Satellite = a country that followed the Soviet Union after wwii and became communist. Not done by choice



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Satellite = a country that followed the Soviet Union after WWII and became communist. Not done by choice.

  • Satellite = a country that followed the Soviet Union after WWII and became communist. Not done by choice.

  • Soviet U. feared another attack from the west so it established a buffer zone using Eastern European countries

  • Sometime called “the Iron Curtain” as quoted by Winston Churchill

  • Ex of satellites- Poland, Hungary, Romania, East Germany









Issued by Prez. Harry Truman

  • Issued by Prez. Harry Truman

  • US policy that states we will contain and restrict the spread of communism

  • The US pledged to help any country prevent a communist takeover if they asked for help

  • A policy of containment- keep it where it is, don’t let it spread



Issued by Secretary of State George Marshall

  • Issued by Secretary of State George Marshall

  • An Economic Aid package to Western European countries to help them rebuild

  • $1.3 Billion

  • Again, the US wants to make sure it has allies in the “fight” against communism



Europeans can’t afford to maintain their oversees empires following the war

  • Europeans can’t afford to maintain their oversees empires following the war

  • Many colonies will be inspired to gain their independence

  • Regents: One immediate effect of WWII was: answer-many European colonies in Asia and Africa gained their independence



West Germany remains free Democratic nation

  • West Germany remains free Democratic nation

  • East Germany becomes a Communist nation led by the Soviet Union





  • Capital of East Germany, Berlin, was also divided into West and East zones

  • Soviet Union blocked West Berlin from the contact w/ the Allies to cut off its food and supplies

  • Soviets hoped that Allies would pull out and give the entire city to Soviets





Result: The Berlin Airlift (1948-49)

  • Result: The Berlin Airlift (1948-49)

  • Food, medical, and other supplies were flown into West Berlin and dropped

  • Over 278,000 flights over 11 months saved West Berliners from starvation

  • The Berlin Wall was also constructed to keep West and East Berlin separated

  • Many families were split up and thousands died trying to escape to West Berlin







First “test” by the Soviets in the Cold War to see if Western Democracies would back down

  • First “test” by the Soviets in the Cold War to see if Western Democracies would back down

  • An example of International Cooperation as English and US planes flew food and supplies daily



An international court established in German City of Nuremberg to prosecute Nazi war criminals captured at wars end

  • An international court established in German City of Nuremberg to prosecute Nazi war criminals captured at wars end

  • Tried for Crimes Against Humanity

  • Nuremberg Principles – defines what is a war crime

  • Nuremberg Code – established how future trials would be handled dealing w/ Drs. Who use humans as subjects



Lead Prosecutor was Robert H. Jackson (Frewsburg)

  • Lead Prosecutor was Robert H. Jackson (Frewsburg)

  • 10 Nazis were hanged

  • Bodies were cremated in ovens of Dachau concentration camp

  • An example of “International Cooperation”

  • Holocaust was carried out w/ help and coordination of Thousands of people (not just Hitler)





US took over Japan to establish a Democracy in an area of the world under heavy communist influence

  • US took over Japan to establish a Democracy in an area of the world under heavy communist influence

  • US wanted to make sure they had a Democratic ally in Asia

  • Feared the “Domino Effect” – as one country fell to communism so too would others

  • Occupation forces led by Gen MacArthur





Hostilities between Communist and Democratic countries

  • Hostilities between Communist and Democratic countries

  • Mainly a competition between the US and the Soviet Union for Military and Technological superiority

  • Ex: Nuclear Arms build up, the race to outer space, computers, sports (hockey)

  • Will last until the Soviet Union breaks up in 1991



N.A.T.O. - North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Western Democracies (if one is attacked all must defend)

  • N.A.T.O. - North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Western Democracies (if one is attacked all must defend)

  • Warsaw Pact – Communist East Europe

  • Nonalignment – countries chose not to take sides during cold war, India and China





Originally formed to keep the peace and prevent another world war (192 members)

  • Originally formed to keep the peace and prevent another world war (192 members)

  • 2 Branches:

    • General Assembly – each member country sends a representative to participate in UN activities
    • Security Council – has 11 countries, 5 are permanent (US, Britain, France, China, Russia) Have veto power


The UN does many other things today

  • The UN does many other things today

  • World Bank – loan money to countries

  • UNICEF – raise money for poor

  • Oversee the creation of Nuclear Power

  • Help displaced (homeless from your country) peoples

  • Watchdog for crimes against humanity

  • Have their own military – each member country must contribute military according to their population





A block of 25 European Countries who have banded together for Economic prosperity

  • A block of 25 European Countries who have banded together for Economic prosperity

  • Have loosened boarder restrictions so that goods and people can flow freely

  • Have own currency the Euro dollar



Sometimes called the “United States” of Europe

  • Sometimes called the “United States” of Europe

  • Primary goal is to compete economically w/ US and Japan

  • Used to be called the European Community

  • Example of International Coop.





Following WWII Japanese in the North of Korea surrendered to Communists

  • Following WWII Japanese in the North of Korea surrendered to Communists

  • The Japs in the South surrendered to Americans

  • The Soviet Union Supplied N.Koreans w/ weapons to invade the South

  • U.N forces led by Gen McArthur drove N.Koreans above the 38th parallel, which divided the Korean Peninsula in half

  • A cease-fire was agreed upon and tension still exists their today



Communist North Korea has known only two leaders post WWII

  • Communist North Korea has known only two leaders post WWII

    • Kim Il Sung


Has built up a massive military force

  • Has built up a massive military force

  • Developed (supposedly) Nukes to scare US and Japan

  • Ignored famine in 1990s where it is estimated millions died

  • Country is full of orphans who have become scavengers



Former French colony who will drive out the French after WWII (want to be free)

  • Former French colony who will drive out the French after WWII (want to be free)

  • Communist North threatened to take over free South

  • US will aid the South

  • Communists led by Ho Chi Minh – Ho viewed as a Nationalist leader because he unified his people to end colonial rule of French and then drive out US





Led by Mao Zedong, the Comm. Red Army conquered Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai Shek)

  • Led by Mao Zedong, the Comm. Red Army conquered Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai Shek)

  • Becomes a Communist Dictatorship under Mao

  • Cult of Personality, Propaganda, Militaristic, people have to follow strict code in Mao’s Red Book ( Mao’s guide to living filled with rules and quotes)



Economic plan designed to increase size of communal farms (like Stalin’s collective farms)

  • Economic plan designed to increase size of communal farms (like Stalin’s collective farms)

  • Also set high quotas for factories

  • People have to work around the clock to meet unrealistic quotas

  • People have no personal time for leisure or family

  • Sets the country back!

  • Negative Event!



High school and college students were urged to quit school and join the Red Guard

  • High school and college students were urged to quit school and join the Red Guard

  • Mao ordered them to travel the country and jail and murder anyone who had elevated their status ex: teachers, managers, artists

  • Mao created a revolution for young people so they would appreciate what it means to be a revolutionairy

  • Killed all of their smart people

  • Sets country back!



Led communist take over of Cambodia

  • Led communist take over of Cambodia

  • A Brutal Comm. Dictator

  • Leader of the Khmer Rougue – Khmer people claimed superiority to other ethnicities in Cambodia

  • 1975-78 Pol Pot mudered over 2 million people in Cam.

  • Famous book called “The Killing Fields”





1959 led by Fidel Castro

  • 1959 led by Fidel Castro

  • Overthrew US supported Fulgencia Batista (corrupt president)

  • 1961 US trained anti-Castro Cubans in Florida to invade the island. Ordered by Kennedy, The Bay of Pigs Invasion, was a failure

  • Castro limited freedoms and rights of his people esp. free speech and religion

  • Although he did allow the pope to visit in the late 1990s





1962

  • 1962

  • Castro allowed the Soviets to place Nukes on the island of Cuba aimed at US

  • Kennedy set up a naval blockade around Cuba to prevent Soviet ships from bringing in missiles

  • US people thought WWIII was inevitable

  • Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev w/drew missiles at the last minute to avoid war

  • Kennedy had given order to sink Soviet ships if the refused to turn around



“The Thaw”

  • “The Thaw”



Paves the way for conversion to Democracy

  • Paves the way for conversion to Democracy

  • Glasnost- “openness”

    • Allowed Churches to open
    • Released political prisoners
    • Free press
    • Govt. could be criticized


Perestroika “Economic Restructuring”

  • Perestroika “Economic Restructuring”

    • Managers were given more freedom to make decisions that best suited their business
    • Small private businesses were allowed to open
    • Democratization – people were allowed to elect members to Communist government
    • Reduced military spending and arms build up


Gorb’s reforms made the country ripe for Revolution

  • Gorb’s reforms made the country ripe for Revolution

  • August 1991, Gorbachev is overthrown in a Coup and reorganized into Russia

  • Former Satellites gained independence

  • Boris Yeltsin is Russia 1st Democratic Prez.



1989 Germany is reunified as Cold War tensions began to “thaw” thanks to reforms under Mikhail Gorb.

  • 1989 Germany is reunified as Cold War tensions began to “thaw” thanks to reforms under Mikhail Gorb.

  • Symbolic event in the warming of relations between US and Eastern Europe (end of cold war)

  • Unified Germany becomes an economic powerhouse







Apartheid –racist policies against blacks by whites in S.A. (separate facilities, not allowed in restaurants, can’t vote, go to white schools, etc.)

  • Apartheid –racist policies against blacks by whites in S.A. (separate facilities, not allowed in restaurants, can’t vote, go to white schools, etc.)

  • Descendents of British colonists ruled S.A. until 1994

  • Nelson Mandela helps end apartheid when he is released from jail in 1990 by Prez. FW DeKlerk

  • 1994- Mandela becomes S.A.s first Democratically elected President.





Pakistan is carved out of India 1947-48 for Muslims

  • Pakistan is carved out of India 1947-48 for Muslims

  • India is predominately Hindu, however it has a significant Muslim population that was rebellious against the Hindu controlled govt.

  • As Muslims were leaving to go to Pakistan over 1 million people were killed



Areas in Northern India are still being disputed by Muslims : Jamu and Kashmir

  • Areas in Northern India are still being disputed by Muslims : Jamu and Kashmir

  • Gandhi is murdered by a fellow Hindu because he wanted both sides to get along




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