals appointed under the Aborigines Act, 1911, and every person appointed from time to time in that behalf by the Guardian, shall have authority to visit the employee at all reasonable times, and to enquire as to whether the Employee is being well treated, and as to whether the Employer is observing the provisions of this agreement, and, in the case of Protectors and persons so appointed, to report to the Guardian thereon, and the Employer shall not in any way interfere with the Guardian, or any such Protector or person, in the exercise of such authority but shall allow him or them every facility necessary for the exercise thereof;

(c) if, at any time, during the currency of this agreement the Employer fails to observe the provisions of this agreement, or any of them or is not properly treating the Employee, the Guardian may terminate this agreement and may withdraw the employee from the service of the employer, and the Employer shall have no redress or remedy whatever for such withdrawal or for loss of service in consequence thereof. If the agreement is so terminated or otherwise become of no eff4ect the Guardian may by order in writing signed by him require the Employee forthwith to return to any place or institution to be named in the Order, and the Guardian may, by the same or a separate Order, require the employer forthwith to deliver the employee to some person therein named. Upon the receipt of any such order the employer shall forthwith deliver up the Employee to the person named in such order, and the employee shall forthwith return to the place or institution named in such order;

(d) Any dispute which may arise between the parties hereto in connection with this agreement shall be referred to the Minister of the Crown to whom the administration of the said Aborigines Act, 1911, is for the time being committed by the governor; and the decision of such Minister shall be final and binding on all parties;

(e) For the purposes of this agreement the age f the Employee shall be deemed to be 14 years of age on the day of 19 .
IN WITNESS whereof the parties hereto have hereunto subscribed their names on the day and year first above mentioned.
SIGNED by the said

in his capacity as Legal Guardian

of the Employee as aforesaid

SIGNED by the said

In the presence of

SIGNED by the said

In the presence of

From AFA Annual Report, 1921:
[7] The President, Mr Walter Hutley, and the Treasurer, Mr. C.E. Taplin, paid a visit to the Station in June and brought up a report which was subsequently sent to the Minister controlling the Ab.’s Dept and the Advisory Council for Aborigines.
The report covered the following recommendations:
1. That more stringent measures be taken to prevent undesirable and workless young men remaining on the Station.

2. That full-blooded aborigines receive full consideration in the allotment of cottages and in employment [i.e. at PM]

3. That the aged full-blood aborigines receive consideration in grants of rations and articles of clothing.

4. That the store be extended rather than reduced in its activities.

5. That the rails already on the Station should be laid on the jetty.

6. In our opinion it is necessary to connect the station by telephone in case of illness.

7. That now a suitable jetty with plenty of depth of water alongside has been erected at the station, the mail boat from Milang should be required by the Govt to call here. This would be of immense saving of time, vehicles and cost to the Station.
[8] ‘Almost every suggestion made was approved by the Minister, and will be acted upon by the Dept., the exceptions being the unwillingness of the Federal Government to connect the PM Station by telephone so as to meet a public need and to provide the means of keeping directly in touch with the doctor at Tailem Bend in case of illness.

Suggested Curriculum for Aboriginal and Half-caste Children at Pt McLeay, 7.6.1922


Grade I to page 30 of First Primer and similar sentences – all in script

Grade II Complete First Primer and do similar from Blackboard & Charts

Grade III Second Primer and similar stories

Grade IV Introductory Reader and similar stories

Grade V & VI First and Second Adelaide Readers and Fourth Grade Ch. Hour

Grade VII Gateways to History Bk IV; Ch. Hour Grade V
Writing Full standard for other schools


Grades I, II & III From Reading Books

Grade IV Reader, and Adelaide Spelling Bk No. I.

Grades V & VI From Readers and A.P. Spelling Bk. For Grade IV.

Grade VII From Readers and A.P. Sp. Bk. For Grade V.

Oral and Written Composition

Grades I to IV As set out for Grades I to III in other schools.

Grades V, VI & VII As set out for Grades IV and V in other schools with the addition of letter

Poetry Only easy poems containing story, simple description or sentiment within

the scope of the children.


Grades V to VII Stories on the lines set out for Grade IV in other schools.


Grades I to IV As set out for Grades I to III in other schools

Grades V to VII As set out for Grades IV & V in other schools.

In the woodwork and domestic classes, a certain amount of geography

will be taught, e.g. the origin etc., of materials used.
Nature knowledge confined to observation lessons and work in the school garden.

Grades I to II As for other small schools.

Grades V to VII Free-line and woodwork plans.

Music, Morals, & Physical Education

Full standard for small schools.
Needlework Full standard.
Manual work.

Grades I to IV as in other schools.

Grades V to VII Boys: The woodwork course gradually leading to practical carpentry.

Girls: Attempt the course for Domestic Art Centres in Primary Dept. in

Housewifery, Cookery & Laundry work.

Grade I Nos 1 to 6, + - x divide, internal counting

Money: 1/2’, 1’, 3’, 6’. 1/2 and 1/4 concretely.

Grade II Nos 1 to 10, operations, internal counting.

Coins, yard & foot, days of week, etc.

Grade III Nos 1 to 20, operations, and suitable tables, coins, fractions, etc.

Grade IV Nos 1 to 100, operations, as for Grade II.

Multiplication and Division Tables 10 x 10.

Measuring. All tables for Grade II.

Grade V as set out for Grade III in other schools.

Grade VI as set out for Grade IV in other schools.

Grade VII as set out for Grade V in other schools.

Number of lessons to be given each week in Grades V to VII

Reading 6 Copy Books 1 Music 11/2

Spelling 5 Trans. 2 Moral 1/2

Dictation 1 Arithc 8 Drill 1

Oral and Written Compn

4 Geography 2 Drawing 1

Poetry 1 History 1 Manual &

Domestic 10

Total 45

June 7th 1922 W.T. Lawrie.

Appendix 1:


-- APRIL, 1937.


(1) Opening speech by Minister for the Interior [Mr John McEwen].

  1. Voting power at Conference.

(3) Matters put forward by Queensland.

(a) Uniform policy to be adopted, broad enough to cover the different conditions in the various States, briefly on the following lines:-

(i) protection of the nomadic tribes, their gradual development to self-independence

and restoration of racial pride and confidence;

(ii) control, relief and protection of the detribalised;

(iii) moral protection of females, check on miscegenation;

(iv) upliftment of superior crossbreed;

(v) health control, nutrition, medical care;

(vi) sympathetic government - defence of primitive offenders.

(b) Uniform legislation for suppression of abuses, protection from exploitation, check of

traffic in drink, drugs and prostitution.

(c) co-operation between the State Administrations be aimed at in the matter of controlling

migrations, return of absconders, wife deserters and stranded natives.

(d) A definite sum be made available by the Commonwealth Government for capital

expenditure on development of Aboriginal institutions towards self-support.

(4) Matters listed by New South Wales.

(a) The recent decision of the Commissioner for Maternity Allowances to reject claims for the

bonus submitted by women of aboriginal blood living on Reserves;

(b) Supply of liquor to New South Wales aboriginals in Victoria.

(c) Desirability of establishment of some control of New South Wales aboriginals camped in

Victoria, with particular reference to sanitation, and medical treatment for eye troubles and

other diseases.
(5) Matters listed by Western Australia.

(a) Destiny of the race -- legislation bearing upon;

(b) Commonwealth financial aid;

(c) Maternity allowances;

(d) Old age pensions;

(e) Coast patrol;

(f) Cost of means of meeting leper menace;

(g) Trans-line natives;

  1. Central Australian Reservations - control of.

(6) Matters raised by Commonwealth.

(a) Question of representation at future Conferences of bodies interested in aboriginal welfare


(b) Policy in regard to economic development of Aboriginal Reserves;

(c) Subsidies to missions;

(d) Control by Government of activities of missions;

(e) Education of aboriginals;

(f) Policy in regard to half-castes;

(g) Employment of aboriginals - work on which they may be engaged; payment of wages;

(h) Aboriginal women - protection of;

(i) Compellability of female aboriginal witnesses;

(j) Special Court for native offenders;

(k) Chaining of aboriginal prisoners;

(l) Police as Protectors;

(m) Women Protectors;

(n) Policy in regard to -




(o) Corporal punishment.

1938: Summary or Native Requests
Summary of Requests made by Natives during Official Inspection by the Advisory Council [of Aborigines] on March 23rd and 24th, 1938.

  • That we consider that the Point Mcleay Mission Station should be run on Christian lines and that in order to bring this about we urge that the Station should be placed under the supervision and control of the Aborigines’ Friends’ Association.

  • That in order to properly train the native children in proper habits and fit them for the future the dormitory system should be re-established at Point McLeay.

  • That where it is found necessary to exercise discipline upon natives for their misdeeds the deputation urged that the practice of the A.F.A. should be reverted to that of expulsion from the Station for a period, instead of proceeding against them at the law court Meningie, and sending them to prison.

  • That a conciliation court be established at Point Mcleay to hear any grievances arising on the Station, as it is believed that such a method of procedure would facilitate the better government of the native population.

  • That when brought before the Court no plea shall be taken from an aboriginal except in the presence and hearing of the Chief Protector of Aboriginals.

  • The vocational training be given to native boys and girls who show the necessary qualifications, so that in passing out of the Station they may be able to earn their own living.

  • That the native reserves on the Coorong and at Wellington be resumed from the Squatters and made available to the aborigines, and that they be assisted to develop them.

  • That a sufficient water supply be secured to the Station and laid on the cottages to meet domestic requirements.

  • That an improved ambulance be secured for conveying sick people to the Hospital.

  • That any future houses erected at the Station for natives consist of not less than two rooms.

10a. That any new cottages to be built should contain not less than three rooms.

  • That when the barrage is complete an irrigation scheme be introduced so that natives may have land allotted to them on the Station for cultivation under proper supervision.

  • That when it is necessary for the Department to obtain reports concerning aborigines, that these be provided by Officials of the Department instead of the Police whom the natives consider are prejudiced against them.

  • That as far as possible the work on the Station should be let by contract which would do away with the necessity of a special Overseer being appointed by the Government.

  • That there is an urgent need for improved sanitary arrangements on the Station.

  • That special consideration be given to the older natives so as to assure to them some comfort in their declining years and that a home be provided near the Hospital.

  • That single men be employed at least three days a week for 7/- a day, or as an alternative for the Government to supply them with clothes and boots.

  • Enquiries to be made as to whether suitable aborigines already on the land cannot share in the Commonwealth grant to the State, so as to improve and maintain the holdings and enable others who desire it to settle down on the land and earn their own living.

  • The need for a mortuary.

  • That the prices of goods in the store are high, flour being threepence a pound, and a sixteen ounce tin of jam being elevenpence.

  • That 11/2 pints only of milk is allowed per family whatever the number of children, but special cases get extra.

  • Dissatisfaction was expressed in regard to Sister Goldfinch as a nurse; also objection was taken to the fact of her brother and his wife staying at the hospital.

  • That the cottages need bathrooms.

  • That all mothers on the Station should receive the baby bonus.

  • That there must be a resident missionary on the Station.

  • That some families would like to get off the Station, and be given a start in the same way as white people. Besides land there is need for help with implements, etc.

  • That the blankets are not sufficient in number, and that their quality is not very good.

Submitted to the ACA meeting, 5.4.1938
Appendix 2:
Commonwealth and States Native Welfare Conference, August 1951

(Copy sent by Menzies to Playford, and passed on to Penhall)


  • Commonwealth’s Nationality and Citizenship Act 1948: ‘a person born in Australia

after the commencement of this Act shall be an Australian citizen by birth.’

- including Aborigines, depending on effects of State Acts.

- ‘a coloured person should be given the option to be classified as Aboriginal or not.’

- Exemption does not mean full citizenship (since revocable).

  • legislative action needed to bring Aboriginal legislation into line with ‘contemporary

views of human rights.’

- Definitions: in S.A., all with Aboriginal blood are Aboriginal.

- SA: exemptions issued by A.P.B.

- unconditional declaration of exemption non-revocable.

- made automatically after three years of conditional exemption, if not made before.

- children born after unconditional declaration are not Aboriginal from birth, i.e. do not

come under the Act.

- Aborigines should be entitled to all benefits if exempt from Act.


Native education presupposes an ultimate objective, and agreement on that objective, plus

how to cater for native needs, therefore the best means to be employed.

Long-term purpose: ‘to educate the Aboriginal so that he may be able to not only

understand the way of life in which he is to participate, but also to take his place as a

self-supporting individual of the general community, contributing his fair quota of work

and talent to its economic life and accepting its standards of conduct and general obligations.’

- so, what action procedures, and what sort of individual programmes:

‘no single programme ... can be devised to meet all circumstances.’

+ juvenile, adolescent and adult education.

Long-term objective of native education: education for living in the European community:

- spiritual, cultural and for work.

- ‘wherever practical and convenient, participation in the normal facilities of the European community will be permitted the aboriginal ... ‘

- ‘at the same time, it is assumed that the aboriginal who is capable of participation in the

normal educational facilities of the white community will not be denied the right, if he so

chooses, to attend a special school established for his race, if that school is suitable to and

fitted to his needs. The question of companionship may assume some importance.’

- missions to continue to provide as before.

- hostels if necessary for rural youth in secondary education and employment training.

- ‘need for training in rural occupations must not be overlooked.’

- education for some level of self-sufficiency; note aboriginal suitability for outdoor


  • ‘Further, there is a need to make greater use of the Aboriginal as a labour force in the

rural economy.’

- much rural training can still go on on Missions and Government Stations.

- Special Aboriginal rural training should be established for youths.

- specialised training of teachers of Aborigines: for absorption into the economy,

especially the rural economy.

- ‘questions to be considered:

- special and/or separate schools ?

  • ‘is it necessary to make special provision for the rural training of natives whose

life will be spent on stations or farms ?’

- ‘secondary education: especially technical training, domestic sciences and trades

should be given prominence.’

- shouldn’t focus on the same wage scale:

  • depends on whether Aborigines are moving towards citizenship, or are those for whom

special provisions have to be made. If the latter, still a need for protection from

exploitation, therefore still a role for boards like the Aborigines’ Protection Board.

- or for some special native labour employment agencies.

- wages etc. should be such as encourage Aborigines to work, not live in indolence.


- Assimilation as long-term objective.

- Aborigines still kept separate from whites.

- should be proper preparation for assimilation.

  • note the increasing difficulties of segregation: so the missions should look ‘to work

themselves out of a job, or into a different kind of job.’

  • in the meantime, how to recruit best staff and what sort of training courses for new


- meanwhile, Aborigines should be trained for work, initially to work on the Missions


- Questions: - Assimilation or Segregation ?

- special staff recruitment and training ?

- needs to be uniformity across Australia.

- if Aborigines have voting rights, then these rights should be compulsory [as for other


- Special Aboriginal member(s) of Parliament: too many objections.
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