English-speaking coutury

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  1. Nations in which English

  2. Countries where English is an official language

  3. The "Three Circles" of English


Nations in which English is an official language (de facto or de jure). Anglosphere countries are those where English is the main native language.

Official and majority language
Official and minority language
Co-official and majority language
Co-official and minority language
Unofficial[clarification needed]
Not official and majority language
Not official and minority language
Speakers of English are also known as Anglophones, and the countries where English is natively spoken by the majority of the population are termed the Anglosphere. Over two billion people speak English as of the 2000s,[1][2] making English the largest language by number of speakers, and the third largest language by number of native speakers.
The United States and India have the most total English speakers, with 283 million and 125 million, respectively. There are also 108 million in Pakistan, 79 million in Nigeria, and 64 million in the Philippines.[3] When those who speak English as a second-language are included, estimates of the number of Anglophones vary greatly, from 470 million to more than 2 billion.[2] David Crystal calculates that as of 2003 non-native speakers outnumbered native speakers by a ratio of 3:1.[4] As of 2012, India claimed to have the world's second-largest English-speaking population: the most reliable estimate is around 10% of its population (125 million people), a number that is expected to have quadrupled by 2022.[5] When native and non-native speakers are combined, English is the most widely spoken language worldwide.
England and the Scottish Lowlands, countries of the United Kingdom, are the birthplace of the English language, and the modern form of the language has been being spread around the world since the 17th century, first by the worldwide influence of the United Kingdom, and more recently by that of the United States. Through all types of printed and electronic media of these countries, English has become the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions and professional contexts such as science, navigation and law.[6] The United Kingdom remains the largest English-speaking country in Europe.[3]
Besides the major varieties of English, such as American English, British English, Canadian English, Australian English, Irish English, New Zealand English, and their sub-varieties, countries such as South Africa, India, Nigeria, the Philippines, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago also have millions of native speakers of dialect continua ranging from English-based creole languages to Standard English. Other countries, such as Ghana and Uganda, also use English as their primary official languages.
Majority English-speaking countries[edit]
Main articles: List of countries by English-speaking population and Anglosphere
English-speaking peoples monument in London
English is the primary natively spoken language in several countries and territories. Five of the largest of these are sometimes described as the "core Anglosphere";[7][8][9] they are the United States of America (with at least 231 million[clarification needed] native English speakers),[10] the United Kingdom (60 million),[11][12][13] Canada (19 million),[14] Australia (at least 17 million),[15] and New Zealand (4.8 million).[16] English is also the primary natively spoken language in the Republic of Ireland. English based creoles are spoken by a majority of people in Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, The Bahamas, Belize, Grenada, Barbados, Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Kitts and Nevis, and Suriname.[17] English is also spoken by a majority of people as a second language in countries such as Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Slovenia, and Sweden.
Countries where English is an official language
Main article: List of countries and territories where English is an official language
In some countries where English is not the most spoken language, it is an official language or has some official status. These countries include Belize, Botswana, Cameroon (co-official with French), Eswatini (Swaziland), Fiji, Ghana, India, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Liberia, Malaysia, Malta, the Marshall Islands, Mauritius, the Federated States of Micronesia, Namibia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Rwanda, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, the Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Sudan, South Africa, South Sudan, Tanzania, The Gambia, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. There also are countries where in a part of the territory English became a co-official language, in Colombia's San Andrés y Providencia, Hong Kong, Honduras's Bay Islands, and Nicaragua's Mosquito Coast. This was a result of the influence of British colonization and American colonization in these areas.
India has the largest number of second-language speakers of English (see Indian English); Crystal (2004) claims that combining native and non-native speakers, India has more people who speak or understand English than any other country in the world. However, most scholars and research that has been conducted dispute his assertions.[18] Pakistan also has the English language (Pakistani English) as a second official language after the Urdu language as the result of British rule (Raj). Sri Lanka and the Philippines use English as their third and second official language after Sinhala and Tamil, and Filipino, respectively.
English is one of the eleven official languages that are given equal status in South Africa (South African English), where there are 4.8 million native English speakers.[19] It is also the official language in current dependent territories of Australia (Norfolk Island, Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands) and of the United States of America (American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico (in Puerto Rico, English is co-official with Spanish) and the US Virgin Islands),[20] and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.
Although the United States federal government has no official languages, English has been given official status by 32 of the 50 US state governments.[21][22] Furthermore, per United States nationality law, the process of becoming a naturalized citizen of the US entails a basic English proficiency test, which may be the most prominent example of the claim of the nation not having an official language being belied by policy realities.
Although falling short of official status, English is also an important language in several former colonies and protectorates of the United Kingdom, such as Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brunei, Cyprus and the United Arab Emirates.
English as a global language[edit]
See also: English in computing, International English, World Englishes, World language, English as a second or foreign language, and Euro English
Because English is so widely spoken, it has often been referred to as a "world language", the lingua franca of the modern era,[23] and while it is not an official language in most countries, it is currently the language most often taught as a foreign language.[24][25] It is, by international treaty, the official language for aeronautical[26] and maritime[27] communications. English is one of the official languages of the United Nations and many other international organizations, including the International Olympic Committee. It is also one of two co-official languages for astronauts (besides the Russian language) serving on board the International Space Station.[citation needed]
English is studied most often in the European Union, and the perception of the usefulness of foreign languages among Europeans is 67 per cent in favour of English ahead of 17 per cent for German and 16 per cent for French (as of 2012). Among some of the non-English-speaking EU countries, the following percentages of the adult population claimed to be able to converse in English in 2012: 90 per cent in the Netherlands, 89 per cent in Malta, 86 per cent in Sweden and Denmark, 73 per cent in Cyprus, Croatia, and Austria, 70 per cent in Finland, and over 50 per cent in Greece, Belgium, Luxembourg, Slovenia, and Germany. In 2012, excluding native speakers, 38 per cent of Europeans consider that they can speak English.[28]
Books, magazines, and newspapers written in English are available in many countries around the world, and English is the most commonly used language in the sciences[23] with Science Citation Index reporting as early as 1997 that 95% of its articles were written in English, even though only half of them came from authors in English-speaking countries.
In publishing, English literature predominates considerably with 28 per cent of all books published in the world [Leclerc 2011][full citation needed] and 30 per cent of web content in 2011 (down from 50 per cent in 2000).[25]
This increasing use of the English language globally has had a large impact on many other languages, leading to language shift and even language death,[29] and to claims of linguistic imperialism. English itself has become more open to language shift as multiple regional varieties feed back into the language as a whole.[30]
What countries speak English?
English is the third most spoken native language in the world, behind only Mandarin (Chinese) and Spanish, and is spoken by more people overall than any other language in the world. English gained traction around the world during the 17th century—largely due to the influence of the British Empire and the United States—and has become the leading language of international discourse and business.
A brief history of the English Language
English is a West Germanic language, part of a group of languages that developed in the area of Europe's North Sea, which includes modern-day countries such as Germany, Norway, Denmark, and the United Kingdom (among others). There are six West Germanic languages in all: English, Dutch/Flemish, German, Afrikaans, Yiddish, and the lesser-known Frisian.
English as we know it has its origin in Germanic tribes who migrated to the UK around 400-500 CE. The language they developed is typically classified as Old English, and looks very little like the English of today—particularly thanks to its different word order, now-peculiar spellings, and use of characters such as ash (æ) and eth (ð), both of which have fallen out of common use today. This language evolved into Middle English during the twelfth-fifteenth centuries, influenced by Latin, Old Norse, and French. Middle English is much more readable to the modern eye, though the spelling is often still unusual and the th-sounding letter thorn, now written as þ (not to be confused with p) had not yet been replaced by Y (as in "Ye Olde Shoppe" and which, in turn, was later replaced by th).
Sometime around the 1500s, Middle English gave way to Modern English, which continues to evolve and change. For example, today's writing is filled with acronyms, abbreviations, creative use of punctuation and capitalization, and emojis that simply did not exist a century ago.
Top 10 Countries that Speak English as a Primary Language (by total population 2021)
1. United States — 332,915,073
2. United Kingdom — 68,207,116
3. Canada (except for Quebec) — 38,067,903
4. Australia — 25,788,215
5. Liberia — 5,180,203
6. Ireland — 4,982,907
7. New Zealand — 4,860,643
8. Jamaica — 2,973,463
9. Trinidad and Tobago — 1,403,375
10. Guyana — 790,326
It's important to note that this list includes only countries in which English is the primary language. This has a massive impact on which countries appear on the list. If the list were expanded to include countries in which English is not the primary language but is widely used as a "lingua franca," or common language, the list would change considerably.
Top 10 English-Speaking Countries in the World (as primary or lingua franca 2021)
1. India — 1,393,409,038
2. United States — 332,915,073
3. Pakistan — 225,199,937
4. Nigeria — 211,400,708
5. Philippines — 111,046,913
6. United Kingdom — 68,207,116
7. Tanzania — 61,498,437
8. South Africa — 60,041,994
9. Kenya — 54,985,698
10. Canada — 38,067,903
The role of English in the modern world
English is the preeminent language of business, diplomacy, and international communication around the world. It is one of six official languages used by the United Nations and is used by organizations including the International Olympic Committee, the European Free Trade Association, and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. It is the most widely taught foreign language around the world and the most-used language in scientific studies, with roughly 50% of English-language science writing created by researchers whose native language is something other than English.
In light of this worldwide acceptance, many countries have English designated as the de jure official language, meaning it is legally recognized as the official language. In some cases, particularly in Africa, where countries may have dozens of regional languages, English is frequently the official language but not be the primary language. This means that English can be used in business, education, and official documents but is not the language most widely spoken by its residents. This is the case for nations such as India and Pakistan.
There are also nations in which English is a de facto national language, meaning that it exists in reality and is practiced, even though it is not officially recognized by law. This is especially true in countries that have no official language. For example, even though English is the most commonly spoken language in the United States, the country actually has no legally declared official language at the federal level. As such, English is the de facto national language. Of the nations where English is a de facto national language, the United States is the most populous with an estimated 332 million people.
The "Three Circles" of English
Linguist Braj Kachru developed the three circles model in the mid-1980s to describe the spread of English and describe the various degrees to which English is prevalent in each country. The model visualizes English as a series of three differently-sized circles, arranged concentrically like a bulls-eye. While even Kachru admits there are still a few edge cases that don't fit cleanly into any of the three circles, his model nonetheless accommodates the majority of the world's countries using a mere three distinct categories:
• The Inner Circle — The smallest circle, this section includes countries in which English is the native language of the majority of the population: mainly the United States, the United Kingdom and Ireland, Australia and New Zealand, South Africa, and much of Canada. The Inner Circle is the "norm-providing" circle, where native speakers continue to evolve the language's rules and usage.
• The Outer Circle — This confusingly named circle is actually the second of the three, lodged firmly in between its smaller and larger siblings. The Outer Circle comprises countries with small communities of native English speakers and widespread use of English as a second language. English is not the primary language or the mother tongue, but it is widely used as a lingua franca language for trade and business, as well as a bridge language between people whose native tongues are different from one another. Countries in the Outer Circle include India, Nigeria, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Kenya, Jamaica and Papua New Guinea, and Singapore—where English is so prevalent that it may soon become the primary language. The Outer Circle is also referred to as the "norm-developing" circle, as it adopts but also challenges the norms created by the Inner Circle.
• The Expanding Circle — The largest circle of all is the Expanding Circle, which encompasses countries in which English has no historic or cultural role and is neither a primary nor a bridge language—yet is commonly spoken as a foreign language, typically for business. Countries in the Expanding Circle include Russia, China, Japan, Brazil, and much of the rest of the world. The Expanding Circle is often called the "norm-dependent" circle because it relies upon the other circles to determine the proper usage of the language.

  • The List of Used Literature

  • 1. O’zbekiston Respublikasi prezidenti I.A.Karimovning 2012 yil 10 dekabrdagi PQ-1875 sonli “Chet tillarini o’rganish tizimini yanada takomillashtirish chora tadbirlari to’g’risida’’gi qaroridan

  • 2. Karimov I. “Chet tillarini o’rganish tizimini yanada takomillashtirish chora tadbirlari to’g’risida “ Xalq so’zi 2012yil 11 dekabr,1-bet. 3. Амосова Н. Н. «Основы английской фразеологии». - Л.: ЛГУ, 1963.

  • 4. Арнольд И. В. «Структура и семантика предложений и текста в германских языках».-Л., 1987.

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