English Speaking Countries



Yüklə 0,51 Mb.
səhifə1/2
tarix30.03.2022
ölçüsü0,51 Mb.
#115042
  1   2
English Speaking Countries
сам раб, технолог, RISOLA, RISOLA

English Speaking Countries

Speakers of English are sometimes known as Anglophones, and the countries where English is spoken natively by the majority of the population are termed the Anglosphere. Over two billion people speak English as of the 2000s,[1][2] making English the largest language by number of speakers, and the third largest language by number of native speakers.

Regions where English or an English-based creole is the native language of the majority . Regions where English is an official language, but not the majority language. The United States and the United Kingdom have the most native speakers, with 330 million and 67 million

respectively . There are also 29 million in Canada, 25.7 million in Australia, 5 million in New Zealand, and 5 million in Australia, 5 million in New Zealand, and 5 million in Ireland.[citation needed] When those who speak English as a second-language are included, estimates of the number of Anglophones vary greatly , from 470 million to more than 2 billion.[2] David Crystal calculates that as of 2003 non-native speakers

outnumbered native speakers by a ratio of 3:1.[3] As of 2012, India claimed to have the world' s secondlargest English-speaking population: the most reliable estimate is around 10% of its population (125 million

people), a number that is expected to have quadrupled by 2022.[4] When native and non-native speakers are combined, English is the most widely spoken language worldwide.

What countries speak English?

English is a West Germanic language. It has the largest number of speakers worldwide and is the third most spoken native language, behind Mandarin and Spanish. English gained traction around the world during the 17th century due to the influence of the British Empire and the United States, and English has become the leading language of international discourse.

Braj Kachru developed the three circles model to describe the spread of English and distinguish countries that speak English. In this model, the inner circle comprises countries with large communities of native English speakers. The outer circle comprises countries with small communities of native English speakers and widespread use of English as a second language. The expanding circle comprises countries where many people have learned or are learning English as a foreign language.

Many countries have English designated as the de jure official language, meaning it is legally recognized as the official language. In some cases, English may be the official language but may not be the primary language. This means that English can be used in business, education, and official documents but may not be the majority of its residents' primary language. This is the case for nations like India and Pakistan.

India is the most populous nation with English as its official language, with over 1 billion people. The smallest nation where English is an official language is Niue, which has a population of just 1,600 people.

There are also nations where English is a de facto national language, meaning that it exists in reality and is practiced, even though it is not officially recognized by law. For example, the United States has no official language at the federal level, even though English is the most commonly spoken language.

Of the nations where English is a de facto national language, the United States is the most populous with an estimated 330 million people. There are four nations where English is the de facto language and the primary language. These include Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

English-language public instruction began in India in the 1830s during the rule of the British East India Company (India was then, and is today, one of the most linguistically diverse regions of the world[27]). In 1835, English replaced Persian as the official language of the East India Company. Lord Macaulay played a major role in introducing English and Western concepts into educational institutions in India. He supported the replacement of Persian by English as the official language, the use of English as the medium of instruction in all schools, and the training of English-speaking Indians as teachers.[28] Throughout the 1840s and 1850s, primary, middle, and high schools were opened in many districts of British India, with most high schools offering English language instruction in some subjects. In 1857, just before the end of East India Company rule, universities that were modeled on the University of London and used English as the medium of instruction were established in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. During the British Raj (1858 to 1947), English-language penetration increased throughout India. This was driven in part by the gradually increasing hiring of Indians in the civil services. At the time of India's independence in 1947, English was the only functional lingua franca in the country


The view of the English language among many Indians has changed over time. It used to be associated primarily with colonialism; it is now primarily associated with economic progress, and English continues to be an official language of India.

While there is an assumption that English is readily available in India, studies show that its usage is actually restricted to the elite, because of inadequate education to large parts of the Indian population. The use of outdated teaching methods and the poor grasp of English exhibited by the authors of many guidebooks disadvantage students who rely on these books, giving India only a moderate proficiency in English.

In addition, many features of Indian English were imported into Bhutan due to the dominance of Indian-style education and teachers in the country after it withdrew from its isolation in the 1960s.


Yüklə 0,51 Mb.

Dostları ilə paylaş:
  1   2




Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©muhaz.org 2022
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə