The study has shown that ethnic militia; particularly MASSOB and OPC emerged as expressions of sub-nationalism arising from the weakness and inability of the Nigerian state to resolve perceived marginalization by some sections of the society.
The study has also shown that ethnic cleavages have become a political refuge for marginalised political entities because of inequitable political representation at the central government level.
The study has also demonstrated that socio-economic considerations and personal idosyncracies of prime movers led to the militarization of MASSOB and OPC.
The study has also shown that some inherent contradictions in the Nigeria federal system, especially the inequality among sub units contribute to sub-nationalism and the violent orientation of MASSOB and OPC.
The study has also shown that the closely knitted structures of the two militia groups are significant factors for their resilience in the face of violent response from the state.
5:7 Suggestions for further Research
Further research in this area should focus more on the collective feelings at the micro level. In other words, a community level analysis to determine what non-militia members think about the militia organization needs to be undertaken.
Also there is need to determine the impact of ethnic militia on the socio-political environment in Nigeria. In other words, an empirically focussed study to determine its impact on Nigeria’s democratic development is imperative.
Another area that requires further exposition is the external dimension of the activities of ethnic militia in Nigeria and the perception of the international community to the development and operation of these organizations in Nigeria.
Adeoye, Mohammad N. (2005) “Terrorism: An Appraisal in Nigerian Context” in Ayinla Saadu A. ed. Issues in Political Violence in Nigeria. Ilorin: Hamson Printing Press.
Agbese, Pita (2001) Managing Ethnic Relations in a heterogeneous Society: The Case of Nigeria” in John M. Mbaku, Pita O. Agbese & Mwangi S. Kimenyi (eds) Ethnicity and Governance in the third world. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Company 125-148.
Ake, Claude (1996) “The Political Question” in Oyeleye Oyediran (ed) Governance and Development in Nigeria: Essays in Honour of Billy J Dudley. Ibadan: Oyediran Consult International.
Akinboye, Solomon O (2001) “The Matrix of Ethnicity and Ethno-religious crises in Nigeria’s nascent Democracy” in Agwonorobo E Eruvbetine ed. The Humanistic Management of Pluralism. Lagos: Faculty of Arts,University of Lagos.
Akinyele,Rufus.T(2001) “Ethnic Militia and National Stability in Nigeria:History as Tool for Managing the problems of Cultural Pluralism”. In Agwonorobo E Eruvbetine ed. The Humanistic Management of Pluralism. Lagos : Faculty of Art,University of Lagos.
Akinwumi,Olayemi (2005) “Ethnicisation of Violence” in Saliu Hassan A. (ed) Nigeria under Democratic Rule(1999-2003) Vol.2. Ibadan: University Press PLC.
Ali,Tariq (2002) The Clash of Fundamentalism: Crusades,Jihads and Modernity. London:Verso.
Albert, Isaac Olawale (2001) “The Yoruba and the National Question” in Eghosa and Ebere Onwudiwe (eds) The Management of the National Question in Nigeria. Ibadan: The Lords Creation for programme on Ethnic and Federal studies, Department of Political Science, University of Ibadan. P.270-300.
Albert, Martin L and Loraine K. Obler (1978) The Bilingual Brain. New York: Academy Press.
Amadiume, Ify & An-Na’im,Abdullahi (2000) eds. Politics of Memory: Truth, Healing and Social Justice. London/New York: Zed Books.
Andersen Benedict (1991) “Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Revised Edition. London/New York: Verso.
Anifowoshe, Remi (2002) “Transition and the Military Question” in Onuoha,Browne and M.M Fadakinte(eds) Transition Politics in Nigeria 1970-1999. Lagos: Malthouse Press Ltd.
Asia, Godwin (2001) Nigeria’s Search of Balance. Ibadan: Vintage Publishers Limited.
Ayoade, John (1986) Ethnic Politics in Nigeria: A Conceptual Reformulation” in Dennis L. Thompson and Dov Ronen (eds) Ethnicity, Politics and Development. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Bach, Daniel (2004) “Inching towards a country without a state: Prebendalism, Violence and state Betrayal in Nigeria” in C Clapham,J Herbot and G Mills (eds) Big African states. Johanessburg: Wits University Press.
Badmus Isiaka (2006) “Ethnic Militia Movements and the Crisis of Political Order in Post-Military Nigeria.
Barongo, Yoramu R (1987) “Ethnic Pluralism and Democratic Stability: The basis of Conflict and Consensus in Sam Oyovbaire (ed.) Democratic Experiment in Nigeria: Interpretative Essays. Benin City: Omega Pub.
Barth, Fredrik (1998) Ethnic Group and Boundaries. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press Inc.
Bell, Daniel (1975) “Ethnicity and Social Change” in Glazer, N and D. P Moynihan eds Ethnicity Theory and Experience. Cambridge, A: Harvard University Press.
Brass, Paul. R (1991) Ethnicity and Nationalism. Newbury Park: Sage.
Breuilly, John (1985) Nationalism and the State. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Bristow,Edward (1998) Individualism versus Socialism in Britain. New York: Fordham University Press.
Bubalo, Anthony and Greg Fealy (2005) Joining the Caravan? The Middle East, Islamism and Indonesia. Sydney: Lowy Institute for International Policy.
Burns Jimmy (1999) Barca: A People’s Passion. Bloomsbury.
Buzan,Barry (1991) People, State and Fear: An Introduction to International Security Studies in Post-Cold war Era 2nd Edition. London: Lynn Rienner Publisher.
Calhoun, Craig (1997) Nationalism. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Cohen, Abner (1996) Custom and Politics in Urban Africa. Berkeley, A: University of California Press.
Connor, Walker (1994) Ethnonationalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Dahl, Robert (1956) A Preface to Democratic Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Davidson, Basil (1981) No Fist Is Big Enough to Hide the Sky. London: Palgram Macmillan.
Duverger, Maurice (1967) La democratic Sans le people 1 Vol in 8br. Paris: Edition du Seuil.
Ekeh, Peter 1996. “Political Minorities and Historically Dominant Minorities in Nigerian History and Politics” in Oyeleye Oyediran (ed.) Governance and Development in Nigeria: Essays in Honour of Professor Billy J. Dudley. Ibadan: Oyediran Consult International p.33-63.
Eleazu, Uma (1977) Federalism and Nation Building. Devon: Arthor Stock well.
Elshtain, Jean.Bethke (1993) “Sovereignty, Identity, Sacrifice” in M. Ringrove and A. J Lerner eds. Reimaging the Nation. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Esman, Milton (1977) Ethnic Conflict in the Western World. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Fabiyi,Oluseyi (2004) Gated Neigbourhoods and Privatization of Urban Security in Ibadam Metropolis.Ibadan:IFRA.
Francis,David (2005) Civil Militia: Africa’s Intractable Security Menace.
Faseun, Fredrick (2001) Fredrick Faseun,The son of Oodua. Lagos:Inspired Communication Ltd.
Faseun Fredrick (2005) OPC : Our History,Our Mission. Lagos: Inspired Communication Ltd
Forest ,Joshua B(2004) Subnationalism in Africa:Ethnicity,Alliances and Politics. Boulder Co: Lynne Rienner.
Gambetta, Diego (2000) “Mafia: The Price of Distrust” in Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations. Gambetta, Diego (ed). Oxford: University of Oxford Press pp.158-75.
Garmendia, Jose M. (2006) “La Crisis del nacionalismmo en la posguerra y el nacimiento de ETA” in Antonio Elorza ed. La historia de ETA. Madrid:Temas de Hoy.
Geertz, Clifford (1963) “Primordial Sentiments and Civil Politics in the New States” in Clifford, Geertz ed. Old Societies and New States. New York: The Free Press of Glencoe.
Gellner, Ernst (1964) Thoughts and Change. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson.
Gellner, Ernst (1983) Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Gilbert Paul (1998) The Philosophy of Nationalism. Boulder Co: Westview Press.
Ginifer Jeremy & Olawale Ismail (2005) Armed Violence and Poverty in Nigeria. Bradford: Centre for International Cooperation and Security.
Glazer, Nathan and Moynihan, Daniel P. (1963) Beyond the Melting Pot. Cambridge MA: MIT and Harvard University Press.
Greenfeld, Liah (1992) Nationalism: Five Paths to Modernity. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
Gourevitch, Philip (1998) We Wish to Inform You that Tomorrow We will Be Killed with our Families. New York: Picador Press.
Gurr ,Ted R & Barbara Harff(1994) Ethnic Conflict in World Politics. Bulder: Westview Press.
Haas, Ernst .B (1997) Nationalism, Liberalism and Progress. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.
Harrison David (1981) The White Tribe of Africa. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.
Hechter, Michael (1975) Internal Colonialism: The Celtic Fringe in British National Development, 1536 – 1966. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hecter, Michael (2000)Containing Nationalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Heskin, Ken (1984) “The Psychology of Terrorism in Northern Ireland”, in Yonah Alexander and Alan O’Day (eds.) Terrorism in Ireland. New York: St Martin’s Press.
Hirshleifer, Jack (2001) The Dark Side of the Force: Economic Foundations of Conflict Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hobsbawn, Eric J (1990) Nations and Nationalism since 1780 Programme, Myth, Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Huntington, Samuel (1998) Clash of Civilization. New York: Touchstone Books.
Hutchison John (1994) The Dynamics of Cultural Nationalism. Revised Edition. London: Harper Collins.
Hutchison, John & Smith, Anthony D eds. (2000) Nationalism: Critical Concepts in Political Science Volume V. London/New York: Routledge.
Ikeanyibe, Uche (2000) Why I Believe The Igbos Are not Nigerians. Benin City: Seed Sowers Publication
Ikpeze, Nnameka (2000)”Post Biafran Marginalization of the Igbo in Nigeria” in Amadiueme Ify & Abdular An-Na’im (eds) Politics of Memory:Truth,Healing and Social Justice. London/NewYork: Zed p.90-109.
Jervis, Robert (2007) American Foreign Policy in the New Era. New York: Routledge.
Jega, Attahiru (1996) “The State and Identity Transformation under Structural Adjustment in Nigeria. Uppsala: The Nordic Africa Institute.
Jenkins, Brian & Spyros Sofos (1996) eds. Nations and Identity in Contemporary Europe. London/New York: Routledge.
Joireman, Sandra F (2003) Nationalism and Political Identity. London/New York: Continuum.
Joseph Richard (1999) “Autocracy, Violence and Ethno-Military rule in Nigeria” in Joseph Richard ed. State, Conflict and Democracy in Africa. Bulder-Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publications.
Kedourie, Elie (1993) Nationalism 4th Edition. Oxford/Cambridge: Blackwell.
Kellas, James.G (1998) The Politics of Nationalism and Ethnicity 2nd Edition. New York: St Martins Press.
Laitin,David.D (2007) Nations, States and Violence. Oxford New York:University Press.
Le Baron, Alan (1993) “The Creation of the Modern Maya” in C. Young ed. The Rising Tide of Cultural Pluralism. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
Mann, Michael (1993) Sources of Social Power, Volume II.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mann,Michael (1995) “A Political Theory of Nationalism and its excesses in S Periwal ed. Notions of Nationalism. Budapest: Central European University Press. p. 44 – 64.
Maxwell, John (1999) The 21 Qualities of a Leader. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publication.
Mbaku, John M, Agbese, Pita O & Kimenyi, Mwangi S. eds. (2001) Ethnicity and governance in Third World. Aldershot: Ashgate.
McGuire, Maria (1973) to Take Arms: A Year in the Provisional IRA. London: Macmillan.
Nagel, Joan (1986) “The Political Construction of Ethnicity” in Olzak, S and J. Nagel eds. Competitive Ethnic Relations. New York: Academy Press.
Nnoli, Okwudiba (1978) Ethnic Politics in Nigeria. Enugu: Fourth Dimension.
Nnoli, Okwudiba (1996) “Ethnic and Regional Balancing in Nigeria Federalism” in Isawa Elaigwu & R.A Akindele (eds) Foundations of Nigerian Federalism 1960-1995 Foundation of Nigerian Federalism Series Vol.3 Abuja National Council and Intergovernmental Relations.
Obasi, Nnamdi (2002) Ethnic Militias, Vigilantes and Separatist Groups in Nigeria. Abuja: Third Millennium Ltd.
Obi, Cyril (2002) “Oil and the Politics of transition in Nigeria” in Onuoha, Browne and Mojibayo M. Fadakinte (eds) Transition Politics in Nigeria 1970-1990. Lagos: Malthouse Press Ltd.
Obi, Cyril (2004) “Globalization in Nigeria’s Oil Industry: Implication for Local Politics” in Agbaje Adigun,Larry Diamond and Edwin Onwudiwe(eds) Nigeria’s Struggle for Democracy and Good Governance. A Festschrift for Oyeleye Oyeniran. Ibadan:University of Ibadan Press.
Olzak, Susan and Joan Nagel eds. (1986) Competitive Ethnic Relations. New York: Academy Press.
Okafor, Fidelis U (1997) New Strategies for Curbing Ethnic and Religious Conflicts in Nigeria. Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishers.
Onuoha, Browne & Mojibayo M. Fadakinte (2002) “Introduction” in Onuoha,Browne and Mojibayo M. Fadakinte(eds) Transition Politics in Nigeria 1970-1999. Lagos: Malthouse Press Ltd.
Osaghae, Eghosa (1988) Federal Society and Federal Character: The Politics of Plural Accommodation in Nigeria since Independence;25 years. Lagos: Infodata and Heinemann Educational Books.
Oti, Great Sunday Emmanuel (2007) The God of Biafra in Action. Lagos: Ajijedidun.
Oti,Sunday(n.d) Training Manual for Non-Violent Warriors: Theories,Methods,Tactics,Techniques for effective non-violence civil disobedience and how it will work for Biafra now.
Otite, Onigu (1990) Ethnic Pluralism and Ethnicity in Nigeria. Ibadan: C I Shanesor.
Ozcan, Ali Kemal (2006) Turkey’s Kurds: A Theoretical analysis of the PKK and Abdullah Ocalan. London:/New York: Routledge.
Prunier, Gerard (1995) The Rwanda Crisis. New York: Columbia University Press.
Rafferty, Oliver P (1994) Catholicism in Ulster 1603-1983. London: C Hurst & Co.
Reynold, Vernon, Falger and Vine (1987) The Sociology of Ethnocentrism. Athens, Georgia: The University of Georgia Press.
Richard, Michael (1998) A Time of Silence: Civil War and the Culture of Repression in Franco’s Spain, 1936-1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rothchild, Donald S & Victor Olorunsola A. (1998) “Managing Competing State and Ethnic Claims” in Rothchild Donald & Victor Olorunsola eds. State Versus Ethnic Claims; Africa Policy Dilemmas. Boulder: Westview Press.
Roy, Oliver (1994) Globalised Islam. London: Hurst and Company.
Saikal, Amin (2003) Islam and the West: Conflict or Cooperation? Basing-stoke: Palgrave.
Schatzman, Leonard &Strauss, Anselm (1973) Field Research: Strategies for Natural Sociology. New York: Prentice – Hall.
Sesay, Amadu,Charles Ukeje,Olabisi Aina and Adetanwa Odebiyi eds. (2003) Ethnic Militias and the future of Democracy in Nigeria. Ile-Ife Obafemi Awolowo University Press.
Sheriff Muzafer and Carolyn W. Sheriff (1966) Groups in Harmony and Tension. New York: Octagon Books Inc.
Smith, Anthony.D (1986) The Ethnic Origin of Nations. New York: Basil Blackwell.
Smith, Anthony D (1998) The Ethnic Origin of Nations. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
Stern, John (2003) Terror in the Name of God: Why Religious Militants Kill. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Suberu, Rotimi (1996) Ethnic Minority Conflict and Governance in Nigeria. Ibadan:Spectrum.
Sullivan, John (1988) ETA and Basque Nationalism: The Fight for Euskadi 1890-1986. London Routledge.
Thomsen, Robert (2001) Selves and Others of Political Nationalism in Stateless Nations: National Identity – Building Processes in the Modern Histories of Scotland and Newfoundland. Copenhagen: Aarhus University.
Tilly, Charles (1975) The Formation of National States in Western Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Tilly, Charles (1990) Coercion, Capital and European States, AD 990 – 1990. Cambridge: Blackwell.
Tsunoda, Tadanobu (1978) The Japanese Brain. Tokyo: Taishukan.
Uzoigwe, Godwin N.(1996) “The Evolution of the Nigerian State: 1900-1914” in I sawa J. Elaigwu & Godwin N. Uzoigwe eds. Foundation of Nigeria Federalism 199-1960. Jos: Institute of Governance and Social Research (IGRS) pp. 1-3.
Williams Robin (2000) “Formal Structures and Social Reality” in Gambetta, Diego ed. Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations. Oxford: University of Oxford Press.
Williams, Gwyn, A (1985) When was Wales? London: Black Raven Press.
Wiliams,G (1980) State and Society in Nigeria. Idanre Ondo: Afrografika Publishers.
Wimmer, Andreas (2002) Nationalist Exclusion and Ethnic Conflict: Shadows of Modernity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Young, Craford( 1979) The Politics of Cultural Pluralism. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press.
Zulaika, Joseba (1988) Basque Violence: Metaphor and Sacrament. Reno: The University of Nevada Press.
Adejumobi, Said (2002) “Ethnic Militia Group and the National Question in Nigeria” Social Science Research in Africa available at http://www.claonet.org/ups/ads01.
Akinyele, Rufus T (2001) “Ethnic Militancy and national stability in Nigeria:a case study of the Oodua People’s Congress” African Affairs 401 p.623-640.
Anugwom, Edlyne (2000) “Ethnic Conflict and Democracy in Nigeria: The Marginalization question” Journal of Social Development in Africa Vol.15 No.1 pp61-78.
Anugwom, Edlyne (2001) “The Military, Ethnicity and Democracy in Nigeria” Journal of Social Development in Africa” Vol. 16 No.2 pp 93-114.
Anugwom,Edlyne (2005) “Oil Minorities and the Politics of Resource Control in Nigeria” Africa Development, Vol. XXX, No.4 pp 87-120.
Becker, Gary S. (1968) “Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach” The Journal of Political Economy,76:2 pp169-217.
Bradfield, Stuart (2006) “Separation or Status – Quo? Indigenous Affairs from the Birth of Land Rights to the Death of ATSIL” Australian Journal of Politics and History Vol. 52, Issue II P. 80 – 90.
Blumor, Herbert (1958) “Race Prejudice as a Sense of Group Position”, Pacific Sociological Review 1:3 – 7.
Bobo, Lawrence and Vince L Hutchings (1996) “Perceptions of Racial Group Competition” American Sociological Review 61(6):951 – 72.
Brubakar, Rogers and Frederick Cooper (2000) “Beyond Identity” Theory and Society,29:1 pp1-47.
Brubakar, Rogers, M Loveman and P Stamatov (2004) “Ethnicity as Cognition, Theory and Society”, Vol 33 No.1 pp. 31-64.
Calvo-Armengol, Antoni & Yves Zenou (2004) “Social Networks and Crime Decisions: The Role of Social Structure in Facilitating Delinquent Behaviour”, International Economic Review, 45:3, pp.939-58.
Collier, Paul (2000) “Rebellion as a Quasi-Criminal Activity” Journal of Conflict Resolution,44:6 pp 839-53.
Gould, Carol C (2006) “Self – Determination beyond Sovereignty: Relating Transnational Democracy to Local Autonomy” in Journal of Social Philosophy Vol.37, Issue 1, Spring p. 44 – 60.
Crenshaw, Matha (1981) “The Causes of Terrorism”, Comparative Politics Vol.13,No 4 pp 379-399.
Garcia de Cortazar, Fernando (1988) “La Iglesia vasca, entre la profecia y la sumision” Cuenta y Razon 33 No. 1 pp 31-35.
Gates, Scott (2002) “Recruitment and Allegiance: The Microfoundations of Rebellion” Journal of Conflict Relations, 46:1 pp.111-30.
Glassmyer, Katherine and Nicholas Sambanis(2008) “Rebel Military Integration and Civil War Termination” in Journal of Peace Research,May 1,2008 (45) pp. 365-384
Halliday, Fred (2002) “The Politics of the Umma: States and Community in Islamic Movement” Mediterranean Politics Vol7 No 3 pp 20-41.
Hamilton-Hart, Natasha (2005) “Terrorism in Southeast Asia: Expert Analysis Myopia and Fantasy”, The Pacific Review Vol. 18 No 3 pp 303-325.
Hechter, Michael (1995) “Explaining Nationalism Violence” Nations and Nationalism Vol. 1 pp53-68.
Ikelegbe, Augustine (2001) ‘Civil Society, Oil and Conflict in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria: Ramifications of Civil Society for a regional resource Struggle. Journal of Modern African Studies Volume 39, Number 3 pp. 437-469.
Isumonah, Adefemi V. (2004) “The Making of Ogoni Ethnic Group” in Africa 74(3) p. 434-453.
Jones, Sidney (2005) “The Changing Nature of Jemaah Islamiyah” Australian Journal of International Affairs Vol. 59 No.2 pp 169-178.
Kaur, Sarabjit (2007) “Institutional Development as Challenge to Democratic Sustenance in Nigeria” International Studies 44(3) p.217-233.
Krassner,Stephen D(2001) ‘Abiding Sovereinty’ International Political Science Review,Volume 22,Number 3.pp.229-252
Kinnvall, Catarina (2004) “Globalization and Religious Nationalism: Self, Identity and the Search for Ontological Security” Political Psychology Vol.25 No.5 pp. 741-767.
Krueger, Alan B. and Jitka Maleckova (2003) “Education, Poverty and Terrorism: Is There a Causal Connection?” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 17:4 pp. 119-44.
Laponce, Jean. A (1985) “Protecting the French Language in Canada” Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics 23:157 -70.
Nagel, Joan (1986) “The Political Construction of Ethnicity” in Olzak, S and J. Nagel eds. Competitive Ethnic Relations. New York: Academy Press.
Ndikumana, Leonce (1998) “Institutional Failure and Ethnic Conflict in Burundi” African Studies Review Vol. 41 No 1 April p. 29-47.
Nixon, Charles R.(1972) “Self-Determination: The Nigerian Biafra Case” in World Politics Vol.24 No 4 July.p.473-495.
Nolte, Insa (2004) “Identity and Violence: The Politics of Youth in Ijebu-Remo, Nigeria” Journal of Modern African Studies 42(1) pp.61-90.
Nolte, Insa (2007) “Ethnic Vigilantes and the State: The Oodua People’s Congress in South Western Nigeria. International Relations 21(2),pp. 217-235.
Okechukwu, N(2000) “The Rise of Ethnic Militia”. Liberty 12 p.19-27.
Omeje, Kenneth (2005) “‘Enyimba Enyi: The Comeback of Igbo Nationalism in Nigeria”, Review of African Political Economy,Vol.32, No. 106, 633-636.
Onu, Godwin (2001) “Ethnicity and Conflict Management: A Case Study of MASSOB Movement in Nigeria” UNESCO/ENA Africa at Crossroads. Complex Political Emergencies in the 21st Century. Most Ethno – Net Africa Publication (available at http://www.ethnonet-africa.org/pubs/crossroadonu.htm,retrieved 17 March, 2006).
Osaghae, Eghosa (1995) The Ogoni Uprising: Oil Politics Minority, Agitation and the Future of Nigerian State. African Affairs 94.p. 325-344.
Oxboy, Robert J. (2004) “Cognitive Dissonance, Status and Growth of the Underclass” Economic Journal 114:498 pp.727-49.
Reno, William (1999) “Crisis and (no) Reform in Nigeria Politics” African Studies Review 42(1) 105-124.
Sambanis, Nicholas (2001) “Do Ethnic and Nonethnic Civil Wars Have the Same Cause? A Theoretical and Empirical Inquiry (part1) Journal of Conflict Resolution, 45:3 pp.259-82.
Sanin, Francisco G. (2004) “Criminal Rebels? A Discussion of Civil War and Criminality from the Columbian Experience” Politics and Society, 32:2, pp257-85.
Seul, Jeffrey R. (1999) “Ours is the Way of God”: Religion, Identity and Intergroup Conflict” Journal of Peace Research Vol.36,No 5 pp 553-569.
Silverman, Dan (2004) “Street Crime and Street Culture” International Economic Review, 45:3, pp.781-86.
Udogu, Ike E (1994) “The Allurement of Ethnonationalism in Nigerian Politics: The Contemporary Debate” Journal of Asia and African Studies. July 1.
Verdier, Thierry and Yves Zenou (2004) “Racial Beliefs, Location and The Causes of Crime” International Economic Review, 45:3, pp.731-60.
Weinstein, Jeremy M. (2005) “Resources and the Information Problem in Rebel Recruitment” Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol.49 No.4 pp.598-624.
Wolfensohn, James D. (2002) “Making the World a Better and Safer Place: The Time for Action is Now” Politics Vol 22, No.2 pp 118-123.