Outline of the presentation

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Norman Paskin n.paskin@tertius.ltd.uk

  • Norman Paskin n.paskin@tertius.ltd.uk

    • Member of ISO TC/46/SC9 Identifier Interoperability working group
    • Digital Object Identifier system
    • Chair of CONTECS (indecs2 consortium)
    • Member ACAP Technical Working group, etc
  • Outline of the presentation:

  • Relevance for ITU FG

  • Terminology traps

  • Overview of major activities:

    • ISO content identifiers
    • DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
    • music; publishing; licensing
    • MPEG
    • Party identifiers
    • Web-based identifiers
  • Common themes and lessons

  • ITU FG scope: “management of...attributes of an entity”

  • Accommodate existing and new identity schemes

  • There is relevant ongoing work in other standards fora

  • A consistent approach to all kinds of inter-related entities is now recognised as necessary:

  • ITU FG scope: “management of...attributes of an entity”

  • Accommodate existing and new identity schemes

  • There is relevant ongoing work in other standards fora

  • A consistent approach to all kinds of inter-related entities is now recognised as necessary:

  • “… which entities digital identities need to be tied to, from users via networks, services, applications, content etc. to “things” in general”

  • “The need to support roles and partial identities targeted to specific roles or usage contexts.

  • “the requirement to support both roles that represent real persons as well as the construction of virtual persons..”

    • ITU Workshop on Digital Identity for Next Generation Networks, Dec 06

Identifier = numbering schemes

  • Identifier = numbering schemes

  • Registries

  • Normally central control, commitment

  • Examples: ISBN, EAN bar codes, IANA, ITU phone numbering plans etc

  • Normally focus on attributes (metadata)

  • Identifier = syntax specifications

  • Normally little central control

  • e.g URI (URL); MPEG-21 DII

  • Few structured attributes, low barriers to entry

  • Some more structured than others: e.g. URN, info URI

  • Other confusions:

  • Some practical systems use both schemes and specifications (e.g. DOI)

  • Interactions between schemes and specifications:

  • Identifier as “system” versus as a “unique label”

  • There are many badly-designed numbering schemes

  • There are many incorrect uses of well-designed numbering schemes

International Standard Party Identifier (ISPI)

  • International Standard Party Identifier (ISPI)

    • ISO Project 27729
    • “a new international identification system for the parties (persons and corporate bodies) involved in the creation and production of content entities”.
    • Work on the ISPI project began in August 2006
  • Digital Object Identifier (DOI) System

    • ISO/WD 26324
    • To standardise the existing DOI system (syntax is already a national US standard, NISO Z39.84)
  • Identifier Interoperability working group

    • Informal group
    • To consider what steps are necessary to improve interoperability of existing and future ISO TC46/SC9 identifiers
    • “Identifier Interoperability: a report…” http://www.dlib.org/dlib/april06/

The DOI System

CISAC = Int. Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers

  • CISAC = Int. Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers

    • Co-ordinates a music industry information system (member-based)
    • IPI = Interested Party Identifier (“which John Williams?”)
    • Long established system
    • Recent MWLI: Musical Works Licence Identifier*
  • DDEX = Digital Data Exchange*

    • http://www.ddex.net
    • Messaging standards for music industry chain
    • Modelled on earlier publishing industry efforts (ONIX) etc
    • Has its own Party ID (http://ddex.net/evaluation/licenceform.html )
  • GrId = Global Release Identifier

    • for digital tracks etc*.
  • * Spun out from Music Industry Integrated Identifiers Project (Mi3p)

ONIX = Online information exchange

  • ONIX = Online information exchange

    • http://www.editeur.org/
  • Editeur: International umbrella body for book industry standards development

  • Collaborative effort with international, national and sectoral organisations

  • Develops and maintains ONIX, EDItEUR / EDIFACT & XML / EDI standards etc

  • Messaging exchange between publishers, booksellers (Amazon etc), libraries

  • Works closely with ISBN International and others

  • Expanding into related areas

  • ONIX is developing standards for licensing and for multimedia, both of which require a rich semantic interoperability,

    • ONIX for Licensing Terms: need for license terms to be expressed in standard processable format
    • DLF Electronic Resource Management Initiative (ERMI) working with NISO and EDItEUR to enable standardised statement of usage rights linked with digital resources
  • RDA (Resource Description and Access – new AACR); shared “RDA/ONIX Framework for resource categorisation”

    • http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january07/dunsire/01dunsire.html
    • Cataloging, Digital Archiving and Preservation projects have similar requirements

The ACAP project

MPEG 21 (ISO/IEC 21000)

MPEG 21 (ISO/IEC 21000)

  • Part 3: “Digital Item Identifier”

    • syntax placeholder for e.g. URL, DOI, GrID
  • Part 5: “Rights Expression Language”

    • can identify Principals
  • Part 6: “Rights Data Dictionary”

    • 2000-term data dictionary for semantic interoperability
    • Contextual event-based, managed, data model
    • http://iso21000-6.net/
    • Methodology for continuing extensibility; more later
  • Part 15: “Event Reporting”

    • enable owners of content to receive information about what has happened to their stuff

Identifying parties

  • Some industry-specific standards

    • e.g. CIS IPI system (availability/governance issues)
    • Current STM publishers work on author and institute disambiguation
  • Impractical to identify everybody

  • End-user identification mainly an issue of authentication

  • Identification of individual and corporate persons a major issue for rights (and authority control in libraries)

  • Parties are more than just persons

    • Organisations, personae, pseudonyms, avatars…
  • decs> identified need for a “directory of parties” linking person identifier schemes


  • An EU-funded project (2002-2003) looking at the interoperation of “party identifiers”

    • www.interpary.org
  • Aimed to demonstrate how (and why) existing schemes could interoperate e.g.

    • Library authority files
    • CISAC / IPI
    • Bibliographic databases
    • Performer databases
  • Identified mechanisms for issues such as partial matching

  • Built on an earlier project: decs>

  • ISPI (ISO TC46/SC9) should learn from this

Web-related identifiers


These are not unrelated independent efforts.

  • These are not unrelated independent efforts.

  • Many of these standards and projects share a common view (and fundamental data model) of identifiers and metadata

  • - the decs> view which has a strong lineage over almost ten years:

Interoperability of Data in E-Commerce Systems

  • Interoperability of Data in E-Commerce Systems

  • decs> project 1998-2000

  • decs2> 2001-2002 (= MPEG21 Rights Data Dictionary)

  • Focus on multimedia rights metadata: recognized that rights and descriptive metadata were inseparable. Produced an event-based reference model/framework (parties, resources, agreements)

  • 50% EC funding + consortium members including:

    • EDItEUR (international book industry standards/ONIX)
    • IFPI (international record industry)
    • MPAA (international film industry)
    • Various copyright societies and associations
    • Various technology providers
    • Library and author representatives
    • International DOI Foundation
  • Metadata in networks needs to support interoperability across

    • media (e.g. books, serials, audiovisual, software, abstract works).
    • functions (e.g. cataloguing, discovery, workflow, rights mgmt).
    • levels of metadata (from simple to complex).
    • semantic barriers.
    • linguistic barriers.


  • Principles:

  • Unique Identification: every entity should be uniquely identified within an identified namespace.

  • Functional Granularity: it should be possible to identify an entity whenever it needs to be distinguished [1st class]

  • Designated Authority: the author of an item of metadata should be securely identified.

  • Appropriate Access: everyone requires access to the metadata on which they depend, and privacy and confidentiality for their own metadata from those who are not dependent on it.

  • Definition of metadata: An item of metadata is a relationship that someone claims to exist between two referents (description)

  • Delivered:

  • Generic data model of e-commerce all types of intellectual property

  • Specifications for supporting services

  • Standardisation proposals

  • Documentation at www.indecs.org

  • Led to:

  • Contextual ontology architecture: contexts, roles, identities

  • ISO MPEG-21 Rights Data Dictionary (http://iso21000-6.net/)

  • DDEX Digital Data EXchange - music industry (http://ddex.net/)

  • ONIX: Book industry (+) messaging schemas (www.editeur.org )

  • ONIX: Rights: ONIX for Licensing Terms, Repertoire and Distribution

  • Digital Library Federation - communication of licence terms (ERMI: working with ONIX for licensing terms)

  • DOI Data Dictionary (http://www.doi.org )

  • Rightscom’s OntologyX - licensee of early output, plus their own later work (www.rightscom.com )

  • RDA (Resource Description and Access); next generation of AACR/MARC cataloguing – RDA/ONIX common framework

  • ACAP: Automated Content Access Protocol

    • (http://www.the-acap.org/ )
  • Consistent with FRBR, ABC-Harmony, OWL, CIDOC CRM, etc

Many of these standards and projects share a common view (and fundamental data model) of identifiers and metadata

  • Many of these standards and projects share a common view (and fundamental data model) of identifiers and metadata

  • 2. Some of these standards and projects share a common view (and fundamental data model) of identifier resolution

  • Internet registries and distributed resolution

  • First class naming, functional granularity

  • Info URI, URN?

  • The Handle System: ideal choice to provide resolution for all identifiers

  • Existing numbering schemes may be a suffix of a Handle

    • DOI currently working with ISBN International (ISBNs as DOIs)
  • Or metadata may be linked through data values in handle record

  • First class naming, appropriate granularity

  • Authentication, security, does not conflate identity and data (e.g. location), etc.

  • Content industry standards activities are extending their old focus on numbering schemes

    • into party identification, licensing, data modelling, and fundamental principles
    • interoperability, internet registries, ontologies
  • Management of identifiers and metadata

    • = “Naming and meaning of digital objects”
    • http://www.doi.org/topics/060927AXMEDIS2006DOI.pdf
  • Need for first class naming

    • Handle system
    • infrastructure for extensible distributed services for using names to locate and disseminate objects
  • Need for semantic interoperability

    • Contextual ontology (decs>): Contexts, roles, relationships
    • functional granularity
    • use of existing metadata schemes
  • Identity management discussions can learn from and use these techniques

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