I. Introduction Loss Prevention Surveys



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Training

Training shall be provided for each employee who is required to use PPE. Each

employee shall be trained in the following areas:


  • When PPE is necessary.

  • What PPE is necessary

  • How to properly adjust and wear PPE.

  • The limitations of PPE.

  • The proper care, maintenance, life and disposal of PPE.

Employees should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the training and use of PPE

before performing work requiring its use. Employees should be retrained when the types

of PPE changes, the workplace changes, or the employee does not fully understand the

training or use of PPE. Documentation of the PPE training should be maintained in the

employee’s personnel file. A sample form is located in the appendix.

Employees should consult with their supervisor if they have any questions regarding

exposures or use of PPE. If any PPE is found to have been damaged or broken, the

employee should report it to their supervisor. Defective or damaged PPE should never be

used.

Health & Safety

X-61


Equipment

The following chart indicates the PPE that may be needed to perform certain job duties.

A Hazard Assessment should be performed by your safety committee to determine

exactly which duties require PPE.



ENGINEERING

FOOD &

BEVERAGE

HOUSEKEEPING

GLOVES: rubber - used to protect the hand from

chemicals and Bloodborne pathogens. X X X



GLOVES: mesh/cut-resistant - used to protect the

hands from edged tools, knives, and cleaning meat

slicers. X X

EYE PROTECTION: Used to protect the eye

from foreign objects produced by cutting, sawing,

hammering, grinding, spot welding, spraying

chemicals, Bloodborne pathogens, etc. X X X



HEARING PROTECTION: used to protect the

employee’s hearing from noise. X

If any chemical exposures at your hotel require the use of Respiratory Protection you

should attempt to eliminate the exposure by changing products or contact the Loss

Prevention Department for assistance. OSHA requires extensive training and testing for

employees who use respirators.



Health & Safety

X-62



Occupational Noise Exposure

Excessive noise can cause permanent hearing damage. To protect employees, it is

management's responsibility to make sure they are not exposed to noise levels in excess

of the standards. The current standard is 90 decibels (A - weighted) or 90 dBA for an

eight hour exposure. Even at this noise level, hearing damage can be expected in some

individuals. It may soon be a requirement, and it is considered good practice, to have

hearing checked (audiometric testing) on an annual basis, for all employees exposed to

85-90 dBA noise levels for eight hours daily. If no hearing loss is observed, ear

protection is not required.

At greater than 90 dBA exposures (eight hours per day) or for higher noise levels in

excess of the allowable time (e.g. 100 dBA for more than two hours) a continuing,

effective hearing conservation program should be administered. Reference to the

following table gives estimates of noise levels and the maximum allowable exposure

times. It is required that either engineering controls such as enclosing noisy equipment,

or administrative controls, such as limiting time of exposure, be utilized to reduce noise

level or the exposure time to comply with the standard. If these control measures are not

feasible, then effective personal protective equipment is required. There are many forms

and types of ear protection that can be considered from earmuffs to ear plugs. Some are

more useful than others, depending on the noise level, the frequency of the noise, and

how well they fit the individual. It is necessary to provide protection that is effective and

reasonably comfortable to the wearer.

The following table is provided to assist in the evaluation of the noise levels in the

workplace. If referral to the table indicates that levels and time of exposure are such that

corrective action is needed, it is recommended that professional help be sought to correct

the problem. A noise survey by adequately equipped and trained personnel should be

made before implementing engineering and administrative controls, and/or setting up a

hearing conservation program.

Permissible Noise Exposures

Noise Sources

Sound

Level

Maximum

Exposure

Speaking effort required between

two people at various distances

Pheumatic Chipper (at 5 Ft) 115 15 Min. Nearly impossible to communicate

by voice

Chain saw (at ear)/Rock N Roll Band 110 30 Min. Very difficult to communicate by

Voice

Wood Planer/Punch Press 105 1 Hour Shout with hands cupped between



mouth and other person's ear

Pneumatic Air Hoist, 4000 Lb 100 2 Hours Shout at 0.5 foot

Newspaper Press/Power Lawn Mower

(at ear)


95 4 Hours Shout at 1 Foot

Vaneaxial Ventilating Fan(1500

CFRM)/Boiler Room

90 8 Hours Telephone use impossible


Health & Safety

X-63


Ladders & Platforms

Ladders are often necessary to ensure that a job is completed in a safe manner, however

the improper use of a ladder could result in serious injury. When ladders are used for any

reason, the attached guidelines should be followed.



  • When portable ladders are used for access to an upper landing surface, the side rails

  • must extend at least 3 feet (.9 m) above the upper landing surface. When such an

  • extension is not possible, the ladder must be secured, and a grasping device such as a

  • grab rail must be provided to assist workers in mounting and dismounting the ladder.

  • A ladder extension must not deflect under a load that would cause the ladder to slip

  • off its support.

  • Ladders must be maintained free of oil, grease, and other slipping hazards.

  • Ladders must not be loaded beyond the maximum intended load for which they were

  • built nor beyond their manufacturer's rated capacity.

  • Ladders must be used only for the purpose for which they were designed.

  • Non-self-supporting ladders must be used at an angle where the horizontal distance

  • from the top support to the foot of the ladder is approximately one-quarter of the

  • working length of the ladder. Wood job-made ladders with spliced side rails must be

  • used at an angle where the horizontal distance is one-eighth the working length of the

  • ladder.

  • Ladders placed in areas such as passage-ways, doorways, or driveways, or where they

  • can be displaced by workplace activities or traffic must be secured to prevent

  • accidental movement, or a barricade must be used to keep traffic or activities away

  • from the ladder.

  • Fixed ladders must be used at a pitch no greater than 90 degrees from the horizontal,

  • measured from the back side of the ladder.

  • Ladders must be used only on stable and level surfaces unless secured to prevent

  • accidental movement.

  • Ladders must not be used on slippery surfaces unless secured or provided with slipresistant

  • feet to prevent accidental movement. Slip-resistant feet must not be used as a

  • substitute for the care in placing, lashing, or holding a ladder upon slippery surfaces.

  • Ladders must not be moved, shifted, or extended while in use.

  • Ladders must have nonconductive siderails if they are used where the worker or the

  • ladder could contact exposed energized electrical equipment.

  • The top or top step of a stepladder must not be used as a step.

  • Cross-bracing on the rear section of stepladders must not be used for climbing unless

  • the ladders are designed and provided with steps for climbing on both front and rear

  • sections.

  • Ladders must be inspected by a competent person for visible defects on a periodic

  • basis and after any incident that could affect their safe use.

  • Single-rail ladders must not be used.

  • When ascending or descending a ladder, the worker must face the ladder.

  • Each worker must use at least one hand to grasp the ladder when moving up or down

  • the ladder.


Health & Safety

X-64


A worker on a ladder must not carry any object or load that could cause the worker to

lose balance and fall.



Platforms, Railings and Toe Boards

A standard railing consists of a top rail, intermediate rail, and posts. The distance

from the upper surface of the top rail to the floor, platform, runway, or ramp should

be 42 inches. The intermediate rail should be approximately halfway between the top

rail and the floor.

A standard railing can be of any configuration and construction that meets the basic

dimension requirements (42 inches high with mid rail) and can withstand 200 pounds

applied in any direction at any point on the top rail. For wood railings, the rails and

posts should be of at least 2" x 4" stock with posts spaced not more than six feet.

For pipe railings, rails and posts should be at least 1½ inches outside diameter pipe

with posts spaced not more than eight feet.

For structural steel railings, posts and rails should be of 2 x 2 inch angles or other

metal shapes of equivalent strength with posts spaced not more than 8 feet.

The standard toe board should be approximately four inches in height from the floor

to its top edge, with no more than a quarter inch gap between the toe board and the

floor. It may be constructed of any substantial material either solid or perforated, as

long as the openings are smaller than one inch.

Every open-sided floor or platform four feet or more above the adjacent floor or

ground level should be railed on all open sides except where there is entrance to a

ramp, stairway, or fixed ladder.

Every stairway floor opening should be guarded on all exposed sides except the

entrance to the stairway.

Every ladder way floor opening should be guarded by a standard railing and toe board

on all sides, with passage through the railing so constructed as to prevent a person

from walking directly into the opening.

Every runway or catwalk should have railings on all open sides four feet or more

above ground or floor level.

As a general condition: A standard toe board and railing are required wherever people

walk beneath the open sides of a platform or under similar structures or where things

could fall from the structure (for example, into machinery below).



Health & Safety

X-65


Machinery and Machine Guarding

Machines designed for fixed locations should be securely anchored to prevent "walking"

or tipping. One or more methods of machine guarding should be provided to protect the

operator and other employees in the machine area from hazards such as those created by

point of operation, in running nip points, rotating parts, flying chips and sparks.

Guarding devices should prevent the operator from having any part of the body in the

danger zone during the operating cycle. Many equipment representatives can assist in

obtaining the necessary protective devices.

The most common methods of guarding a hazard or hazardous machine operation are:


  • Enclosing the operation (preferred)

  • Interlocking devices

  • Moving barriers

  • Removal devices

  • Remote control

  • Two-hand tripping devices

  • Electronic safety devices

In-running Nip Points

In running nip points are special dangers existing only through action of rotating objects.

Whenever machine parts rotate toward each other, or where one rotates toward a

stationary object, an in-running nip point is formed. Objects or parts of the body may be

drawn into this nip point and be bruised or crushed.

Cutting Actions

Cutting action results when rotating, reciprocating, or transverse motion is imparted to a

tool so that material being removed is in the form of chips. The danger of cutting action

exists at the movable cutting edge of the machine as it approaches or comes in contact

with the material being cut. Such action takes place at the point-of-operation in cutting

wood, metal, or other materials as differentiated from punching, shearing, or bending by

press action. Typical examples of mechanisms involving cutting action include band and

circular saws, boring or drilling machines and grinding machines.



Radial Saws

To ensure safe operation, radial saws should be provided with the following:

An upper hood to enclose the top portion of the blade down to a point that will

include the end of the saw arbor. The sides of the lower exposed portion of the blade

should be guarded to the full diameter of the blade by a device that automatically

adjusts to the thickness of the stock being cut.

Non-kickback dogs on both sides of the saw, designed to provide adequate holding

power for all thickness of material being cut, if used for ripping.

An adjustable stop which limits forward travel of the blade beyond the distance

necessary to complete a cut in repetitive operations.



Health & Safety

X-66


A head which automatically returns to its starting position.

Marking on the hood showing the direction of saw rotation. In addition, a permanent

label should be affixed to the rear of the guard reading: "DANGER, DO NOT RIP

OR PLOUGH FROM THIS END".



Table Saws

To ensure safe operation, table saws should be provided with the following:



  • Table saws should be provided with a hood that covers the saw at all times.

  • Many times when rabbeting and dadoing, the standard hood guard may be

  • impractical. In this case, an effective guarding procedure can be utilized by the use of

  • a jig to hold the work, thereby keeping the hands away from the blade.

  • Table saws used for ripping should be equipped with an anti-kickback device and

  • spreader.

  • The exposed part of the saw underneath the table should be guarded.

Grinders

To ensure safe operation, grinders should be provided with the following:

Wheel Guard- Safety guards should cover the spindle end, nut, and flange

projections. The exposed area of the grinding wheel and sides for the safety guards

should not exceed more than one-fourth of the entire wheel. When measuring the

guard opening, the visors or other accessory equipment is not included as a part of the

guard unless this accessory equipment is as strong as the guard.

Work or Tool Rests- These rests should be of strong construction and designed to be

adjustable to compensate for wheel wear. Work rests should be closely adjusted to

the wheel, with a maximum clearance of 1/8 inch, to prevent the work from becoming

jammed between the wheel and the work rest.

Exposure Adjustment or Tongue Guards- This safety guard should be constructed so

that the tongue guard can be adjusted to the constantly decreasing diameter of the

wheel. The distance between the tongue guard and the wheel should never be more

than ¼ inch.

Goggles or a Face Shield- These should be worn by the operator.



Fans

To ensure safe operation, if fans are located within seven feet of the floor, they should be

guarded with grille or mesh, limiting openings to not more than ½ inch.
Hand Tools

The following is a partial list of regulations governing use of hand tools:



  • Each employer is responsible for the safe condition of tools and equipment used by

  • employees, including tools and equipment which may be furnished by employees.

  • Hammers with broken or cracked handles, chisels and punches with mushroomed

  • heads, or bent or broken wrenches should not be used.

  • Most hand-held powered tools should be equipped with a dead-man control so that

  • the power is automatically shut off whenever the operator releases the control.

Health & Safety

X-67


  • Portable circular saws should be equipped with guards above and below the base

  • plate or shoe. The lower guard should retract when the blade is in use, and

  • automatically return when the tool is withdrawn from the work.

  • All hand-held portable electrical equipment should have its frame grounded by means

  • of a separate ground wire or be doubly insulated and identified as such.

  • Beware of compressed air, it can be dangerous. Alternate methods of cleaning

surfaces should be sought. Compressed air should never be used to blow debris from

a person. Compressed air may be used if no alternate method of cleaning surfaces is

acceptable. The downstream pressure of compressed air should remain at a pressure

level below 30 psi whenever the nozzle is dead ended, and then only when effective

chip guarding and personal protective equipment is used.

XI. Leisure Activities



Swimming Pools and Whirlpools .....................................................................................2

Fitness Center ....................................................................................................................8

Sauna .................................................................................................................................9

Playgrounds .......................................................................................................................9

Jogging Trails ....................................................................................................................9

Baby-sitting ......................................................................................................................10

Leisure Activities

XI-2


Swimming Pools and Whirlpools

Water Quality

Water quality is a key component to swimming pool enjoyment. To ensure water quality,

swimming pools and whirlpools should be tested and documented 3 times per day. Water

quality is usually assessed by measuring pH and sanitizer levels.

A sanitizer is a chemical, which is used to keep the water free from harmful bacteria and

algae. In most cases, Chlorine or Bromine is used as the sanitizer. A chlorine residual of

1.0-3.0 PPM (parts per million) should be in the water at all times. When Bromine is

used it should be maintained at a level of 2.0-6.0 PPM. If another sanitizer is used, the

level should be maintained in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations.

pH is the measure of the degree of acidity or alkalinity of pool water. Readings below 7

are increasingly acidic, above 7 are increasingly alkaline. Under normal conditions, the

proper pH for pool water is approximately 7.5 with pH 7.2-7.8 being an acceptable range.

pH levels outside of this range may cause discomfort and irritation.

Another measure of water quality is clarity. When testing water quality, clarity should be

checked by observing the main drain of the pool. The ability to see the main drain should

be recorded on the pool log. If at any time the main drain of the pool is not visible, the

pool should be closed. When water quality in a pool or spas falls outside of the levels

stated above, the facility should be closed until the water quality is restored.



Enclosures

To prevent unauthorized access to the pool during normal operating hours or while the

pool is closed, the pool and whirlpool should be surrounded by a fence or separated from

other public areas by an enclosure or barrier. If possible, guestrooms should not open

directly onto the pool deck. A minimum of 5 feet of deck should extend between the

pool and the pool enclosure.

Ideally the fence surrounding the pool will be a minimum of 48 inches in height and have

intermediate rails or an ornamental pattern such that a sphere 4 inches in diameter cannot

pass through any opening. Gates should be equipped with self-closing and self-latching

child resistant hardware. To help ensure proper operation, the gates should be inspected

regularly.

If the pool is located in a separate room, access to the room should be controlled by a

card key access lock. All doors to the pool room should be equipped with self-closing

self-latching hardware.



Safety Devices

To help prevent possible entrapment on pool drains, all swimming pools should be

equipped with one of the following drain designs:


  • Two main drains remote of each other.

  • A single main drain with a grill larger than 12 x 12 inches.

  • A single main drain equipped with an anti-vortex drain cover.

Leisure Activities

XI-3


Pools equipped with a single main drain which is 12 x 12 inches or smaller and is not

equipped with an anti-vortex drain cover should either have an anti-vortex drain cover or

an additional main drain installed.

A visual inspection of the pool drain should be conducted each time the water is tested. If

the drain cover appears damaged or loose, the pool should be closed until it can be

repaired. Each time the pool is drained, the main drain should be physically inspected to

ensure its structural integrity.
GFI

Ground Fault Interrupters (GFI) should be installed on all electrical outlets within 40 feet

of the swimming pool and all other wet areas. Typical appliances to protect are ice

machines, game machines and vending machines. GFI devices should be inspected and

tested on a regular basis.

Lighting

Pool lights should illuminate the pool so that the bottom is clearly visible from the deck.

In the event that lighting is inoperable and the main drain is not clearly visible, the pool

should be closed. Lighting typically falls into two categories 110 volt and low voltage

(14 or less volts). GFI devices should be installed on all underwater lighting circuits,

which are 15 or more volts.



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