Lecture 4 The empire of A. Timur. The establishement of the Uzbek



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Lecture 4. Amir Timur Empire

LECTURE 4 The empire of A.Timur. The establishement of the Uzbek.


Region

9 April 1370 – 14 February 1405

Coronation

9 April 1370, Balkh

Born

9 April 1336[1] Kesh, Chagatai Khanate

Died

19 February 1405 (aged 68) Otrar, Farab, near Shymkent, Syr Darya

Burial

Gur-e-Amir, Samarkand

Wives
  • Chulpan Mulk Agha
  • Aljaz Turkhan Agha
  • Tukal Khanum
  • Dil Shad Agha
  • Touman Agha
  • Other wives

House

Barlas Timurid

Father

Amir Taraghai

Mother

Tekina Khatun

Religion

Islam

Muhammad Shuja Uddin Timur  (Persian: تیمور‎ TemūrChagataiTemür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), sometimes spelled Taimur and historically best known as Amir Timur or Tamerlane (Persian: تيمور لنگ‎ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol Persianate conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire in and around modern-day Iran and Central Asia, becoming the first ruler of the Timurid dynasty. As an undefeated commander, he is widely regarded to be one of the greatest military leaders and tacticians in history. Amir Timur is also considered as a great patron of art and architecture, as he interacted with intellectuals such as Ibn Khaldun and Hafiz-i Abru

Muhammad Shuja Uddin Timur  (Persian: تیمور‎ TemūrChagataiTemür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), sometimes spelled Taimur and historically best known as Amir Timur or Tamerlane (Persian: تيمور لنگ‎ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol Persianate conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire in and around modern-day Iran and Central Asia, becoming the first ruler of the Timurid dynasty. As an undefeated commander, he is widely regarded to be one of the greatest military leaders and tacticians in history. Amir Timur is also considered as a great patron of art and architecture, as he interacted with intellectuals such as Ibn Khaldun and Hafiz-i Abru

Amir Timur was born in Transoxiana near the city of Kesh (modern ShahrisabzUzbekistan), some 80 kilometres (50 miles) south of Samarkand, part of what was then the Chagatai Khanate. His name Temur means "Iron" in the Chagatai language, his mother-tongue (cf. Uzbek TemirTurkish Demir).

  • Amir Timur was born in Transoxiana near the city of Kesh (modern ShahrisabzUzbekistan), some 80 kilometres (50 miles) south of Samarkand, part of what was then the Chagatai Khanate. His name Temur means "Iron" in the Chagatai language, his mother-tongue (cf. Uzbek TemirTurkish Demir).
  • He was a member of the Barlas, a Mongolian tribe that had been turkified in many aspects. His father, Taraghai was described as a minor noble of this tribe. However, historian Beatrice Forbes Manz believes that Timur may have later understated the social position of his father, so as to make his own successes appear more remarkable. She states that though he is not believed to have been especially powerful, Taraghai was reasonably wealthy and influential. This is shown by Timur returning to his birthplace following the death of his father in 1360, suggesting concern over his estate. Taraghai's social significance is further hinted at by Arabshah, who described him as a magnate in the court of Amir Husayn Qara'unas. In addition to this, the father of the great Amir Hamid Kereyid of Moghulistan is stated as a friend of Taraghai's.

In his childhood, Timur and a small band of followers raided travelers for goods, especially animals such as sheep, horses, and cattle. Around 1363, it is believed that Timur tried to steal a sheep from a shepherd but was shot by two arrows, one in his right leg and another in his right hand, where he lost two fingers. Both injuries crippled him for life. Some believe that Timur suffered his crippling injuries while serving as a mercenary to the khan of Sistan in Khorasan in what is today the Dashti Margo in southwest Afghanistan. Timur's injuries have given him the names of Timur the Lame and Tamerlane by Europeans.

  • In his childhood, Timur and a small band of followers raided travelers for goods, especially animals such as sheep, horses, and cattle. Around 1363, it is believed that Timur tried to steal a sheep from a shepherd but was shot by two arrows, one in his right leg and another in his right hand, where he lost two fingers. Both injuries crippled him for life. Some believe that Timur suffered his crippling injuries while serving as a mercenary to the khan of Sistan in Khorasan in what is today the Dashti Margo in southwest Afghanistan. Timur's injuries have given him the names of Timur the Lame and Tamerlane by Europeans.

Timur preferred to fight his battles in the spring. However, he died en route during an uncharacteristic winter campaign. In December 1404, Timur began military campaigns against Ming China and detained a Ming envoy. He suffered illness while encamped on the farther side of the Syr Daria and died at Farab on February 17, 1405, before ever reaching the Chinese border. After his death the Ming envoys such as Fu An and the remaining entourage were released[75] by his grandsonKhalil Sultan.

Timur preferred to fight his battles in the spring. However, he died en route during an uncharacteristic winter campaign. In December 1404, Timur began military campaigns against Ming China and detained a Ming envoy. He suffered illness while encamped on the farther side of the Syr Daria and died at Farab on February 17, 1405, before ever reaching the Chinese border. After his death the Ming envoys such as Fu An and the remaining entourage were released[75] by his grandsonKhalil Sultan.

  • Timur preferred to fight his battles in the spring. However, he died en route during an uncharacteristic winter campaign. In December 1404, Timur began military campaigns against Ming China and detained a Ming envoy. He suffered illness while encamped on the farther side of the Syr Daria and died at Farab on February 17, 1405, before ever reaching the Chinese border. After his death the Ming envoys such as Fu An and the remaining entourage were released[75] by his grandsonKhalil Sultan.
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