Theoretical foundations of career Concept and types of career Basic methods and career stages

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Basic Notions of Career Safe


  1. Theoretical foundations of career

  2. Concept and types of career

  3. Basic methods and career stages

Concept and types of career
This concept has many definitions, each of which allows us to define the essence of this word in more detail.
Career - moving up the career ladder, success in life.
In the theory of personnel management:
A career is the result of a person’s conscious position and behavior in the field of work, associated with official or professional growth.
A person builds a career - the trajectory of his movement - himself; it depends on any internal characteristics and extra-organizational reality, and most importantly on his own goals, desires and attitudes. “Happy is he who has arranged his existence according to the peculiarities of his character”
Career is successful advancement in one or another area (social, official, scientific, professional) activity.
Choosing a career is one of the most important decisions a person makes in his life. This is explained by two compatibility: the first is the compatibility of the individual with the nature of his work, the second is the compatibility of personal career expectations with the capabilities of the organization.
The concept of a career (as one of the types of career) can be interpreted in both a broad and narrow sense.
In a broad sense, a career is professional progress, professional growth, the stages of an employee’s advancement to the highest level of professionalism. The logical conclusion of a successful career is the employee’s high professionalism, recognized by the head of the organization. Of course, throughout a person’s career, the assessment of professionalism may vary.
In the narrow sense, a career is advancement through the ranks, achieving a special status in one’s professional field. In this case, a career is a desired upward path, consciously chosen by the employee to receive certain moral bonuses in the form of self-affirmation and enjoyment of the work he loves. “And if work does not give you pleasure, then you are working in the wrong place.” This is the main motive for moving towards a certain status (social, official, qualification).
One can also define a career from the point of view of it as a mobile movement of an employee towards an improved way of life that provides him with stability in the social flow of being. Career is the process of obtaining vital values, benefits, appreciation in society and in the workplace.
A career is a person’s professional growth, an increase in his influence, authority, status in the environment, manifested in his advancement along the steps of the job, qualification, material and social ladder.
When talking about careers, one cannot fail to mention career growth. Career growth is the expansion of an employee’s powers and responsibilities, upward movement, and transition from one level of management to another.
Career growth is promoted by:
) job levels, hierarchy levels;
) steps of the qualification ladder and related categories that differentiate knowledge and skills
) status ranks that reflect the employee’s contribution to the development of the organization (rational proposals, etc.);
) levels of power as the degree of influence in the organization (participation in making important decisions, closeness to management);
) levels of material income (salary level and variety of social benefits).
The complexity of career growth is determined by many reasons, depending on the personal qualities of the individual making a career, on the sphere in which the career is formed, as well as on the specifics of the society in which the person and the organization operate.
There are several fundamental trajectories of a person’s movement within a profession or organization, which will lead to different types of careers.
Career types:
Professional career - characterized by the fact that a particular employee, in the course of his professional activity, goes through various stages of development: training, entry to work, professional growth, support of individual professional abilities, retirement. A specific employee can go through these stages sequentially in different organizations. Professional career - growth of knowledge, skills, abilities. A professional career can follow a line of deepening in one chosen at the beginning of the professional path, a line of movement or mastery of other areas of human experience, associated, rather, with the expansion of tools and areas of activity.
Intra-organizational career - covers the successive change of stages of employee development within one organization; is implemented in three main directions:
vertical - it is with this direction that the very concept of a career is often associated, i.e. in this case the progress is most noticeable. The vertical direction refers to the rise to a higher level of the structural hierarchy, job growth;
horizontal - this means either moving to another functional area of activity, or performing a certain official role at a level that does not have a strict formal fixation in the organizational structure (for example, fulfilling the role of head of a temporary task force, program, etc.). A horizontal career can also include expanding or complicating tasks at the previous level (usually with an adequate change in remuneration); those. this is promotion within the organization, for example, work in different departments of the same hierarchy level;
centripetal - this direction is the least obvious, although in many cases it is very attractive for employees. A centripetal career is understood as a movement towards the core, the management of the enterprise. For example, inviting an employee to previously unavailable meetings, meetings of both a formal and informal nature, an employee gaining access to informal sources of information, confidential requests, certain important instructions from management, i.e. this is advancement to the core of the organization, the control center, and increasingly deeper inclusion in decision-making processes.
Basic methods and career stages
A career is a long process. It goes through a series of successive stages in which a person satisfies his needs. In order for a person to adequately distribute his strength over the entire period of his career, predict possible ups and downs and not be afraid of the latter, it is important to know the characteristics of the stages of its development:
The preliminary stage includes school, secondary and higher education and lasts up to 25 years.
During this period, a person can change several different jobs in search of an activity that satisfies his needs and meets his capabilities. If he immediately finds this type of activity, the process of self-affirmation as an individual begins, he cares about the security of his existence.
Next comes the developmental stage from 25 to 30.
During this period, the employee masters the profession, acquires the necessary skills, his qualifications are formed, self-affirmation occurs and the need to establish independence appears. He continues to be concerned about the safety of his existence and concerns about his health. Usually at this age families are created and formed, so there is a desire to receive wages that are higher than the subsistence level.
Promotion stage from 30 to 45 years.
During this period, there is a process of growth in qualifications and career advancement. There is an accumulation of practical experience and skills, a growing need for self-affirmation, achieving a higher status and even greater independence, and self-expression as an individual begins. During this period, much less attention is paid to satisfying the need for safety; the employee’s efforts are focused on increasing wages and taking care of health.
Conservation stage from 45 to 60 years.
The conservation stage is characterized by actions to consolidate the achieved results. The peak of skill improvement is approaching and its increase occurs as a result of active work and special training; the employee is interested in passing on his knowledge to young people. This period is characterized by creativity; there may be an ascent to new career levels. A person reaches the heights of independence and self-expression. A well-deserved respect for oneself and others who have achieved their position through honest work appears. Although many of the employee’s needs are satisfied during this period, he continues to be interested in the level of remuneration, but there is an increasing interest in other sources of income (for example, participation in profits, capital of other organizations, shares, bonds).
The completion stage lasts from 60 to 65 years.
Here a person begins to seriously think about retirement and prepare to retire. During this period, there is an active search for a worthy replacement and training of a candidate for the vacant position. Although this period is characterized by a career crisis, and such people receive less satisfaction from work and experience a state of psychological and physiological discomfort, self-expression and respect for themselves and other similar people reaches the highest point for the entire period of their career. They are interested in maintaining the level of wages, but seek to increase other sources of income that would replace the wages of this organization when they retire and would be a good addition to the pension benefit.
Retirement stage
At the last stage, the retirement stage, the career in this organization (type of activity) is completed. “We are all foremen. We build our lives in the same way as a foreman before retiring.” There is an opportunity for self-expression in other activities that were impossible while working in an organization or acted as a hobby (painting, gardening, work in public organizations, etc.). Respect for oneself and fellow retirees is stabilized. But the financial situation and state of health in these years can make it a constant concern for other sources of income and health .
Chapter 2. Principles of career building
.1 Career planning and development
Career planning is one of the important aspects of building a successful career.
It consists of determining the employee’s development goals and the paths leading to their achievement. The implementation of a career development plan involves, on the one hand, acquiring the qualifications required to occupy the desired position through professional training, internships, attending advanced training courses, that is, the professional development of the employee, and on the other hand, the consistent occupation of positions in which work experience is necessary for work in the position. As a rule, every enterprise has standard career ladders that lead to senior management positions.
Planning and management of career development requires certain additional (compared to routine professional activities) efforts from the employee and from the enterprise (if it supports this process). There are a number of benefits of planning, both for the employee himself and the business organization in which he works.
For the employee this means:
• a higher degree of satisfaction from working in a business organization, which provides him with the opportunity for professional growth and increasing his own well-being;
• clear vision of personal professional
• the opportunity to prepare for future professional activities;
• increasing competitiveness in the labor market.
A business organization receives the following benefits:
• obtaining motivated and loyal employees, which increases labor productivity and reduces staff turnover;
• career development of individual workers as an important source for identifying vocational training needs;
• obtaining a group of employees interested in professional growth, trained, for promotion to key positions.
Awareness of these and other advantages has prompted the management of many business organizations to create systems for managing the career development of their employees. One of the most common models for managing this process has become the partnership model for career planning and development (Figure 1.)

Rice. 1. The process of planning and developing the career of an employee of a business organization
Career planning is an activity that has:
Goal: building a successful career or something similar (everyone has their own goals)
Subject in the form of an employee.
Mentor as a leader.
Consultant in the form of personnel service.
Partnership involves cooperation of three parties - the employee, his manager and the personnel department.

The employee is responsible for planning and developing his own career or, in other words, is the owner of this process.

The manager acts as a mentor to the employee. His support is necessary for successful career development, since he manages resources, manages the distribution of working time, and certifies the employee.
The HR department plays the role of a professional consultant and at the same time carries out overall management of the career development process in a business organization.
After hiring, human resource specialists train the new employee in the basics of career planning and development, explain the principles of partnership, the responsibilities and capabilities of the parties involved. Training has two main goals:
• interest the employee in career development;
• provide them with the tools to begin managing their own careers.
At the next stage of developing a career development plan, the employee determines the position(s) that he would like to occupy in the future, based on his own professional interests and methods for their implementation. At this stage, the employee needs qualified assistance from the personnel service and his own manager, first of all, to determine his own capabilities and shortcomings, as well as development methods. Some enterprises conduct special testing to determine the strengths and weaknesses of their employees, the results of which provide significant assistance in career planning. The participation of the manager in the career planning process allows not only to carry out a certain check on the reality of the employee’s career expectations, but also to involve the manager in the process of developing the career of this employee from the very beginning and thereby enlist his support.
The implementation of a career development plan depends, first of all, on the employee himself.
If the employee is:
person interested in work,
person, then he, of course, has a greater chance of building a successful career.
Work is the path to success! “Work hard! The world won't be a paradise
For those who want to live like lazy people."
In this case, it is necessary to keep in mind not only the personal qualities of a person, but also a certain set of conditions:
• results of work in the position held. Successful performance of job responsibilities is the most important prerequisite for promotion;
• professional and individual development. The employee must not only take advantage of all available means of professional development, but also demonstrate newly acquired skills, knowledge and experience;
• effective partnership with the manager. The implementation of a career development plan depends to a great extent on the manager, who formally or informally evaluates the employee’s performance in his position and his potential, and is the most important channel of communication between employees and the top management of the business organization, who makes decisions about promotion;
• prominent position in the business organization. To advance in the organizational hierarchy, it is necessary that the enterprise knows about the existence of the employee, his achievements and capabilities.

.2 Ways to achieve a successful career

A successful career means not only big earnings, but also an opportunity to significantly increase your own self-esteem, standard of living and prestige. This is why many people strive to reach the top of the career ladder.

On the path to absolute leadership, a person who decides to achieve success at work, as in any path, will have to face many obstacles. This means that you won’t be able to quickly reach sky-high heights with your own labor. To get closer to your goals, you have to make some efforts. In addition, it is advisable to have a clear action plan (this was discussed in paragraph 2.1) in order to strictly move in the right direction.
Building a successful career involves realizing a person’s creative ambitions. But before you start conquering the career Olympus, you should really assess your capabilities. There is no need to waste energy on achieving goals that are obviously doomed to failure. But at the same time, you should not greatly underestimate your own potential. It is important to realistically assess your own abilities. A positive attitude will help you get even closer to your goal, so you need to be positive and paint your future in bright colors. A pessimistic outlook on life is not the best companion on the path to success.
You should also remember that a successful career is only possible in the field of activity that a person is truly interested in. Work that brings pleasure will quickly bring positive results.
Those who dream of achieving a high position should not forget about building relationships correctly. It is important to remember that career advancement is facilitated by people - colleagues and other persons involved in the work process. Therefore, it is necessary to learn how to properly build partnership relationships and always try to make a favorable impression.
Some character traits also play an important role in building a successful career. A person striving for leadership must first of all be efficient and reliable. These qualities can replace the lack of experience in a certain field of activity. A responsible person learns quickly and most often achieves greater success than an experienced employee who is negligent in his duties.
On the way to a high position, it is important to learn how to plan your time and set priorities. You need to have a clear work-life balance. All tasks that require immediate execution should not be postponed until later. It must be remembered that working time is given for productive work, after which you can indulge in pleasant rest.
Career development is not unimportant in this matter. Classification of career aging is carried out according to four indicators:
advance speed:
sequence of positions;
perspective orientation;
The predominance of one or another type of career depends on the socio-economic situation, form of ownership, industry, and characteristics of a particular position ­.
The diversity and complexity of the career phenomenon is reflected in the variety of its types and the variety of approaches to its typology. To classify career aging, many different grounds, signs, and criteria can be identified:
"Vertex" career growth worker
Climbing the career ladder when a person reaches a higher paying position. An employee reaches this position, he sets a goal for himself to remain in this position for a long time. But at the same time, he has no plans to develop and moves further up the career ladder, everything suits him. This model is very typical and used in practice in Russia.
In this case, the employee moves up the career ladder gradually and the time spent at any stage reaches no more than 5 years. The movement of this excavator begins the moment it becomes a professional in its field of work. After the “excavator” lifts the worker to the very top, the reverse process begins. This happens because the manager is getting older and younger people are ready to replace him. From a psychological point of view, this model reflects poorly on the employee. This model is used in foreign companies.
This model provides for the horizontal movement of an employee from one position to another, and this occurs until the employee has held all positions at this level. Thus, this allows the employee to study this niche more thoroughly. And only after the employee has studied the entire area where he is currently located, he is transferred to a new management level. Now it is easier for the employee to manage another level because he has studied it completely. This model is most similar to the Japanese model.
The following principle already applies here. When, after a certain period of time, an employee undergoes qualification certification. And if he confirms his qualifications, then he is promoted. This model is widespread and applicable both abroad and in our country.


Thus, we can say that career is very important in a person's life. To build a successful career, you need to compare your abilities, skills, desires, preferences with this position. Only if the work is interesting to you and brings you more satisfaction than fatigue, you will be able to achieve success in this field and build a wonderful career.

Career planning is one of the important factors in building a successful career. The most important thing when building a career is to have a carefully developed plan of action to achieve career success. Any career, no matter in what area it is built, will have its own difficulties, in order to avoid these difficulties with the least possible losses, a specialist needs to know the stages of moving up the career ladder, types of careers, and take into account the specifics of his profession to model his career.
In addition to planning, a person’s personal qualities are very important: hardworking, responsible, organized, etc. a person will be able to achieve success in any field of activity.
It seems to me that a career plays an important role in the life of a modern person, and when we start to think about a career, we need to remember that a career is a complex multi-stage process that takes a lot of time and effort.
So, so that building a career is not a burden, but a joy, let’s take into account all the pitfalls that we will encounter along the way, let’s take them into account in advance before we begin to plan or build a career.
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