The aim of the project Sami school history
aim of the project
Sami school history
To document the Government's school politics towards the Sami, the Sami's experiences in school and the work to establish a Sami school.
– On the local-, national- and all-Sami - level
– Through all times
– The politically established curriculum, the carried out curriculum, the experienced curriculum
"Research should be for the benefit of the people being researched" – Make the basis to improve the education for Sami pupils and the information about the Sami
Part of school research and development for indigenous populations and minorities
Who are behind this?
The publishing house Davvi Girji
The editors (4)
Alltogether several houndreds of people
Sources of Sami school history
periodicals and newspapers
Public and private archives
Narrations of former pupils, teachers and parents
Film and sound recordings
Sami school history - 1 (2005)
Articles on norwegianization, the church and lost schooling
Pupils, teachers, employees in the boarding schools and parents tell
Throughout the Sami area in Norway: Tana, Kautokeino, Karasjok, Alta, Måsøy, Kvænangen, Kåfjord, Skånland and Hattfjelldal
Main focus on the primary school
Sami school history 2
The reindeer husbandry school and Sami secondary schools
from primary school in Tana
, Sør-Varanger, Karasjok, Nordkapp, Loppa, Nordreisa, Kåfjord and Tysfjord
From Sami education council, director of schools and the ministry
Sami school history 3
Kindergartens: Nesseby, Tana, Karasjok, Tromsø, Skånland, Tysfjord, Snåsa and Oslo
Primary school: Máze, Lebesby, Kvalsund, Hasvik, Lavangen
About the language situation
Sami school history 4
Documents pro and contra norwegianization, 1750-1935
Primary school: Tana, Nesseby,
, Måsøy, Beiarn, Gildeskål, Engerdal
Special needs education (Blind, deaf, disabled and "difficult" pupils)
Sami school history 5 (2011)
Curriculums and struggles about curriculums
Secondary schools: Karasjok, Kautokeino, Kirkenes, Nordreisa, Hamarøy
Primary school: Gamvik, Porsanger, Kautokeino, Skånland, Narvik, Ballangen, Grane, Hattfjelldal and Snåsa
War and reconstruction
Sami school history 6 (2013)
Project presentation in 7 languages (Sá, No, Se, Fi, En, Ru, Pl)
All the text and photos from the books
240 additional articles
36 newspaper articles in 3 languages
of teaching materials
The first education in Sami
The first schools for Sami were established in Sweden in the 17th century
From 1716 mission – Thomas v. Westen – missionaries and teachers taught in Sami language
From then on there have been struggles concerning the language of teaching. In some periods the school was supposed to be in Sami and text books in Sami language were made
1826 – the first teacher's college – Sami language as a subject
The politics of norwegianization wins
In 1851 the Storting decided to gradually change the language of teaching from Sami to Norwegian.
“Finnefondet” (Lapp foundation)
The teacher's college quit offering education in Sami language
1902: Separate director of schools in Finnmark.
The boarding school era
Around 1900 the government decided to build boarding schools around Finnmark
The first governmental boarding schools in Sør-Varanger and Guovdageaidnu
21 governmental boarding schools and 28 municipal boarding schools in Finnmark 1940
In Norwegian language and a Norwegian cultural environment
Most people in the Norwegian society supported the politics of norwegianizing, but
there were a few exceptions
Among the protesters were:
A few priests, Norwegian teachers, the Sami mission
A few Norwegian politicians
Sami teachers (Anders Larsen, Isak Saba, Henrik Kvandahl)
Sami newspapers and organizations
1948: The coordination committee of the school system: The politics towards the Sami has been wrong
1951: Bilingual ABC (still only an auxillary language)
1959 education act: A principal change: Sami can be used as language of teaching
1967: Sami langauge initial training
1972: Sami as 2. language
1985: Sami as the language of teaching throughout primary school
1976: Sami education council
1987, 1997, 2006: Sami curriculums
Sami university college
2000: Sami education governed by the Sami parliament
More than 2000 pupils studied in Sami in Norway, the number is now decreasing
The missioning epoch
The main purpose of the teaching: Salvation
The most important subject in the school: Christianity
Separate schooling for Sami people 1715-1808
Teaching in Sami to a certain extent
Many Sami learned to read and write in the Sami language
Struggle between the mission and the church leadership
Results of the norwegianizing
Sami speakers more than 40-50 years old are not able to write in their mother tongue
Almost all Sami parents in South- and Lule Sami areas, in Troms and coastal-Finnmark spoke Norwegian to their children
Now about 75% of the Sami
are not able to speak Sami
About 50% of those who speak Sami speak another language better
Many do not want to be Sami anymore
Shortages – Within the scope of the book project: Articles, memories and documents from school life in the Norwegian part of Sápmi
Insufficient are still some:
Kinds of schools
Course of studies and subjects
Perspectives (who narrates)
Shortages – Outside the scope of the book project
Similar documentation from other countries
History of teaching aids
Archives, libraries and museums
The big world
The Swedish church
Some memories from school
Editors: Gathered ca. 15 research articles + a few memories from school
Murmansk hum. university
History of teaching aids
Teaching aids in connection to the aims of the school and the curriculums.
A. Teaching aids for Sami pupils
– Sami (first-, second- or foreign language)
– in Sami or bilingual (all subjects)
– following the Sami curriculum (independent of language)
– official language for Sami pupils
B. Content about the Sami people on the national level. (UiT)
2005 Davvi Girji invited research institutions
2009 Sámi University College: report on possible research.
2011 Announcement of preliminary project for doctorate
2012 Umeå university and UiT are planning research projects
A general research program does not exist.
There's a lack of cooperation
– Book for children and youth.
– Webpages in other languages.
– Articles in newspapers and periodicals
– Fiction based on the school history
– Lectures in schools and other forums.
– The basis must be documentation and research. Need to see structure and general lines before one can begin writing.
be common-Sami school history
, which can compare the situation in 4 countries.
The big world – 1
Sami school history a part of the school history of indegenous peoples and minorities.
– 1950-/60's teachers from Sápmi visiting American indigenous people and Frisland
– After 2000: Sami school- and language people visited Wales, Ireland, Scotland, Euskadi.
– Poland and Lithuania.
– Minority students and school people visited Sami schools
– UiT: Indigenous Studies
The big world – 2
What can be done:
– Litterature list on minority education
– Internationalize our webpage
– Conference on indigenous peoples Nesw York.
– 2016 Donostia, Euskadi European cultural capital – gather European minorities.
How to continue the work?
Who will contribute?
How to organize?
A separate institution or part of other institution(s)?
Who will pay?
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