Input by South Africa on responses to climate change Seminar of Governmental Experts

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Input by South Africa on responses to climate change

  • Seminar of Governmental Experts

  • 16 & 17 May 2005, Bonn

SA’s vulnerability to climate change impacts

  • SA & the poor, in particular, extremely vulnerable

  • Climate change impacts threaten to undermine sustainable development

    • SA’s response strategy centers on sustainable development
  • Most vulnerable sectors in SA

    • Water, e.g. reduced average rainfall in west half of the country
    • Health, e.g. more people at risk from malaria
    • Agriculture, e.g. subsistence farmers more marginal
    • Biodiversity, e.g. up to 60% loss of endemics in succulent Karoo

Key Issues

  • CC happening and will continue

  • SA contributes only 1.4% CO 2 to global total and therefore needs a global multi-lateral solution which

  • In SA adaptation measures a priority to address the vulnerability of the poor to CC effects

  • The major potential for mitigation in SA relates to energy (currently, 93% of electricity generation from coal)

    • Electricity generation and supply
    • Transport fuels
    • Mining, industry & household energy use & efficiency

Current Adaptation PAM’s

  • Sectoral programmes focused on poverty

    • Landcare – transforms unsustainable agricultural practice
    • Working for Water – alien plant removal to restore water
    • Working for Wetlands – restoration of water sources
    • Working on Fire – Fire control
  • Rural economic diversification – ISRDS

  • Adaptation technology research and development

  • Potential for the use of LULUCF & sink strategies for mitigation are limited – LULUCF is a vulnerability & adaptation issue

Current Mitigation PAM’s: Energy efficiency

  • Energy efficiency contributes to sustainable development at the local and global scale

  • Strategy: a national target for energy efficiency of 12% by 2015

    • Mix of economic instruments and regulatory tools, as well as energy management programmes
  • Build on practical measures already in place

    • Avoid 2300 MW by 2020 through efficiency measures (327000 tons of CO2 was saved between 2001-2003)
      • Efficient lighting initiative
      • Energy efficiency in low-cost housing (CDM project validated)
      • Demand-side management programme

Current Mitigation PAM’s: Renewable energy

  • Policy: voluntary target of 10 000 GWh renewable energy contribution to final energy consumption by 2013

    • to be produced mainly from biomass, wind, solar and small-scale hydro, bio-fuels etc. (both power generation & non power generation technologies)
  • Equivalent to approximately 4% of projected electricity demand by 2013

  • Existing projects: off-grid solar, wind, Solar Water Heating

    • Needs to be scaled up with additional R&D bulk renewables
    • Need international support to meet incremental costs of implementation –

Current Carbon Finance PAM’s: CDM in South Africa

  • Policy developed and published

  • Established Designated National Authority in the Dept of Minerals & Energy (

    • 9 CDM projects submitted to the DNA
    • 21.9 MtCO2 over the period 2005 to 2012
  • Actively engaging in carbon markets

    • Emissions derivative trading
  • Markets need certainty to secure carbon as a long term tradable commodity ie. Second commitment period for Kyoto (article 3.9)

Current Research & Development

  • Technology Needs Assessment in progress

  • National Energy Research Institute being established

  • Research on clean coal & in situ gasification

  • Solar thermal bulk renewable

  • Long term sector level emission, adaptation & mitigation research and modelling

  • Bio-fuel RD&D

  • GHG inventory process

  • Participation in the GEOSS programme

Future National PAM’s:

  • Finalising a Cleaner Production Strategy

  • Air Quality Act passed in 2004

    • provides a regulatory framework to set emission standards for both priority pollutants including greenhouse gases
    • regulates reporting
  • Investigate Public Transport measures. Eg.Taxi Recap & incentivise bio-fuel programme

  • Clean fuel standards (eg. Euro 3 by 2008 & 4 by 2010)

  • Building standard regulations to improve efficiency

  • Energy Bill – legislation to regulate energy efficiency & renewable energy

Future multi-lateral process

  • Climate change is a global problem and requires a unified global response and action

  • SA committed to the multi-lateral process under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol

  • Future Climate Change regime must include a strengthened Kyoto

  • Future Climate Change regime must support sustainable development in all countries and:

    • Emphasises the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities
    • Requires Annexe 1 (developed) countries to take the lead
    • Recognizes the unique circumstances and challenges faced by developing countries.

The way forward

  • All nations to join and support the international effort to reduce greenhouse gases emissions

    • Given the vulnerability of the poor, largest emitters need to reduce emissions
    • Annex I Parties need to take stronger action
    • Full funding of agreed incremental costs (Art 4.3)
    • NA1 actions designed to support sustainable development
  • All nations accept responsibility to deal with climate change within an inclusive multilateral regime balancing adaptation & mitigation

  • SA committed to engage in the development of the future CC regime

  • Need Montreal Mandate to map out next few years of negotiations and to prevent stalling & add urgency

Thank you

Kataloq: files -> meetings
files -> Azərbaycan Respublikası Kənd Təsərrüfatı Nazirliyi Azərbaycan Dövlət Aqrar Universiteti adau-nun 80 illik yubileyinə həsr edilir adau-nun elmi ƏSƏRLƏRİ g əNCƏ 2009, №3
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files -> AZƏrbaycan respublikasi təHSİl naziRLİYİ XƏZƏr universiteti TƏHSİl faküLTƏSİ
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meetings -> Organisation internationale de normalisation

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