Conjunctions & transitions

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1. ---- I dislike sentimental films, sometimes, when I'm not feeling very energetic, I can curl up on the sofa and watch one.

A) As soon as

B) Much as

C) The moment

D) However

E) Despite

2. She is fed up with sharing a house with others; ----, she is looking for her own flat.

A) moreover

B) therefore

C) however

D) although

E) nevertheless

3. He is not leaving the company because he is not happy there; ---- he has enjoyed working there, but he has other reasons.

A) on the other hand

B) as a result

C) however

D) on the contrary

E) nonetheless

4. This diet and exercise plan is ---- costly ---- painful, so anyone with a little will-power can follow it with ease.

A) not only / but also

B) no matter / how

C) so much / that

D) whether / or

E) neither / nor

5. ---- her illness leaving her very weak at times, she tries to derive pleasure from life.

A) Despite

B) Whereas

C) Although

D) However

E) Instead of

6. She had ---- placed the plate of cakes on the table ---- the children gave her the empty plate and requested some more.

A) the moment / while

B) hardly / when

C) neither / nor

D) yet / still

E) not only / but also

7. ---- how many windows I open, I can't get any air movement in the house.

A) Even if

B) Although

C) No matter

D) Whereas

E) However

8. We had better take a spare blanket with us ---- it gets cooler than we expect in the mountains.

A) if only

B) so that

C) thus

D) in case

E) even though

9. ---- they played better than they have so far in the cup, they lost the match.

A) Despite

B) No sooner

C) In contrast

D) However

E) Although

10. ---- television channel you watch, the news bulletins are all the same, as if written by the same person!

A) No matter

B) However

C) Whichever

D) As soon as

E) The more

11. ---- relieve some of the burden on the city's only airport, they are planning to build a second one.

A) No matter

B) In case

C) In order to

D) Even though

E) Owing to

12. Our students have to choose to study ---- French ---- Spanish, because they are the compulsory languages selected by the board.

A) such / as

B) neither / nor

C) scarcely / and

D) whether / or

E) either / or

13. ---- we discuss the fine details, let me ask you whether you are interested in our offer.

A) However

B) Consequently

C) Afterwards

D) In spite of

E) Before

14. Western Scotland is wild and mountainous, ---- Eastern Scotland is lush farmland.

A) despite

B) whereas

C) as a result

D) nevertheless

E) therefore

15. I don't see why the boys can't go fishing ---- they promise to stay together and come back before it gets dark.

A) whereas

B) no matter

C) whether

D) as long as

E) in spite of

16. ---- your mothers' efforts in making the costumes, the whole cast of the play looked great.

A) Despite

B) However

C) Thanks to

D) As a result

E) Much as

17. He was ---- well liked ---- everybody in the firm gave generously towards his retirement present.

A) so / that

B) not only / and

C) either / or

D) neither / nor

E) both / and

18. He was just ---- calm ---- anybody could be under the circumstances.

A) not only / but also

B) so / that

C) much / than

D) as / as

E) neither / nor

19. ---- does the International Students' Society help foreign students settle in, ---- it organizes sightseeing trips as well.

A) So / that

B) No sooner / than

C) Not only / but

D) Both / and

E) Neither / nor

20. ---- 'Internet Cafes', students who can't afford computers have access to the Internet and to e-mail.

A) In order that

B) Owing to

C) Wherever

D) Whereas

E) Whoever

21. Black bears don't usually attack humans. ----, they normally run away from us.

A) On the contrary

B) On the other hand

C) Furthermore

D) Consequently

E) Nevertheless

22. She has been looking much more enthusiastic about the future ---- she accepted her new job.

A) since

B) until

C) before

D) when

E) by the time

23. ---- the renovation of their football stadium, the team will be using another team's ground next season.

A) However

B) While

C) Due to

D) Because

E) Whereas

24. The traffic into town usually gets a bit lighter ---- the schools have closed for the summer.

A) in case

B) so that

C) while

D) once

E) although

25. ---- your mother comes to visit, we must remember to give her the things your sister left for her.

A) Whereas

B) When

C) However

D) By the time

E) No matter

26. When deep-sea diving, you must pay attention to the time, ---- staying under water too long may result in serious illness.

A) whereas

B) so

C) for

D) but

E) whenever

27. Please answer the telephone for the next hour ---- the receptionist has gone to the dentist.

A) while

B) until

C) therefore

D) so

E) as

28. The residents received some warning of the tornado; ----, several people were injured.

A) nonetheless

B) despite

C) even though

D) thus

E) otherwise

29. ---- the authorities try, they don't seem to be able to reduce the crime rate.

A) Whoever

B) No sooner

C) No matter

D) Whatever

E) By the time

30. ---- vast distances and great difficulties in transportation, there was a remarkable amount of trade in the ancient world.

A) Whenever

B) As a consequence of

C) While

D) Even though

E) In spite of

31. ---- the facts that the café is close to the university and offers reasonably priced meals, it is very popular with students.

A) On account

B) Owing to

C) Whereas

D) Because

E) As long as

32. There are a lot of jellyfish in the water around here; ---- they are a harmless variety.

A) no matter

B) besides

C) consequently

D) however

E) much as

33. Playing games in the back, the children didn't get bored ---- we drove to the resort.

A) by the time

B) for

C) as

D) during

E) since

34. He was tired of commuting such a long way to work, ---- he was quite excited when a local company offered him a job.

A) as

B) so

C) for

D) though

E) still

35. It was clear that ---- how much he protested, his father was not going to change his mind.

A) no matter

B) whereas

C) whenever

D) whatever

E) although

36. ---- it was extremely windy, we managed to have a good game of beach volleyball.

A) However

B) No matter

C) In spite of

D) Even though

E) For fear that

37. We are going to set out at dawn tomorrow, ---- we have loaded up the car tonight.

A) as

B) when

C) so

D) for

E) because

38. We had to move offices temporarily ---- a new carpet was being fitted in ours.

A) much as

B) wherever

C) during

D) until

E) while

39. We cannot move back into our office ---- the workmen have cleared up.

A) while

B) by the time

C) as long as

D) until

E) when

40. His parents were happy that he managed to gain a university degree ---- his handicap.

A) thus

B) provided

C) besides

D) though

E) despite

41. ---- the sports centre has marvellous facilities, it is usually crowded with sports enthusiasts.

A) Despite

B) Whenever

C) Because

D) However

E) On account

42. Working hours for farmers, ---- the fixed hours of office workers, are irregular and dependent upon the needs of livestock and crops.

A) in order to

B) in contrast to

C) nevertheless

D) in spite of

E) on the other hand

43. ---- we scrubbed the floor, ---- obvious it became that a special cleaning fluid would be required to remove the marks.

A) Hardly / when

B) Not only / but also

C) However / so

D) No matter / how

E) The more / the more

44. I have heard that he has been doing well ---- he opened his own language school.

A) since

B) while

C) no sooner

D) when

E) by the time

45. ---- the way they are portrayed in numerous films and stories as man-eating creatures, only a few species of sharks are known to attack humans

A) As

B) Owing to

C) Unlike

D) Although

E) Because

46. ---- people are more aware of the cruelty of importing exotic animals, dealers are less likely to find buyers for pets such as monkeys and parrots.

A) As a result

B) Because of

C) Nevertheless

D) In contrast to

E) Now that

47. He had ---- opened the doors of the shop ---- a customer came in and bought all the fresh cream cakes.

A) both / and

B) not only / but also

C) the earlier / the more

D) no sooner / than

E) neither / nor

48. I like to read my newspaper ---- travelling to work, but I often leave it behind.

A) instead of

B) while

C) as soon as

D) because of

E) since

49. ---- you have used the photocopier, please don't forget to turn it off.

A) After

B) While

C) Just

D) Before

E) Unless

50. I'm worried about him as he went directly to bed ---- hardly touching his dinner.

A) while

B) when

C) before

D) after

E) until

51. People often don't tell the truth on market surveys; ----, the results obtained from them are not always accurate.

A) for

B) otherwise

C) due to

D) thus

E) however

52. The people of Quebec, Canada, are ---- patriotic ---- the blue and white provincial flag flies over many homes and businesses.

A) but / still

B) neither / nor

C) just as / when

D) not only / but also

E) so / that

53. The ban on night-time visitors to Patara beach is ---- the fact that the turtles get confused about which direction the sea is when they see artificial light.

A) because

B) due to

C) despite

D) though

E) in order to

54. ---- we sat down for our coffee break, the fire alarm rang.

A) Hardly

B) Seeing that

C) As long as

D) Until

E) Just as

55. ---- being an accomplished artist Leonardo da Vinci was also a sculptor, an architect and a man of science.

A) Not only

B) However

C) In order to

D) Besides

E) Moreover


1. ---- the great diversity in social behaviour and habits between different types of ants, most of them have the same basic physical structure.

A) Regardless

B) Even though

C) As if

D) Besides

E) Despite

2. Strawberries are ---- cheap at the moment ---- we should make some jam.

A) both / and

B) not only / but also

C) so / that

D) more / than

E) as / as

3. This book is ---- entertaining ---- informative, so I definitely recommend it to you.

A) both / and

B) either / or

C) so / that

D) neither / nor

E) whether / or

4. Some people argue that traditional blood sports, ---- fox-hunting and bullfighting, should be banned because they are barbaric and in humane.

A) in case

B) even when

C) as far as

D) such as

E) as though

5. The police are determined to find the culprits ---- long it may take to trace them.

A) in spite of

B) however

C) even if

D) the more

E) no matter

6. ---- engaged in as competition ---- as recreation, waterskiing is an exhilarating outdoor sport.

A) No sooner / than

B) Unless / and

C) Whether / or

D) Hardly / when

E) The more / the less

7. Special heat sensors on the front of the rattlesnake's head enable it ---- to detect the presence of prey in the dark ---- to strike its victim accurately.

A) in addition / due

B) not only / but also

C) whether / or

D) either / or

E) scarcely / when

8. Peter is leaving to go back to England, ---- we are holding a farewell dinner for him.

A) or else

B) since

C) once

D) yet

E) so

9. As we will be touring, we could take the tent just ---- we see a nice campsite and want to stop.

A) in case

B) when

C) unless

D) until

E) as

10. ---- urgently callers say they need to speak to me, I do not want any calls for the next hour.

A) Moreover

B) Provided that

C) However

D) Even if

E) The more

11. ---- the work was physically demanding, and at times we felt really exhausted, seeing the end result was very satisfying.

A) Owing to

B) Even though

C) No matter

D) As though

E) However

12. He has put on a little weight ---- he started doing this sedentary office job.

A) once

B) when

C) despite

D) since

E) before

13. It is a pebble beach, ---- we had better take some beach mats to lie on.

A) as

B) because

C) unless

D) for

E) so

14. They looked around a lot of different buildings ---- they could choose the most suitable one to rent for their new business.

A) yet

B) besides

C) since

D) by the time

E) so that

15. ---- he is a strong man, he had no trouble hiking with a heavy rucksack.

A) For

B) Since

C) Until

D) Provided that

E) When

16. I'm not sure ---- he has decided to take the new job ---- stay with his present employer.

A) whether / or

B) neither / nor

C) yet / still

D) not only / but also

E) hardly / when

17. I wasn't disappointed not to win the final ---- I hadn't even expected to get as far as I had in the competition.

A) even

B) though

C) however

D) as

E) providing

18. You'll have awfully sore legs tomorrow ---- you don't use plenty of lotion now to protect them from this strong sun.

A) or

B) in case

C) if

D) so

E) still

19. ---- somebody bought me a ticket, I still wouldn't go to see the Spice Girls perform.

A) However

B) Only if

C) Even if

D) Until

E) Besides

20. ---- the introduction of the new education act, elementary school children have been taught English from the fourth grade.

A) In order to

B) Although

C) Until

D) During

E) Since

21. They will start constructing the new roof ---- every resident has paid their contribution.

A) no sooner

B) while

C) in order that

D) as soon as

E) no matter

22. It was ---- she was in Milan that she was discovered by a fashion designer and persuaded to work as a model.

A) while

B) during

C) no sooner

D) despite

E) besides

23. ---- the solar system is tiny compared with the distances to galaxies or even to nearby stars, it is enormous when compared with distances on the Earth.

A) However

B) Even though

C) Nevertheless

D) As long as

E) The fact that

24. They tried not to swallow any water as they swam across the river ---- it might be contaminated.

A) for fear that

B) meanwhile

C) besides

D) even though

E) regardless

25. They'll be able to take on some permanent staff ---- they have fully established themselves in the city.

A) as though

B) while

C) when

D) even if

E) during

26. He was extremely happy about winning the contest, because it gave him ---- the opportunity to join a professional orchestra, ---- the chance to travel.

A) either / or

B) no sooner / than

C) whether / or

D) not only / but also

E) neither / nor

27. The household vacuum cleaner was first mass-produced by William Henry Hoover; ----, it is now commonly referred to as a 'hoover'.

A) besides

B) on the contrary

C) otherwise

D) whereas

E) therefore

28. The inhabitants of Zelve were re-housed in a nearby village ---- prevent any more injuries and deaths from rock fall.

A) in order that

B) in case

C) so as to

D) even if

E) as far as

29. We wrapped the roast chicken in special paper ---- it would stay warm until our guests arrived.

A) while

B) so that

C) in case

D) as though

E) much as

30. The population of the rare mountain gorilla has increased in the last few years largely ---- the Rwandan government's recognition of this animal's importance to the tourist industry.

A) nevertheless

B) as for

C) otherwise

D) owing to

E) furthermore

31. ---- so it is a good idea to make a reservation.

A) The hotels can be very busy at this time of year.

B) I think there will be plenty of seats left.

C) I guess he had arrived at a very late hour.

D) Package tours are getting more and more expensive.

E) We haven't decided where to go on holiday yet.

32. ----, he wrote more than 600 songs in his brief musical career.

A) Although the German composer Schubert died at the age of 32

B) Chopin was born in Poland but spent most of his adult life in Paris.

C) At a young age, Beethoven began to suffer from early symptoms of deafness.

D) By the time Brahms completed the first of his four symphonies

E) Rossini, who reigned as Italy's foremost composer of the early 19th century

33. Chasing the chickens back into their coop, ----.

A) the birds ran in all directions

B) for fear that they would disturb the visitors

C) Farmer Oak's patience was wearing thin

D) the old farmer tripped and hurt his knee

E) they would thus lay their eggs in the proper place

34. Since opening this pension three years ago, ---- .

A) virtually the same customers came to stay here every year

B) we have added several facilities, including a swimming pool

C) the possibility of going bankrupt still threatens us

D) our chief is now regarded as the best around here

E) it has become one of the most popular in town

35. As its surface is so hard, ----.

A) gem stones are not only used for jewellery but also in industry.

B) she bought some new blankets for the children

C) you'll find cushions more comfortable than chairs

D) it is actually composed of soft elements

E) a diamond can only be cut with another diamond

35. As its surface is so hard,      .

A) gem stones are not only used for jewellery but also in industry

B) she bought some new blankets for the children

C) you'll find cushions more comfortable than chairs

D) it is actually composed of soft elements

E) a diamond can only be cut with another diamond

36.      , it's difficult to decide which one to buy.

A) In addition to the high costs of medical services in the country

B) When the gallery owner has offered his opinion

C) Assuming that this armchair may not fit in the place

D) Until a friend of ours made the decision for us

E) As we like both pictures so much

37. Besides the threat from illegal hunting,      .

A) they have been unable to stop this brutal trade

B) the people who kill gorillas or capture them for zoos

C) the mountain gorilla is in danger from human settlement

D) human beings have virtually wiped out certain species

E) it is still not too late to save the giant panda

38. Having bought the flat between them,      .

A) his devotion to restoring them to their former styles was admirable

B) l thought the high price was justified because it had an extensive garden

C) it was really amazing how quickly they renovated it

D) my sisters will share the cost of the alterations made in it

E) the house has a large balcony and a wonderful sea view

39. Although my brother likes most aspects of his job,      .

A) he has never got used to travelling abroad on business

B) he still isn't thinking of applying for a different position

C) he enjoyed going on business trips as well

D) l think it would be foolish of him to quit now

E) he works really hard in order to obtain a promotion

40. in addition to its strategic location that has made it a centre of commerce,      .

A) many companies have their headquarters there

B) today the city is not so important internationally

C) the city in an important cultural centre

D) many people move there to work

E) it is, however, no longer the capital city

41. – 45. sorularda verilen cümleye anlamca en yakın olan seçeneği bulu­nuz.

41. Fishing is a restful way to spend your leisure time, whether you catch anything or not.

A) The best thing for you to do in your spare time is to go fishing, as it is very relaxing.

B) Even if you don't catch anything, going fishing in your spare time is relaxing.

C) Fishing is extremely relaxing, especially when you catch something.

D) Fishing is not only relaxing but also a chance to catch something to eat,

E) Whenever l go fishing, l come back relaxed, even if l can't catch anything.

42. Although it is as hot there as it is in Istanbul, the weather in Cappadocia is more comfortable because the air is drier.

A) Cappadocia is hotter than Istanbul, it feels cooler because of the dry air, which makes it very pleasant.

B) The air in the Cappadocian region is not only pleasanter than in Istanbul but also cleaner and therefore it feels much more comfortable.

C) With its relatively cool and dry weather, Cappadocia has a pleasanter climate than Istanbul, which is usually hot and humid in the summer.

D) As the air in Cappadocia is not as humid as in Istanbul, the hot weather there is more agreeable even though both cities are the same temperature.

E) When Istanbul is hot and sticky, Cappadocia is usually cooler and drier, making it a very pleasant place to live in.

43. Ever since a fortune teller predicted that disaster loomed in Joanna’s future, she has been expecting something terrible to happen.

A) Joanna’s negative attitude was largely due to the predictions of a fortune teller who had predicted nothing but doom and gloom.

B) Joanna was ready for the disaster, for a fortune teller had warned her that it would happen sooner or later.

C) When Joanna was struck by a disaster, she couldn’t help remembering the fortune teller who had predicted one in her future.

D) Thanks to the predictions of a fortune teller, Joanna was ready when disaster struck.

E) Joanna has been anticipating a personal disaster from the time a fortune teller told her that one was approaching.

44. Before long, he became aware that his hearing problem not only was permanent, but was getting progressively worse.

A) He had been deaf for a very long time, yet he still refused to accept that his condition was permanent, and expected to get better eventually.

B) When he became convinced that his hearing problem was permanent, he had already been deaf for a very long time.

C) It didn’t take him long to realise that his hearing problem was deteriorating, and that his condition was not temporary.

D) Soon, he noticed that his hearing problem, which he had thought permanent, was gradually getting better.

E) For a long time, he believed that he was deaf temporarily; however, it was obvious that his condition was permanent.
45. The unusually hot weather in Texas, USA, this year has been responsible for a number of deaths, mainly of elderly residents.

A) Due to the exceptionally hot weather in Texas, USA, this year, elderly residents should be very careful to keep cool as over-exposure to heat can cause death.

B) Because Texas, USA, has an extremely hot climate, a number of elderly people die of sunstroke every year.

C) Texas this year has been so hot that lots of people have suffered from sunstroke.

D) Several, largely elderly, members of the population have lost their lives due to the unexpected heatwave that has hit Texas, USA, this year.

E) Lack of provisions for the elderly is the reason for so many deaths in the American state of Texas this year, where they have had an unusually hot summer.

46.-50. sorulara verilen İngilizce cümlenin Türkçe dengini bulunuz.

46. While astronomy did not progress in the West in medieval times, Hindu and Arabian astronomers kept the science alive during that period.

A) Batı`da orta çağlara kadar astronomi alanında pek bir ilerleme gözlenmemiştir ama Hint ve Arap gökbilimciler bu bilimi canlandırmışlardır.

B) Orta çağlarda astronomi Batı`da ilerlemezken, bu dönemde Hint ve Arap astromlar bu bilimi canlı tutmuşlardır.

C) Orta çağlarda Hint ve Arap gökbilimciler astronomiyi canlı tutmaya çalışırken, o dönemde bu bilim Batı`da neredeyse hiç ilerlememiştir.

D) Batılı gökbilimcilerin hiçbir ilerleme kaydedemediği orta çağlarda astronomi, Hint ve Arap astronomların katkılarıyla gelişmiştir.

E) Orta çağlarda astronomi biliminin ilerlemesi, Batılı değil, Hint ve Arap astronomlar sayesinde olmuştur.

47. We cannot call this child a genius perhaps, but it is certain that his intelligence is well above average.

A) Bu çocuğun bir dahi olduğunu söyleyemeyiz belki ama zeka düzeyinin ortalamanın bir hayli üzerinde olduğu kesin.

B) Sırf zeka düzeyi ortalamanın çok üzerinde diye bu çocuğu bir dahi olarak nitelememiz kesinlikle imkansızdır.

C) Zeka düzeyi ortalamanın çok üzerinde olan bu çocuğun belki de bir dahi olduğunu nedense hiçbirimiz düşünmüyoruz.

D) Bu çocuğun bir dahi olmadığını hepimiz biliyoruz ama zeka düzeyinin ortalamanın bir hayli üzerinde olduğunu da inkar edemeyiz.

E) Hepimizin dahi diye isimlendirdiği bu çocuk belki de sadece ortalamanın biraz üzerinde bir zeka düzeyine sahiptir.

48. A marriage is generally believed to link two families together, and the birth of children strengthens this tie.

A) Genel bir inanışa göre, iki aileyi birbirine sıkı bir şekilde bağlaması için evlilikte çocuk şarttır.

B) Genellikle, evliliğin iki aileyi birbirine bağladığına ve çocukların doğumunun bu bağı kuvvetlerindirdiğine inanılır.

C) Genellikle evlilik iki aileyi birbirine bağlar ama bu bağın kuvvetlenmesi çocukların doğumuyla mümkün olur.

D) Çocuklu ailelerde evlilik bağının daha kuvvetli olduğu inancı çok yaygındır.

E) Genel olarak insanlar, evliliğin iki aileyi birbirine bağladığına ama bu bağın çocukların doğumuyla kuvvetlendiğine inanırlar.

49. Some materials ejected from volcanoes cool so quickly that they solidify even before they strike the ground.

A) Volkanların püskürttüğü bazı maddeler çok çabuk soğur ve yere değer değmez katılaşırlar.

B) Volkanlardan püsküren bazı maddeler çok çabuk soğuma özelliğine sahiptirler ki bunlar daha yere değmeden katılaşmış olurlar.

C) Bazen volkanlar maddeleri o kadar yükseğe püskürtürler ki bunlar yere soğumuş ve katılaşmış olarak düşerler.

D) Bazen volkanların püskürttüğü maddeler hemen katılaşır ve daha yere çarpmadan soğurlar.

E) Volkanlardan püsküren bazı maddeler o kadar çabuk soğuyorlar ki daha yere değmeden katılaşıyorlar.

50. Ankara is an ancient city which, according to archaeologists, people have inhabited at least since the Stone Age.

A) Arkeolojik kazılar, Ankara’nın eski bir şehir olduğunu ve Taş Devri’nden beri burada insanların barındığını göstermektedir.

B) Bazı arkeologlar, eski Ankara’nın Taş Devri’nde kurulmuş bir şehir olduğunu ileri sürmektedir.

C) Ankara`da arkeologlar, Taş Devri’nde insanların burada bir şehir kurduklarını gösteren deliller bulmuşlardır.

D) Ankara, arkeologlara göre, en az Taş Devri’nden beri insanların barındığı eski bir şehirdir.

E) Arkeologlara göre, yerleşim birimi olarak Ankara’nın tarihi en azından Taş Devri`ne kadar uzanmaktadır.

51.-55. sorularda verilen Türkçe cümlenin İngilizce dengini bulunuz.

51. Yüksek çocuk ölüm oranına rağmen Bolivya`da nüfus, pek çok Latin Amerika ülkesinde olduğu gibi, hızla artmaktadır.

A) The infant death rate is quiet high in Bolivia, as in other Latin American countries, yet its population is still growing rapidly.

B) Although it has a relatively high infant mortality rate, the population is growing as rapidly in Bolivia as in other Latin American countries.

C) Despite the high infant death rate, the population is growing rapidly in Bolivia, as in many countries of Latin America.

D) Because of its high infant death rate, Bolivia’s population isn’t growing as fast as those of many countries of Latin America.

E) However high the infant death rate in Bolivia is, its population keeps growing almost as rapidly as the other Latin American countries.

52. Petrol ve doğal gazın oldukça süratli bir biçimde tüketildiği konusunda giderek büyüyen kaygı, bilimadamlarını alternatif yakıt kaynakları araştırmaya yönlendirmiştir.

A) It is becoming increasingly important for scientists to find alternative fuel sources as oil and natural gas are being used up relatively quickly.

B) The fact that oil and natural gas will be used up very soon has worried scientists, who are searching for alternative fuel source.

C) Scientists are looking for alternative sources of fuel because they are worried that oil and natural gas will quickly be used up.

D) There is an increasing worry that scientists will not find alternative fuel sources before we use up all the oil and natural gas.

E) The growing worry that oil and natural gas are being used up relatively quickly has led scientists to search for alternative fuel sources.

53. Kumla karıştırılmış kilden yapılan tuğlalar daha sert olur ve sadece kilden yapılmış tuğlaların kaldırabileceğinden daha büyük bir ağırlığa dayanır.

A) Bricks can be made harder by adding sand and this will also enable them to withstand more weight than those made entirely of clay.

B) Making bricks of clay and sand is harder than making them purely with clay, but clay and sand bricks can take greater weights.

C) Bricks made of clay mixed with sand are harder and will bear a greater weight than can bricks composed of pure clay.

D) Mixing sand with clay to make bricks is preferable to making them purely with clay as the resulting harder bricks will bear a great weight.

E) Being harder than pure clay bricks, bricks made of clay and sand can stand more weight.

54. Modern bir çiftliği işletmek, önemli ölçüde yöneticilik becerisinin yanı sıra yüksek düzeyde teknolojik bilgi de gerektir­mektedir.

A) The operation of a modern farm requires not only a high level of technological training but also many management skills.

B) To operate a modern farm efficiently, both considerable technological understanding and management skill are essential.

C) Apart from the extensive technological knowledge required, anyone wishing to operate a modern farm must have considerable management experience.

D) Besides considerable management skill, operating a modern farm requires a high degree of technological understanding.

E) Although considerable management skill is important, it takes a high level of technological skills to operate a modern farm.

55. Ticaret ve finans bölgelerinde yükselen gökdelenlerle şehrin görüntüsü 1960'lardan bu yana çarpıcı biçimde değişmiştir.

A) Since the 1960s, the city's profile has been dramatically altered by the skyscrapers sprouting in the commercial and financial districts.

B) The skyline of the city has dramatically changed since the 1960s, when skyscrapers sprang up in the commercial and financial districts.

C) Since the 1960s, skyscrapers have sprouted in the business and financial districts of the city, which has extensively altered its profile.

D) Many skyscrapers have been built in the city since the 1960s, altering the profile of the business and banking districts.

E) During the 1960s, skyscrapers sprouted up in the business and banking sections of the city, changing its profile dramatically.


1. Although the pension was very reasonably priced, it was certainly not comfortable. ----, it had a beautiful shady garden and a roof terrace with a splendid view of the area.

A) Therefore

B) Even though

C) Otherwise

D) Moreover

E) Nevertheless

2. The coach was full and the weather very hot, but the air conditioning wasn't working. ----, the passengers were uncomfortable and many of them complained.

A) On the contrary

B) Nevertheless

C) Consequently

D) Otherwise

E) Furthermore

3. They could easily afford to stay at the best hotels, ---- they preferred to stay at small family run guest houses.

A) as

B) yet

C) for

D) therefore

E) so

4. The 35th US President, J.F. Kennedy, was shot by a lone gunman ---- taking part in a procession in November, 1963.

A) in order to

B) during

C) owing to

D) until

E) while

5. We are unable to send you a brochure at the moment, but we will send you one ---- new stock arrives.

A) before

B) until

C) as soon as

D) while

E) although

6. ---- of how many different precautions you take, you cannot avoid being bitten by midges in Scotland at this time of year.

A) No matter

B) Nevertheless

C) Whatever

D) Regardless

E) Instead

7. We are, from this date forward, cancelling your company's credit facility with us ---- your poor payment record.

A) on account of

B) even though

C) in addition to

D) in spite of

E) besides

8. Dave caught malaria ---- he was working on a construction project in Africa.

A) during

B) while

C) by the time

D) as soon as

E) until

9. I still think it's a long way to go without taking a break ---- they are to take turns at the wheel.

A) even if

B) whether

C) so that

D) despite

E) yet

10. ---- performing all the functions of a standard vacuum cleaner, this model will also clean your carpets, Madam.

A) Regardless

B) However

C) In addition to

D) Seeing as

E) Furthermore

11. I'm glad that we phoned to check the date of their wedding; ----, we would have missed it.

A) consequently

B) in case

C) although

D) however

E) otherwise

12. They didn't buy that house because it is a long way from any schools; ----, it needs a fortune spending on it.

A) nevertheless

B) regardless

C) whereas

D) furthermore

E) on the other hand

13. Because my car is very old and ---- a little unreliable, I usually take the train travelling long distances.

A) however

B) though

C) therefore

D) while

E) owing to

14. ---- varied they may be in purpose, all spacecrafts move through space in accordance with fundamental physical laws, and all are made up of similar basic components.

A) Because

B) So that

C) However

D) While

E) Consequently

15. We are holding a meeting tomorrow ---- we can develop a plan for next year's campaigns well in advance.

A) in case

B) in order that

C) no sooner

D) even if

E) no matter

16. This charity ---- provides emergency relief ---- teaches people practical skills to help avoid future catastrophes.

A) such / that

B) whether / or

C) both / so

D) rather / than

E) not only / but also

17. ---- how careful I try to be throughout the month, I always seem to run out of money before I get paid.

A) Whenever

B) Even though

C) No matter

D) In case

E) Even if

18. ---- ordinary chestnuts, which are delicious when roasted, horse chestnuts are inedible and are most commonly used by children in a game called 'conkers'.

A) Besides

B) Similar to

C) Whereas

D) In contrast to

E) On the other hand

19. Apart from the radiator, the cylinder head is ---- damaged, ---- the garage will need our car for a week to repair it.

A) still / yet

B) so / as

C) both / though

D) such / as

E) also / so

20. The summer will be over ---- they open the swimming-pool.

A) by the time

B) while

C) though

D) during

E) no sooner

21. For reasons of safety, space-launch centres are usually located on ---- oceans ---- sparsely populated land.

A) either / or

B) such / as

C) neither / nor

D) hardly / when

E) whether / or

22. ---- the 1970's, the United States developed the space shuttle, the first reusable manned space vehicle.

A) When

B) During

C) While

D) Due to

E) By the time

23. ---- the doctor told you that you had only six months to live, what would you do with that time?

A) Regardless of

B) Owing to

C) In addition to

D) Suppose that

E) In order that

24. Traffic to the airport has been much lighter ---- the metro system was built.

A) as if

B) once

C) since

D) until

E) while

25. He resigned from his position ---- he could find time to write his long intended book.

A) otherwise

B) however

C) thanks to

D) moreover

E) so that

26. In their opinion, they presented the best proposals, ---- They didn't get the contract.

A) if

B) yet

C) as

D) for

E) so

27. There will be a shortage of water ---- we get some rainfall soon.

A) as if

B) in case

C) whenever

D) unless

E) by the time

28. The lungs are never completely empty. ---- the most vigorous expiration, they still contain about 983 cubic centimetres of air.

A) Even after

B) As though

C) However

D) Whereas

E) Even if

29. ---- writing techniques and vocabulary can be taught, no amount of instruction can make up for a lack of natural creative talent.

A) Soon

B) Hardly

C) While

D) No matter

E) Since

30. ---- the council has provided places for us to take our empty bottles for recycling, many of us still throw glass bottles into the ordinary dustbins.

A) However

B) On account of

C) In addition to

D) Despite

E) Even though

31. ----; at a zoo, however, they can see in captivity the wild animals from all over the world.

A) Wild budgies bathe in dew-wet grass, but for the cage budgie, extra water is needed

B) Animals are better off in their own habitats, where they can be observed behaving naturally

C) Many people don't even have the opportunity to observe the wildlife of their own country

D) The only people who deserve pets are those who take good care of them

E) Pets are not just playthings you can neglect when you are tired or when you go on vacation

32. Having once been a vital aid to local shipping, ---- .

A) the lighthouse is now a museum

B) modern technology has now taken over

C) it is very interesting to see the video

D) the surrounding seas can sometimes be very rough

E) I was fascinated to see how it worked

33. After making an emergency landing on a small island, ---- .

A) lightning had struck one of the engines

B) their chances of being found alive were scarce

C) there was nothing but sand and palm trees for miles

D) there were, fortunately, no casualties

E) the pilot radioed air-sea rescue

34. ----, but one that is teased will quickly inflict a nasty peck.

A) Voice training methods are the same for a parrot as those for a budgie

B) A gently handled parrot can become a clever and affectionate companion

C) The size of the cage for your canary depends upon the bird

D) The cat has been a pet since the days of ancient Egypt

E) Few pets became popular as quickly as parakeets, also called budgies

35. In addition to customers who have seen our advertisements, ----.

A) they are normally only interested in special offers

B) we obviously need to put them into more newspapers

C) coming mainly to buy specific things which have been advertised

D) we gain a lot of clients through personal recommendations

E) they usually display some of our best products

36. Since starting to make a hand – woven rug last month,      .

A) the harmony of the colours looks wonderful

B) the pattern was more difficult than it looked

C) she has rarely been seen outside her room

D) she isn't interested in anything else

E) it was a very complicated pattern, though

37.      , whereas this one is better for self–study.

A) At the end of this course, you will be presented with a certificate.

B) This book is meant to be used in group lessons.

C) She studied Turkish Literature at lstanbul University

D) Text books are designed for different learning situations

E) You are planning to study on your own

38. ln his opinion, the company's negligence and cost cutting measures      .

A) there was fierce a competition in the industry

B) whichever way they have been implemented

C) was a consequence of their shrinking profits

D) has only been applied since the beginning of the month

E) caused this catastrophe to happen

39. Devoting every spare minute of his time to the mountain rescue service,      .

A) mountaineers should not climb mountains alone

B) the money raised by volunteers is well–used

C) mountains should be open to the public for leisure purposes

D) he hardly has any time to stay with his family

E) his dogs and children help him occasionally

40. The air near the centre of an active volcano is so sulphurous      .

A) during eruptions poisonous gases fill the air making it almost impossible to breathe

B) even though scientists wore special masks which filtered the air to enable them to carry out their studies

C) whether or not scientists can study them depends on the amount of sulphur in the air

D) that scientists need to wear special breathing equipment when studying volcanic activity

E) yet these sulphurous gases give off a strong smell similar to that of rotten eggs

41. – 45. sorularda, verilen cümleye anlamca en yakın olan seçeneği bulu­nuz.

41. As no company other than Istanbul Airlines and Turkish Airlines operate a non–stop service to Manchester, we should choose one of these firms.

A) Istanbul Airlines and Turkish Airlines are the only companies which fly directly to Manchester, so we ought to fly with one of them.

B) Istanbul Airlines and Turkish Airlines don't operate a flight there, so we had better choose a destination other than Manchester.

C) Neither Istanbul Airlines nor Turkish Airlines fly directly to Manchester Airport, so we had better choose a different company.

D) Many companies such as Istanbul Airlines and Turkish Airlines now fly directly to Manchester Airport.

E) The only way we can fly to Manchester is with either Istanbul Airlines or Turkish Airlines, so we have to choose between these two operators.

42. Unlike his wife, he thinks that bullfighting should be banned.

A) Although he dislikes bullfighting, his wife who is against banning the sport, really enjoys it.

B) She doesn't like bullfighting, yet she still doesn't agree with her husband about banning the sport.

C) Differing from her husband, she fells that bullfighting ought not to be permitted any more.

D) They can't decide whether bullfighting should be banned just because it is cruel.

E) Contrary to his opinion, his wife believes that bullfighting should continue to be permitted.

43. Having just bought a brand new car, he was angry when the electric windows on it stopped working.

A) He bought a new car because he was fed up with the electric windows not working properly on his old one.

B) He didn't notice that the electric windows weren't working on his brand new car until after he had collected it, which was very annoying.

C) Although he was not happy to discover that the car did not have electrically operated windows, he bought it anyway.

D) Feeling annoyed that the electric windows no longer worked on his car, he bought a new one.

E) The failure of the electric windows on his new car annoyed him because he had only recently purchased it brand new.

44. No animal or vegetable life except for bacteria and brine shrimp inhabit the Dead Sea, as the water is twenty–five percent salt.

A) The Dead sea is known as such because, due to its salty water, virtually no animal or plant species can survive there.

B) The Dead Sea is made up of twenty – five percent salt; consequently, only bacteria and brine shrimp can live in its water.

C) Having extremely salty water, the Dead Sea cannot support most life forms including bacteria and brine shrimp.

D) The water of the Dead Sea is one quarter salt, which explains why a lot of animal and plant species are not found in abundance there.

E) Being among the life forms that can survive in such salty water, bacteria and brine shrimp can be found in the Dead Sea.

45. Nowadays, Philadelphia isn't the capital of either the USA or Pennsylvania state; however, in its history it has been both.

A) Although in the past Philadelphia has been both the capital of the USA and of the Pennsylvania state, today it is neither.

B) Having been both the United States and Pennsylvania state's capital city, Philadelphia has a great history.

C) Besides being the United States capital, Philadelphia is also the capital of the state of Pennsylvania.

D) Pennsylvania's capital, Philadelphia, used to be America's capital as well, but it no longer is.

E) Today, Philadelphia isn't the capital of the USA any more, but only the capital of the state of Pennsylvania.

46. – 50. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümlenin İngilizce dengini bulunuz.

46. İğne yapraklı ağaçlar az su sarfettikleri için kurağa karşı uzunr süre dayanabi­lirler.

A) Coniferous trees survive long periods of drought by consuming very little water.

B) During extended periods of drought which they can survive, coniferous trees consume little water.

C) Coniferous trees can withstand times of drought, during which they are able to survive on little water.

D) Since coniferous trees consume little water, they can withstand drought for an extended length of time.

E) Coniferous trees consume little water, and thus, they are able to withstand drought for a long time.

47. Henüz bir ev bulup yerleşmişti ki şirket onu başka bir şehre transfer etti.

A) She had to find a flat and settle in when the firm moved to another city.

B) When the company transferred her, she had a hard time trying to find a flat and settle in.

C) The firm transferred her to another city, where she quickly found a flat and settled in.

D) No sooner had she found a flat and settled in another city than the company transferred her back.

E) Hardly had she found a flat and settled in when the firm transferred her to another city.

48. Çöllerde insanların barınıp ürün yetişti­rebileceği tek yer su bulabilecekleri vahalardır.

A) The only places where people living in the desert can get water for their crops are oases.

B) People living in the desert can obtain water, which they can use for watering their crops, from oases.

C) ln deserts, the only places people can live and grow crops in are oases, where they can get water.

D) Oases are the only places in deserts where water is available, and therefore, people often live and grow crops around them.

E) People living near oases in deserts can get water which means they are able to grow crops.

49. Geleneksel inanışa göre Filipinli genç­ler evlenip aile geçindirmeye başlayana kadar yetişkin olarak kabul edilmezler.

A) Filipinos, who traditionally marry and begin raising a family quite young consider themselves adult once they have married.

B) According to traditional belief, Filipino youths are not considered adults until they marry and begin raising a family.

C) According to Filipino customs, a young man must marry and start a family before he is accepted by traditionalists as an adult.

D) The traditional belief of the Filipinos is that adulthood commences from the time a youth gets married and starts to raise a family.

E) According to Filipino traditions, unless a youth finds himself a wife and begins a family of his own, he will not be respected as an adult.

50. Kendini dışarı çıkacak kadar iyi his­setmiyorsan alışverişi ben tek başıma yapabilirim.

A) As you are not feeling well enough to do the shopping, I’ll do it on my own.

B) I’ll have to do the shopping without you as you are not well enough to come with me.

C) Unless you are feeling well enough now to go out, l will have to do the shopping by myself.

D) lf you are not feeling well enough to go out, can do the shopping on my own.

E) Whether l do the shopping by myself or not depends on how well you'll be feeling at the time.

51. – 55. sorularda verilen İngilizce cümlenin Türkçe dengini bulunuz.

51. Bolivia lies wholly within the tropics, but its climate varies considerably with altitude.

A) Bütünüyle tropiklerde yer alan Bolivya'nın iklimi, yüksekliklerin farklı oluşundan dolayı, büyük değişiklik gösterir.

B) Yüksekliği fazla bir ülke olması nedeniyle Bolivya, tropiklerde var olan tüm iklim çeşit­lerine sahiptir.

C) Bolivya tümüyle tropiklerde yer alır ama ik­limi, yüksekliğe bağlı olarak önemli ölçüde değişir.

D) Ülkenin tamamı tropiklerde yer aldığı halde Bolivya'nın iklimi, yüksek kesimlerde çok değişkendir.

E) Tropiklerde yer alan Bolivya'nın değişken ik­limi, yüksekliğinin bir hayli fazla oluşundan kaynaklanmaktadır.

52. While speaking to their parrots, some people cover the cage in order to enable them to concentrate on the voice.

A) Bazı papağanların konuşmayı öğrenebilme­leri için kafeslerinin üzerini örtmek gerekir çünkü bu şekilde sese daha çok yoğunlaşır­lar.

B) apaganlarına konuşmayı öğretirken bazı in­sanlar, kafesin üzerini örterek onların sese daha çok yoğunlaşmalarını sağlarlar.

C) Papağanların sese yoğunlaşmalarını sağla­mak için bazı insanların kullandıkları yöntem kafesin üzerini örtmektir.

D) Papağanlarıyla konuşurken kafesin üzerini örten insanlar onların bu şekilde sese yoğun­laştıklarını ve konuşmayı öğrendiklerini sa­vunuyorlar.

E) Bazı insanlar papağanlarıyla konuşurken, onların sese yoğunlaşmalarını sağlamak için kafesin üzerini örterler.

53. Few writers from the West lndies have gained a readership outside their region.

A) Batı Hint adalarında bazı yazarların kendi bölgeleri dışında çok az okuyucu kitleleri vardır.

B) Batı Hint adalarından çok az okuyucu kendi bölgesi dışındaki yazarların eserlerine ilgi gösterir.

C) Batı Hint adaları dışından çok az yazar bu bölgede okuyucu kitlesi kazanabilmiştir.

D) Batı Hint adalarından çok az yazar kendi bölgesi dışında bir okuyucu kitlesi edinebil­miştir.

E) Batı Hint adalarındaki okuyucu kendi bölgesi dışından çok az yazarı benimsemiştir.

54. A nation's standard of living can be measured by the number, cost and quality of goods produced in that country.

A) Bir ulusun yaşam standardı, o ülkede üreti­len malların sayısı, fiyatı ve kalitesiyle ölçü­lebilir.

B) Bir ulusun yaşam standardını ölçmek için o ülkede üretilen malların sayısına, fiyatına ve kalitesine bakmak yeterlidir.

C) Bir ülkede üretilen malların sayısı, fiyatı ve kalitesi, o ulusun yaşam standardını ölç­mede kullanılabilir.

D) Bir ulusun yaşam standardı, o ülkede üreti­len malların sayısı, fiyatı ve kalitesine bağlı­dır.

E) Bir ülkede üretilen malların sayısı, fiyatı ve kalitesi, o ulusun yaşam standardının bir öl­çüsüdür.

55. While it is no longer a capital city, Istanbul is still the commercial and cultural centre of Turkey.

A) Bir zamanlar başkent olan İstanbul, şimdi Türkiye'nin ticaret ve kültür merkezi konu­mundadır.

B) Türkiye'nin başkenti olma özelliğini artık yi­tirmiş olan İstanbul, ticaret ve kültür merke­zi konumunu korumaktadır.

C) Türkiye'nin başkenti olduğu dönemde İstanbul aynı zamanda ülkenin ticaret ve kültür merkeziydi.

D) Artık başkent olmamakla birlikte, İstanbul hala Türkiye'nin ticaret ve kültür merkezidir.

E) Başkent olmadığı dönemde bile Türkiye'nin ticaret ve kültür merkezi her zaman İstanbul olmuştur.


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