Saint Anthony Mary Claret



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522 Among the ex libris of the Saint the following have been preserved: Ribadeneira, Pedro de, Flos sanctorum (Madrid 1761) 3 vols. and Croisset, Juan, Año cristiano (Barcelona 1853­-1855) 16 volumes.

523 Possadas, Francisco de, Vida del glorioso P. y Patriarca Santo Domingo de Guzmán (Madrid 1721) 642 pp. Ex libris.

524 Regarding his devotion to St. Anthony of Padua cf. Camino recto (Barcelona 1870) p. 339.

525 Collet, Pedro, Compendio de la vida y virtudes de San Vicente de Paúl (Ma­llorca 1786) 538 pp. Ex libris

526 Marsolier, Jacques de, Vida de San Francisco de Sales (Zaragoza 1835) 2 volumes; Obras de San Francisco de Sales, translated by Don Francisco Cubillas (Madrid 1768 1775) 8 vols. He omits St Alphonsus Mary Ligouri, one of the saints that inspired him the most. He was very grateful for Vida and the Constituciones which were offered to him in 1862 by the Redemptorists: Oeuvres complètes du B. A. M. de Liguori: Vie, Règles (Paris 1843) vol. XXII.

527 Cf. Ps 38:4; Jer. 20:9

528 Cf. 1 Cor 9:22

529 This number brings to mind the “definition of the missionary” (cf. Autob. 494).

530 The Blessed Friar Diego de Cádiz was born in this city, on March 30, 1743. He received the Capuchin habit in 1757 and became a priest in 1766. He initiated popular and apostolic preaching to massive crowds in 1772 and died in Ronda (Málaga) on March 24, 1801. He was called “the Apostle of Andalusia.” A Spanish sage wrote the following about him: “Never was there a more popular speaker in every sense, and one can even say that Fr. Diego de Cádiz was a man of the people, both in his sermons and in his poetry, worthy of being born in the XIII century and of having been among the first Franciscan brothers” (Menéndez y Pelayo, Marcelino, Historia de los hererodoxos españoles, BAC [Madrid 1956] book VI, chap. 3, paragraph VII, volume II, p. 712). (English translation in process see book I: A History of the Spanish Heterodox, Marcelino Menéndez Pelayo, Saint Austin Press, Great Britain 2009.)

531 Claret summarizes in this brief biographical sketch, which could well be his own, the book of Ardales, Serafín de, El misionero capuchino. Compendio histórico de la vida del venera­ble Siervo de Dios el M. R. P. Fr. Diego Josef de Cádiz, misionero apostólico de Pro­paganda Fide (Real Isla de León 1811) pp. 97 ff. In another manuscript, he repeats this paragraph almost exactly. (Mss Claret, II, 243-244). In the Claretian Archives of CESC-Vic four draft manuscripts are kept requesting the beatification of the then revered Diego José de Cádiz, who would be beatified by Leo XIII on April 23, 1894

532 St. John of Ávila was born in Almodóvar del Campo (Ciudad Real) in 1499. He was a great apostle of Andalucía, who traveled around preaching untiringly, together with a group of priests. He is the first of the great spiritual writers of Spain’s Golden Age. He died with the fame of sanctity in Montilla (Còrdoba) on May 10, 1569. Claret used the works called Obras del Venerable Maestro Juan de Ávila, the Tomás Francisco de Aoíz edition (Madrid 1759-1760) 9 volumes. The penmanship of the handwritten original points to their possible purchase during his years at the seminary. He paid 167 Reales for them. On the margin he marked with a dash, all the passages that interested him.

The paragraphs recorded here were copied from a previous handwritten index card (cf. Mss. Claret, II, 259-261). He put the paragraphs in order using marginal numbers, as they appear in the Autobiografía. In another part, the Saint wrote down the letters to St. John of Avila that caught his attention the most: Cartas escogidas del V. Ávila, volume 7. (cf. Mss. Claret, II, 425 426). Interestingly, these two apostolic men, whose lives and apostolate were so similar, were also mechanically inclined. St. Anthony Mary Claret invented a means to steer balloons (cf. HD, II, pp. 479-480) and St. John of Avila had invented four ingenious ways to pump water (cf. Obras completas, BAC [Madrid 1970] I, pp. 138 142; See also Studies of the Spanish Mystics, vol.1-3, by E. Allison Peers (The Sheldon Press, 1927, 1930, 1960.) The relationship between these two great missionaries is described in: Bermejo, Jesús, San Juan de Ávila y San Antonio María Claret: historia de un influjo decisivo: in the volume: El Maestro Ávila. Actas del Congreso Internacional (Madrid, Nov. 27-30, 2000). EDICE (Madrid 2002) pp. 865-801.



533 It is almost a literal quote from the Vida y virtudes del Venerable Varón el Maestro Juan de Ávila, in: Obras de Juan de Ávila (Madrid 1759) I, pp. 411-412. The beginning of this work reads as follows: “he lived in constant fasting and his everyday food consisted of unripe and non- nutritious fruit” (o. c., I, p. XIX).

534 Cf. o. c., I, p. 43.

535 He will repeat this in Autob. nn. 300-301.

536 Cf. Terrones del Caño, Francisco, Instrucción de predicadores, trat. 1, cap. 2; San Juan de ávila, Obras, BAC (Madrid 1970) I, pp. 279-281. He will repeat the last phrase of this number in Autob. n. 302.

537 Almost textual quote of the testimony of Don Francisco de Terrones del Caño (1551-1613), bishop of Tuy (1601) and León (from 1608), in Instrucción de predicadores (l. c.), which was copied in the works called Obras del Venerable Maestro Juan de Ávila (Ma­drid 1759) I, p. 50. Ex libris; and in Vida del Venerable Maestro Juan de Ávila, in: Obras del Venerable Padre Maestro Fray Luis de Granada… (Madrid 1788) VI, p. 659.

538 Jer. 2:12: “Be astonished, you heavens, at this.”

539 Obras del Venerable Maestro Juan de Ávila, ed. cit., I, pp. 49 50. Reproduces the declaration of Professor Juan Pérez de Aguilar in the beatification proceedings of John of Avila, Montilla, page 1043: cf. San Juan de ávila, Obras, BAC (Madrid 1970) I, pp. 280-281 and note 281. He will reproduce this text in Autob. n. 301.

540 This beautiful “apostolic prayer” which synthesizes the Claretian charisma in a simple yet admirable manner, has been and still is appreciated and used by the Claretian Family.

541 St. Catherine of Siena, virgin and doctor of the Church, was born in Siena on March 25, 1347 and, beginning at the age of 18 (1365) she entered the Third Order of St. Dominic. A strong-willed woman, with a passion for the Lord and highly devoted to the Virgin Mary, she led an extraordinary mystical life and served the Church with fervor during a critical age. She was the author of a book entitled Treatise on Divine Providence. She died on April 29, 1380 at the age of 33. She was buried in Rome at the Basilica of St. Mary above Minerva. She was canonized by Pope Pius II in 1461. Her feast day is April 29th. Among Claret’s ex libris, preserved at El Escorial, is the Vida portentosa de la seráfica y cándida virgen santa Catalina de Siena, by Fr. Lorenzo Gisbert (Gerona 1804) 288 pp., one of the books he most treasured and that aroused the most powerful emotions in him. Also preserved in Vic is La vita di S. Caterina da Siena, by the Blessed Raymond of Capua (Rome 1866): Opere, I, 308 pp. St. Catherine was a great influence on Claret’s spirit. One just needs to read this paragraph from one of his letters “I am sending you the Life of St. Catherine of Siena, who is my teacher and director. She so moves me to fervor that whenever I read her life I have to hold the book in one hand and a handkerchief in the other, to dry the tears that it continually brings to my eyes” (Correspondence to Sister Mary Dolores, Sallent, October 30, 1843: SL, pp. 89-90). From St. Catherine he derived the practice of the interior cell in order to keep the presence of God in the midst of his apostolate, as revealed in his pamphlet Temple and Palace of the Lord, Our God (Barcelona, 1866) pp. 31-37. He chose the Saint as a co-patron of the Congregation of Missionaries (cf. Constituciones CMF [Barcelona 1857] n. 1, p. 3). The text contains the aforementioned work by Fr. Gisbert, almost literally, and it indicates the corresponding pages. See Works, v. III, chapter IV, pp. 191-193.

542 He also copied these texts of the life of St Catherine in Mss. Claret X, 325-326 and 391.

543 St. Rose of Lima was born on April 30, 1586 in Lima, Peru. Her name was Isabel Flores de Oliva. She had 12 siblings. Apparently, she received the sacrament of confirmation from St. Turibius of Mogrovejo, Archbishop of Lima. During her youth, she devoted herself to relieve the needs of the poor and the sick. Her role model was St. Catherine of Siena and she became a Third Order Dominican in Lima towards the year 1606. She had great mystical experiences and was completely devoted to the needy. Full of virtue, she died on August 24, 1617 and was canonized by Clement X in 1671. Her feast is celebrated on August 23rd (cf. Ribadeneira, Pedro de, Flos sanctorum [Madrid 1761] II, pp. 649 650). Ex libris.

544 This text appears in Mss. Claret, X, 325.

545 Saint Teresa of the Child Jesus (Teresa of Ahumada) was born in Avila on March 28, 1515. A woman of an extraordinarily mystic life, sublime teacher, and doctor of the church. At the age of 19, she professed in the convent of the Incarnation in Avila. In the aftermath of an apparition of the Lord, she launched into the spiritual life and the reformation of the Carmel, an enterprise in which she had great difficulties which she had to overcome with courage and sacrifice; but with great help from various people, among them, the great ex-mystic Saint John of the Cross, he subsequently achieved her goal. Her life was nomadic and at the same time full of mystical experiences which she describes in her works. She died a saintly death at the age of 67 on October 4, 1582 and her feast is celebrated on October 15th - The works of Saint Teresa used by Claret during this period (with the exception of the II volume of the letters) are kept in Granada: Obras de la gloriosa madre Santa Teresa de Jesús, fundadora de la Reforma de Nuestra Señora del Carmen de la primitiva observancia (1793). Moreover, the book - with many handwritten notes - is kept in the CESC – Vic: B.R., Espíritu de Santa Teresa (Madrid Lima 1852) 416 pp. In 1864, the Lord granted him great knowledge reading the works of the Saint (Autob. n. 797). In 1869, upon reading the fifth mansion, he also had great insights (cf. “Lights and Graces,” 1869). The last resolutions of his life are based on the Avisos (cf. Resolutions 1870). Among the manuscripts are some notes taken from the works of Saint Teresa (Mss. Claret, XIII, 285-302). Claret chose the Saint as co-patron of the Congregation of Missionaries (cf. Constituciones CMF [Barcelona 1857] n. 1, p. 3). Regarding Fr. Claret and Saint Teresa cf. PLA and Deniel, Enrique, La Madre de los espirituales. Pastoral letter on the occasion of the canonization of the Blessed Mary Michael of the Blessed Sacrament and the beatification of the Ven. Father Anthony Mary Claret. Extraordinary number of the official ecclesiastical bulletin of the Diocese of Ávila, August 25, 1934 (cf. VILA, FEDERICO, La beatificación del P. Claret [Madrid Barcelona 1936] pp. 189 205).

546 He suppresses the phrase “though I was walking in vanity myself.”

547 See, Teresa of Avila, The Life of St. Teresa of Jesus, Produced by Elizabeth T. Knuth Translated from the Spanish by David Lewis. Third Edition Enlarged. With additional Notes and an Introduction by Rev. Fr. Benedict Zimmerman, O.C.D. London: Thomas Baker; New York: Benziger Bros. Project Gutenberg. Release Date: May, 2005 [EBook #8120] [This file was first posted on June 16, 2003] Note: Spanish and this English paragraph numbering differs. http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext05/8trsa10h.htm#l7.0

548 O. c., Chapter XXVI, no. 7.

549 O. c., Chapter XXVII, no. 15-16.

550 The Saint removes the phrase “that, to save even one from those overwhelming torments.”

551 O. c., Chapter XXXII, no. 1-10.

552 O. c., Chapter XXXVIII, no. 4.

553 O. c., Chapter XL, no. 1.

554 See, St. Teresa of Avila, The Way of Perfection, Translated & Edited by E. Allison Peers from the Critical Edition of P. Siverio de Santa Teresa, C.D. Scanned by Harry Plantinga, 1995, From the Image Books edition, 1964, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/teresa/way.ii.html (This internet edition does not have paragraph numbering.) – In one of his favorite ex libris, he also wrote the following paragraphs of apostolic nature regarding Saint Teresa: “Almost all her nights were spent awake praying, moaning, sighing, and pleading to God to make her merciful to brighten those souls that were so pitifully fooled. She would give a thousand lives to repair a soul, and give up any pleasure, even if it were very spiritual; She would deprive herself willingly for another person’s gain. The fruit born in souls and admirable conversions through the prayers and intercession of Saint Teresa warrant a long story, because they were many and they spanned throughout her lifetime, because she embraced the fervor of the house and honor of God. The difficulties she faced with others were many, but very few compared to her great charity, desiring to endure more and more for Christ, our Redeemer, and His redeemed… And as she did not live but to suffer, only this made her content and satisfied her soul. As she would say, there is nothing so good in this life but to suffer; nothing so short and brief to work for” (Ribadeneira, Pedro de, Flos sanctorum [Madrid 1761] III, p. 284).

555 Saint Mary Magdalene de Pazzis was born in Florence in 1566. A Carmelite nun, she consecrated her life to prayer and a prodigious penitence in intimate union with Jesus crucified, taking on the motto of “not to die, but to suffer”; “nor to die nor heal, but to live to suffer.” Full of mystical gifts, she died in her home town on the May 25, 1607. Her feast is observed on May 25th.

556 Mss. Claret, X, 391-392.

557 Puccini, Vincenzo, o. c., p. 131.

558 Puccini, Vincenzo, o. c., p. 131..

559 Further on, he will tell us of his strategy for not wasting time when preaching to the nuns (Autob. n. 709). But he did not even refuse to lead them spiritually when he saw it was the will of God. Among the ones led, Saint Joaquina of Vedruna and Saint Mary Michael of the Blessed Sacrament stand out.

560 Cf. Ex17:11.

561 Whenever writing to religious and contemplative souls, he asks that they keep in their prayers this apostolic intention. He also makes use of the comparison of Esther and Ahasuerus (cf. letter to D. Pedro Cruelis, Vic February 7th, 1850 (It is not from 1840): EC, I. p. 104). Shortly after the attempt on his life at Holguin, the Venerable Founder of the Claretian Missionary Sisters of Mary Immaculate reminded the Saint with these words: “Now we can imagine how happy Your Excellency feels after being injured for teaching the holy law of our Lord Jesus Christ, and I and all your daughters want to participate in the great reward that the Lord will grant Your Excellency for it in the life eternal, for Your Excellency will remember that in a sermon he told us that we will divide up the remains. May we have the great pleasure of sealing our lives shedding our blood in confirmation of the holy law of our Lord!” (letter to Maria Antonia Paris, dated in Santiago, Cuba, February 28, 1856. (Bermejo, Jesús, Epistolario Pasivo de San Antonio María Claret. I (1838-1857). Publicaciones Claretianas [Madrid 1992] p. 518; María Antonia París, Epistolario [s. l., 1993] p. 7).

562 He speaks very little regarding his prayer experiences in the autobiography, but dedicates this entire chapter to talk about it as a means of apostolate. Claretian prayer always has an apostolic purpose. (cf. Lozano, Juan Manuel, Mystic and Man of Action, Saint Anthony Mary Claret [Trans. by J. Daries, Claretian Publications, Chicago, 1977] pp. 167-183; Viñas, José María, La meditación claretiana: SC 5 [1966] 43 67; Viñas, José María-García Paredes, José Cristo Rey, C.M.F., Our Project of Missionary Life. Commentary on the Constitutions: Vol. II, Fundamental Constitution and Missionary life of the Congregation, Trans. By J. Daries [Claretian Pub., Rome-Quezon City, Philippines 1992] pp. 445-549.)

563 Three weeks before his death, the Saint mentioned to Father Joseph Xifré, so that he may transmit to his missionaries: “Never leave the Divine Office, nor the meditation regardless of custom, authorization or need; these two things are food to the soul, which we can never do without in our Congregation. When the Founder went to the Canary Islands and later to Cuba, he encountered so much, perhaps much more need than you did in that one (Chile) and, even so, he never gave up the two things referred to. He said this to me a few days ago, charging me to write it to you” (letter from Father Xifré to Father Vallier, October 5th, 1870: original in: Archives Prov. CMF of Chile, copy in: A.G. CMF: BA 2, 10 [1]).

564 “This prayer - he writes in another place - should not be said only for you, but also for others; for the conversion of sinners, for the perseverance of the righteous and for the blessed souls; imitating Christ” (Catecismo explicado [Barcelona 1849] 2.ª ed., parte 4.ª, sec. 2.ª, cap. 18, p. 457). Later on he added to this triple request: “Let us entreat God to send saints to earth, and the world will be saved; meanwhile, let us pray: 1. for sinners who are more apt to be converted; 2. for the righteous who are in immediate danger of yielding to sin, and 3. for the souls in purgatory closest to soon to leave for him” (Selfishness Overcome, trans. J. Daries in Works III (Quezon City, Philippines, Claretian Publications, 1991, p. 503); originally published as L’egoismo vinto (Roma 1869) p. 72 in Escritos Espirituales, p. 425). He refers to the work of Father Fredrick W. Faber Todo por Jesús (Madrid 1866) I, pp. 188 208. Ex libris. This book contains many signs made by the Saint. Additionally, in his notes there are several phrases by Father Faber under the title of zeal; among them the following: “Let us ask God to send some saints over the earth, and the world will be healed. That they may preach and pray” (Mss. Claret, X, 425 426).

565 Here, it refers to the Institute of the Carmelite Sisters of Charity, called Tertiaries of Mt. Carmel, which was founded by the Saint Joachima of Vedruna y Mas in Vic on February 26 1826. At the request of Don Lucian Casadevall, Father Claret assumed direction of this Congregation from 1843 until his Episcopal consecration (October 6, 1850). His relationship with them can be seen in HD, II, pp 250-262, Alonso Fernández, Ana María, Historia documental de la Congregación de las Hermanas Carmelitas de la Caridad (Madrid 1968 1971) 2 volumes, passim; Id., San Antonio María Claret y las Carmelitas de la Caridad. Vida Religiosa 29 (1970) 215 221; Serna, Catalina, Constituciones de las Hermanas Carmelitas de la Caridad. Historia, textos y fuentes (Madrid 1969) pp. 55 69, 112 117; Id., Elementos espirituales de las Constituciones de las Carmelitas de la Caridad (Vitoria 1969) passim.

566 Convinced of the need for and efficacy of prayer, he created a kind of association among his listeners, who gladly complied with this request from the missionary. (cf. Aguilar, Francisco de Asís, Vida de Claret, p. 87).

567 In writing to Saint Mary Michael of the Blessed Sacrament, he explained his method for visiting the Lord in the mystery of the Eucharist (cf. letter dated November 19, 1861: EC, II, pp. 396 397). To perform the way of the cross he published Sant Exercici del Via Crucis ab una explicació (Barcelona 1846) 64 pp. Later on, he incorporated it into Camí dret, in 1847, and into the Spanish translation in 1848 (pp. 170-196), achieving widespread coverage.

568 Saint Anthony Claret is considered the modern day St. Dominic Guzmán. This was said by the Virgin on October 9, 1857 (Autob. n. 677). He propagated this devotion, “that after mass it is the most profitable” (Autob. n. 45) widely known with his example, his preaching, and his writings. Besides several loose flyers, he published these monographs: Devoción del santísimo rosario (Madrid 1858) 32 pp.; El santísimo rosario explicado (Barcelona 1864) 152 pp.; and Remedios contra los males de la época actual aplicados por medio del santísimo rosario (Barcelona 1870) 56 pp. About Claret and the rosary cf. Ramos, Clemente, Un apóstol le María (Barcelona 1936) cap. 11, pp. 254 271. See also Works III, pp. 169-170.

569 From his youth, he had a devotion to Our Lady of Sorrows. He was admitted to the Congregation devoted to her in Vic and professed on June 9th, 1833. He spread this devotion by publishing Corona dels set dolors de Maria SS, including it in Camino recto (Barcelona 1847) pp. 130 139. The Virgin rewarded this devotion after the attempt in Holguin (1856) (cf. Autob. n. 580).

570The devotion to Saint Michael was one of the Saint’s favorites. In it, he saw the struggle of good against the powers of hell. And that is the way he viewed his apostolate. He chose Saint Michael as co-patron of the Congregation of Missionaries (cf. Constituciones CMF [Barcelona 1857] n. 1, p. 3) and protector of the Librería Religiosa (Autob. n. 329). He founded the Academia de San Miguel, an association of Catholic writers and publishers (cf. Autob. nn. 332, 581, 582, 640, 701). He wrote the monograph Excelencias y novena del glorioso príncipe San Miguel (Barcelona 1859) 24 pp., in which he states: “All good priests and good laymen should come together and join the army of angels, and all should form a united and compact body, with one heart and one soul, under the protection and direction of Saint Michael” (p.8).

571 Cf. Autob. nn. 127- 128, 464.

572 Among the saints, the short prayers that contain anxieties of union or purification are very frequent. They do not lack the pleas of apostolic character either. But these exclamations and battle cries are something very characteristic of the apostolic spirituality of Claret. He later published them in his last monograph, written during Vatican Council I, in moments of most vivid ecclesial conscience (Las dos banderas [Barcelona 1870] pp. 38 39). In the exclamations “!Hail Jesus!, Hail Most Holy Mary!” he adds: “Conceived without sin and crowned with glory” In this way, he expresses belief in the ascension, for which definition he also worked during Vatican Council I (cf. Autob. Doc. XV and El colegial o seminarista instruido [Barcelona 1861] II, p. 437; Apuntes de un Plan [Madrid 1865]: in Escritos Pastorales, pp. 599-602).

573 These short prayers are also found in Mss. Claret, XII, 535-536.

574 This prayer is a synthesis of the spirit of Saint Anthony Claret: Son of Mary, formed in the forge of her love: her Heart; minister and sent by Mary, arrow of her arm against the world, the devil and the flesh. He alludes to these words on the day of his ordination as deacon (December 20, 1834), that helped him understand the total meaning of the vision he had during the second year of Philosophy in the Casa Tortadés (Autob. n. 95- 98). These ideas of conquest do not come from a chivalrous idealism, but from a very real vision of the militant Church and the divine strategy to overcome the Serpent and its descendants through the Woman and her descendants (cf. Anthony Claret, Selfishness Overcome, o. c., p. 486-488); Pastoral Letter on the Immaculate Conception, Works III, pp. 513-570). The mission, the battle, and the conquest are essential elements of the cordimarian affiliation as he lived it. In addition, the comparison with the arrow implies a mystical passivity in the apostolic ministry, that was clearly manifested in the vision of the day of the Ascension of 1870 (cf. “Lights and Graces,” 1870).

575 Cf. Is 49:2.

576 Cf. 1 Kings 16:31.

577 Cf. 1 Kings 16:31.

578 Cf. Eph 6:2.

579 Cf. Possadas, Francisco, Vida del Glorioso Padre y Patriarca Santo Domingo de Guzmán (Madrid 1721) p. 115.

580 Cf. Heb 4:12; Eph. 6:16

581 The reading of this prayer -- in which the Saint feels like an arrow in Mary’s hands, with the shield of the rosary and the sword of the Word of God -- has suggested to some the figure of the apostles of the latter days, prophesied by Saint Louis Mary Grignion of Montfort (Treatise on True Devotion to the Blessed Virgin, (translated by Mark L. Jacobson, Aventine Press, 2007) chap. 1, art. 2, nn. 55 59. (See online edition, http://www.ewtn.com/library/montfort/truedevo.htm#Part%20I:%20Ch.%201). When Claret wrote this prayer, he did not know of the work of Montfort (cf. Ramos Clemente, Un apóstol de María [Barcelona 1936] pp. 232 234). Later, he learned a paragraph of the Treatise, transcribed in the book by Huguet, Jean-Joseph (mariste), La dévotion à Marie en exemples (Paris Lyon 1861) 2.ª ed. In it there is no mention of the future apostles. The phrases jotted by Claret are the following: Dieu veut que sa sainte Mère soit à présent plus connue, plus aimée que jamais elle ne l’a été (n. 55). C’est par Marie que le salut du monde a commencé, et c’est par Marie qu’il doit être consommé (n. 49).Marie doit éclater plus que jamais en miséricorde, en force et en grâce dans ces derniers temps (n. 50) (cf. o. c., 1ère partie, pp. 1 2). [55. Finally, God in these times wishes his Blessed Mother to be more known, loved and honored than she has ever been. 49. The salvation of the world began through Mary and through her it must be accomplished. 50.In these latter times Mary must shine forth more than ever in mercy, power and grace.]

582 The testimonies of the processes speak to us of the fierce opposition of the devil to the apostolic action of the Saint; coming, at times, as a personal attack (cf. HD, I, pp. 287 294).

583 Cf. Gen 3:15.

584 Claret is inspired by the Edicto Pastoral by Bishop Corcuera, who also reproduces a Pastoral by Bishop Armiñá published in Vic in 1820. Ex libris. The Saint also deals with this subject in the teaching of the catechism in another place (Mss. Claret, II, 263 266), where he cites abundant testimonies of saints and others who dedicated themselves to the teaching of the catechism. Aside from what is mentioned in this chapter, there is mention of the Pius Schools of Saint Joseph Calasanz, Saint Charles Borromeo, Saint John Ribera, Fr. Baltasar Moscoso, Paul of Jesus Corcuera, Bishop of Vic, and Servant of God Buenaventura Codina, Bishop of the Canary Islands.

585 This phrase is from Saint Ignatius of Loyola, who inspired Erasmus of Rotterdam and “was repeated by Saint Joseph Calasanz and Claret” (Anales CMF 19 [1923-1924] 324).

586 “In this regard, we would do well to remember what the great champions of apostolic activity have always taught, namely, that we need to trust in God as if everything depended on him and, at the same time, to work generously as if everything depended on us.” (John Paul II, Exhortación apostolic, Vita Consecrata n. 73).

587 “The catechism is more necessary than preaching, since the latter is almost useless when the audience ignores the catechism” (El colegial o semina­rista instruido [Barcelona 1861] II, sec. 5, cap. 4, pp. 514 515).

588 Cf. Saint Gregory Nazanzien, Orat. 1: PG 35, 395. Some of these ideas found inspiration in the Edicto Pastoral by Bishop Paul of Jesus Corcuera for the edification of the Congregation of Christian Doctrine (Vic 1830) 64 pp. Ex libris. The monograph is highlighted arduously by Claret with lines and tiny pointers. Of the same Claret wrote: “Fr. John Gerson says that to have a good beginning and happy progress one would have to start with the children in whom no Malice has entered. Ita manzana de Aten[a]s. They are tender plants. Soft soil. White wool. In this manner, the tree is taken at its roots, the house at its foundation, and the water at its origin” (Mss. Claret, X, 689).[ Ita manzana de Aten[a]s. The meaning of this expression is not clear. Literally, “That apple of Athens,” Gerson speaks of the “rotten apple” with which nothing can be done, but whose seeds, referring to offspring, can still be salvaged. In Greek mythology there is mention of the “apple of discord” which was not given to the goddess Athena.]

589 Mk 10:16.

590 Saint Augustine wrote in De catechizandis rudibus, which can be found in: Besalú, Francisco, Enseñanza catequística. Apología, métodos, leyes y catecismos recopilados para fomentar y generalizar la enseñanza de la doctrina cristiana (Madrid 1863) pp. 1-95.

591 St. Jerome, Epistle 128 to Gaudentius: PL 22, 1095.

592 Jean de Charlier de Gerson (Gerson 1363-Lyon, July12, 1429) dedicated himself to the teaching of the Catechism, more so in the last ten years of his life. His ideas are found in the treatise De parvulis trahendis ad Christum [On Bringing the Little Ones to Christ] (cf. Besalú, Francisco, o. c., pp. 97-151; Claret, Nuevo manojito de flores [Barcelona 1847] pp. 156-157; Llorente, Daniel, Pedagogía catequística [Valladolid 1948] p. 33; Salembier, Louis. "Jean de Charlier de Gerson." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 14 Mar. 2009
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