RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION This chapter presents the research findings and discussions dealing with the problems formulated in chapter I. The aims of this chapter are to investigate whether the implementation of Styles and Strategies Based Instruction can improve students’ reading competence or not, students’ response on the implementation of Styles and Strategies Based Instruction, and identify kinds of problems arising. The descriptions of research findings are based on the data taken from the researcher and collaborator’s field notes, classroom observations, interviews, and tests. Then, discussion becomes the next step in elaborating and analyzing the result findings.
The implementation of Classroom Action Research was based on the indentified problems in the pre research (see chapter 1, page: 4-8). It is mainly purposed to improve students’ reading competence through Styles and Strategies Based Instruction. The target expected is that an ideal condition can be created in which the average score of students’ reading will be at least 70 for each competence; then reading does not become a difficult competence for students and teachers anymore. It can be an easy and an enjoyable competence to be learnt and taught. So, students motivation in doing reading test will be raised and teachers creativity in teaching and finding solutions related to reading will be improved.
B. The Implementation of Classroom Action Research
The implementation of Classroom Action Research was divided into three cycles, each cycle consisted of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. This spiraling steps supported each other in continuing process. These were described as follows:
1. Cycle 1
In the first cycle, researcher had planned some activities before applying the research. These were: (1) making lesson plans containing teaching learning processes in reading based on Styles and Strategies Based Instruction. (2) sharing and discussing with collaborator. It was done to get the same assumption and understanding about teaching learning processes and everything which would be applied, observed, noted, and assessed. (3) implementing teaching learning processes. (4) designing reading post test. (5) Interviews. It was the last step used to dig more about students' feeling, thinking, and opinion about reading strategies.
The First Meeting
The first meeting was conducted on Friday, October 8th 2010. The class took in 90 minutes, started from 09.00 and ended at 10.30 A.M. Then, the materials were (1) finding the topic and main idea, (2) determining the purpose of the text, and (3) identifying the organization of the text. Meanwhile, the activities in classroom reading performance were divided into pre activities, main activities, and post activities.
The first bell was ringing at 08.50 A.M, it was the sign that a teacher should enter the class and prepare her teaching performance. Therefore, the researcher and collaborator came to Alumni Class. Collaborator took seat in the back row and recorded the whole things happened during teaching learning process. At this time, there were several students who had attended the class. Researcher smiled at them and greeted them by saying “Morning students?”, students replied “Morning Mom.” Then, researcher went to the whiteboard, drew the chapter which would be discussed by blue marker in white board, made a rectangular form around it by red marker, and wrote her name below it by her initial name “NM”. Then it was continued by drawing a mind map and the first reading material by using three different kinds of board marker (black, blue and red).
At 09.00 A.M the second bell was ringing, it is the sign that the class can be started. One by one students came and entered the classroom. Then, researcher started and opened the class by saying “Assalamualaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh” and students replied researcher’s greeting, “Waalaikumsalam Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh”. After that researcher continued her statements “My beloved students, at this beautiful day we will discuss several materials and strategies related to reading. As we know that reading becomes the main requirement to pass State University Entrance Test, doesn’t it?”.
Students were silent, but their eyes and face said that they agreed with the researcher’s explanation. Some students nodded because 3 months ago they joined in State University Entrance Test, so they knew what the researcher said was true as their experience in the previous test. Researcher continued her explanation in explaining the statistic data in State University Entrance Test 2009 and 2010 where reading was the only competence which was tested.
In the main activities, the researcher explained reading materials and strategies. But, before explaining reading materials and strategies, researcher explained how important this material to students first, it was aimed to keep students’ focus and stimulate psychological attention during materials given.
My beloved students, today we will discuss three reading materials. The first is finding the topic and main idea. This material is very important to be understood, because it always appears in State University Entrance Test 2009-2010. In State University Entrance Test 2009 code 183, there were 2 topic items, code 285 were 2 main idea items and 1 topic item, and code 383 were 1 main idea item and 1 topic item. Meanwhile, in State University Entrance Test 2010 code 326, there was 1 main idea item, code 336 was 1 topic item, and code 744 were 1 topic item and 2 main idea items. The second is determining the purpose of the text. It appeared in State University Entrance Test 2008-2010. In State University Entrance Test 2008, the purpose of the text appeared 1 item in code 201. In State University Entrance Test 2009, it appeared 1 item in code 183. Meanwhile in State University Entrance Test 2010, it appeared 1 item in code 744. And the third is identifying organization of the text which appeared 2 items in code 744 at State University Entrance Test 2010.
Next, the researcher delivered the basic concept of topic and main idea first, continued by the purpose of the text and the organization of the text. Those are explained in the form of materials and kinds of reading strategies used.
The Basic Concept of Topic and Main Idea
Understanding the questions
What is the main idea/the subject/the topic of the text?
What is the main point of the passage?
The passage mainly discusses?
The passage indicates that?
What would be a good title of the text?
Understanding kinds of reading
Understanding the differences between topic and main idea
what the sentence or the paragraph is about
what the writer is trying to convey in his entire message
simpler and only use a word or a phrase
stated as an entire sentence
The topic must not be specific nor should it be general
the main idea must be complete.
can be found in the sentence or in a paragraph
may appear in the beginning, the middle, or the last part of the paragraph
the topic is simply called “topic.”
Another term for the main idea is “topic sentence”
At the basic concept, students were recognized kinds of questions first, because students still got difficulties in understanding of what is being asked. Next, researcher explained kinds of readings, and the differences between topic and main idea. These understanding became important as the basic reading concept because it will influence the strategies used. Students were encouraged to be able to identify between topic and main idea, short and long reading, and the way to apply them in answering questions. These strategies were mentioned in table 4.3
Reading Strategies in Finding Topic & Main Idea
Those strategies were explained in several different examples to make it clear and easy to be understood by students. Because reading had different approches and not every author or writer did the same thing at their writing. So, there should be different ways and strategies applied in solving various readings. These strategies were applied by researcher’s guidance. So the rules were students followed certain instructions in answering reading items. Then, to emphasize and stress it in students’ mind, researcher made a quick solution concept called “The King”. It is Ganesha Operation’s branded, then it was aimed to remind and ease students in understanding the core of material. “The King” of the topic and main idea was:
Kam Per Ca Per
During classroom teaching learning process, students were accompanied by classical music which was continuously played. That morning, classical music played was Mozart “Concertante Serenade No. 9 in D Major, Cotillon (Allegro), Die Leyerer, German Dance No. 2, and Mozart A & B.” It was aimed to give psychological comfort for students, especially auditory students to make them easier in accepting materials and feel enjoyable during teaching and learning processes. After researcher had finished explaining the first materials. Then, it was continued by determining the purpose of the text.
The Basic Concept of Determining the Purpose of the Text
Understanding the questions
Before discussing the strategies, students must be able to identify kinds of questions related to the purpose of the text.
What is the author’s main purpose in the passage?
The author’s purpose in writing is to _____
Why did the author write the passsage?
Kinds of reading strategies related to find the purpose of the passage are:
Read the question and understand the pronoun
Determine the plural and singular of the pronoun
Apply “look back form” to find the answer
At the basic concept of finding the purpose of the text, students were recognized kinds of questions appeared then continued by reading strategies used. At this step, students were encouraged to be able to identify the question, strategies used, and the way how to apply them in answering questions. Then, it was continued by discussing reading materials related to the organization of the text.
The Basic Concept of the Organization of the Text a) Understanding the questions
Before answering the questions, students were recognized kinds of questions related to the organization of the text.
Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
How is the information of the last paragraph in the text organized?
Kinds of reading strategies related to the organization of the text are:
read the question first and focus on what is questioned
find the idea of the paragraph by finding the key words in every sentences
relate kinds of key words of the paragraph
After those materials and strategies had been delivered, researcher asked students to write it in their handbook which had one-third space to write any materials related to the lesson. During explaining those materials, the whole students kept silent. Their eyes and face fully paid attention to the researcher and white board, nobody was doing activity such as writing, talking or day dreaming. Meanwhile, researcher’s psychology was very enthusiastic and passion. Researcher raised her voice when the information delivered was important and emphasized several things by using three different color of boardmarker. It is meant to attract visual students’ attention, make them enjoy to the material and accept it in their mind. Then, the third bell was ringing at 09.40 A.M. Its a break time for students and researcher to have any relaxations. This break time was signed by Mr. Jack’s messages through audioline. The message of that morning was:
Assalamualaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh
Buat adik-adik siswa-siswi Ganesha Operation yang tercinta, pesan Mr. Jack hari ini:
Setiap orang memiliki berjuta kesempatan untuk sukses, gunakanlah dengan berani karena sukses adalah hak dasar dari setiap insan.
Salam Ganesha Operation! At this time, researcher gave motivation to students based on the messages above, because students at Alumni Class were students who ever failed in passing State University they dreamt in the previous year. Psychologically, they were stressed and overburdened with the condition, so some motivations hopefully gave them spirit and optimism in facing State University Entrance Test in the following years. Break time was closed by playing modern music “Marry Me” which was sung by Bruno Mars.
After break time had left, researcher invited students to discuss several reading items by implementing the strategies given in several examples to model it first to students before asking students to do independently. Those strategies were applied by researcher’s guidance and instruction. So the rules were students followed certain instructions in answering reading text. In finding the topic and main idea, researcher gave students several examples related to the strategies given both for short reading and long reading. These were presented as follows:
Short Reading The immune system serves four basic functions; to recognize foreign cells and attack them, to develop antibodies, to recognize foreign invanders in the future, and to send white blood cells to the locations of an injury to speed healing. Chronic stress can suppress the functioning of the immune system, so that just by being stressed for along periods of time, we can actually weaken our immune system and fall victim to an illness that we would normally fight of with ease.
The topic of the paragraph is ____________
the consequences of chronic stress
the functions of the immune system
the basic immune system
the weakening of the immune system
the development of antibodies
The implementation of reading strategies was researcher asked students first to identify what kinds of reading it was, long reading or short reading. As researcher said, “What kind of text is it, short reading or long reading?” Students replied, “shortttt....” Next researcher continued to give some instructions to students, “Read the first sentence of the paragraph and identify the key words of the sentence by underlying the key words using colorful pen”. These instructions were aimed to make students focus in what they faced.
At this process, students did what the researcher asked, they seemed eager and paid full attention in every researcher’s instruction. They read the first sentence and underlined the key words, key words of the paragraph above were “immune system”. This kind of key words can be determined by identifying the verb or auxiliary which appeared after the key words. Then, researcher asked students to make a circle around the verb or auxiliary to emphasize it. Auxiliary or verb of the text above was the word “serves”. Then, option A to E which did not consist the key word “immune system” should be eliminated. So the rest options were option B, C, and D. Next, researcher instructed the students to find exclamation in the following sentences. The exclamation sentences were to recognize foreign cells and attack them, to develop antibodies, to recognize foreign invanders in the future, and to send white blood cells to the locations of an injury to speed healing and make the conclusion. These exclamation helped students to decide the correct answer related to find the topic of the passage. So it can be concluded that the right answer was option B “the functions of the immune system” because these exclamations pointed to immune system’s functions. The short reading above used the reading strategies in finding the topic, these were 1) read the first sentence, 2) find the key words, and 3) key words were commonly found before verb/auxiliary. Meanwhile, the implementation of reading strategies in long reading can be seen in the following text.
Solar energy is used to produce salt from salt water. In solar evaporation, brines are placed in large open shallow ponds or pans from which water evaporates. The brines become concentrated, and crystalization occurs. After all the water is driven off, the salt is harvested mechanically. Solar evaporation, an ancient art, now is a large-scale industrial process.
Solar energy is also used to produce drinkable water from salt water. In the most common solar still brines are put in black pans that have transparent sloping covers made of glass or plastic. Solar energy enters through the cover and is absorbed in the basin. The absorbed solar energy evaporates water from the brine, leaving salt water in the basin. The water vapor rises inside the still and comes in contact with the cover, where it condenses. The fresh water runs down the sloping underside of the cover to collection troughs at the edges of the cover and then goes to a storage tank, ready for use.
UM I UNDIP 2009
Which of the following would be the best title for this passage?
two uses of solar energy
how solar energy produces fresh water from salt water
the process of producing salt from salt water
how solar energy is used as an ancient arts to generate fresh water
how the absorbed solar energy evaporates water from the brine
In this text, researcher asked students first to identify what kinds of reading it was, long reading or short reading. As researcher asked students, What kind of text is it, short reading or long reading? Students replied, long,,, Next researcher continued to give students some instructions to read the first sentence of each paragraph and underline the key words, the key words of both paragraphs above were “solar energy”. These key words can be determined by identifying the verb or auxiliary which appeared after the key words. At this step, researcher asked students to make a circle around the auxiliary to emphasize it. Auxiliary of the text above was “is”. Then, option A to E which did not consist the key words “solar energy” wereeliminated. So the rest options were option A, B, D, and E. Next, researcher instructed students to find exclamation in the following paragraph. Because this passage is long reading, the exclamation can be found in the second paragraph. The exclamation sentences were “Solar energy is used to produce salt from salt water (paragraph 1) and Solar energy is also used to produce drinkable water from salt water (paragraph 2). These exclamations stressed on the usage of solar energy, so it can help students to decide the correct answer related to find the topic of the passage. Therefore, the right answer was option A “two uses of solar energy”. The long reading text above used reading strategies in finding the topic, these were 1) read the first sentence of each paragraph, 2) find the key words, and 3) key words were commonly found before verb/auxiliary.
When the researcher found the answer, one of the students with the data source L-2 gave comments, “Haah.. cepet banget jawabnya, lagi bu.” Having heard student’s comment, researcher smiled and felt happy. Then researcher invited students to continue the discussion in finding the purpose of the text, researcher gave students example from State University Entrance Test 2008 which related to the implementation of reading strategies given. It can be seen in the following description:
We all know that mobile phones, hard-phones, whatever we want to call them (and shouldn’t we all be calling them the same thing?) are changing our lives. But it takes a good old-fashioned survey to wake us up to the glaring reality: they have changed who we are. The mobile phone has indeed changed the way we behave. But perhaps we don’t realize how much we have become its slave. Consider other elements of the Siemens Mobile Survey. With the exception of Australia, in every country srveyed the majority polled said they would go banck for their phone if they left it at home (in Australia it was a rspectable 39%). If you’ve endured the traffic in Indonesia the philippines and India, you’ll know what kind of sacrifice some two-thirds of those surveyed are making. I can’t think of anything I would go back for except my wallet, maybe, or my clothes.
And even if we remember to bring it, we’re still not happy. Many of us get anxious if it hasn’t rung or a text message hasn’t appeared for while (a while being about an hour). Once again of those surveyed, Indonesians (65%) and Filipinos (77%), get particularly jittery. Australians are more laid back about this (20%), but every other user in Asia seems to be glancing at the phone every few second. This statistic, I have to say, is highly believable, and the instinct highly annoying. There’s nothing worse than chatting to someone who constantly checks his or her hand-phone.
Then there’s the fact that mobile phones are not only enslaving the user, they’re trampling the right of everyone else. Around a third of folk surveyed acknowledge they get so engrossed in mobile conversations that they’re often unaware of speaking loudly white discussing their private lives in public. At least most of us agree on one thing: with the exception of China, Hong Kong and taiwan, the increasing use of mobile phones has led to a decline in courtesy and considerate behaviour.
The bottom line here is that we are more down a little bit out of control. Mobile phones are great but if we allow them to dominate our lives to this extent-interrupting conversatio with those around us to take a call, staring at our phones rather than relating to the world and people around us, sending flirty text message to random numbers-then I can only assume that in another 10 years, society as weknow it will no longer exist. All we’ll see is a blur of digital data going out and have all then fun, socializing, falling in love and taking sneaky pictures of each other.