Water in Celtic Countries: Quantity



Yüklə 179,53 Kb.
səhifə1/4
tarix29.07.2018
ölçüsü179,53 Kb.
  1   2   3   4

Water in Celtic Countries: Quantity,
Quality and Climate Variability

Edited by J. P. Lobo Ferreira & José M. P. Viera
IAHS Publication 310 (2007) I978-1-901502-88-6 358+ viii pp, price £66.00




Fourth InterCeltic Colloquium on Hydrology and Management of Water


Publication sponsored by:





Since 1996, when the First InterCeltic Colloquium on Hydrology and Water Resources Development was held in Brittany (France), hydrologists and other professionals concerned with water have come together in a series of meetings designed to highlight the commonality of the Celtic fringe of western Europe.


Apart from language, these include: similar climatic, geological and hydrological characteristics, which are manifested by a mild climate, dense and fast flowing river networks, scarce groundwater resources and a vulnerable coastal zone. These are features found from the Highlands of Scotland in the north, to the northwestern parts of Spain and Portugal in the south. However the different regimes have been subject to pollution from mining and from agriculture, including fish farming, and to the demands made on water services arising from the large influx of tourists. Now the likely impacts of climate change are causing more concern.
This volume contains the papers presented at the Fourth InterCeltic Colloquium, held in Portugal in July 2006, some 34 in all. They are divided between six themes:


  • Climate Variability

  • Water Quality

  • Groundwater

  • Hydrology

  • Modelling

  • Management and Environmental Impact Assessment

The papers reflect the complex nature of the Celtic environment and point the way for the future development and management of the precious resource, water.



Contents




Preface by J. P. Lobo Ferreira





1

Introductory papers





Exchange between systems: from river catchments to coastal marine waters
J. C. Lefeuvre & E. Feunteun

3

Hydroinformatics support to flood forecasting and flood management
Adri Verwey

23

Impacts of climate change on water resources: a case-study for Portugal
Luis Veiga Da Cunha, Rodrigo Proença De Oliveira, João Nascimento &
Luis Ribeiro


37

Regional hydrological impacts of climate and socio-economic change in North West England, UK Ian Paul Holman

49

Water Safety Plans: methodologies for risk assessment and risk management in drinking water systems José M. P. Vieira

57

2

Climate Variability





Implications of climate change for river regimes in Wales: a comparison of scenarios and models J. A. A. Jones, N. C. Mountain, C. G. Pilling &
C. P. Holt


71

An assessment of runoff trends in undisturbed catchments in the Celtic regions of North West Europe Jamie Hannaford, Cedric L. R. Laize & Terry J. Marsh

78

The impact of changes in the weather on the surface temperatures of Lake Windermere (UK) and Lough Feeagh (Ireland) Glen George, Diane Hewitt, Eleanor Jennings, Norman Allott & Philip Mcginnity

86

Precipitation trends in mainland Portugal in the period 1941–2000
M. Isabel P. De Lima, Ana C. P. Marques, João L. M. P. De Lima &
M. Fátima E. S. Coelho


94

Models to predict the impact of the climate changes on aquifer recharge
Manuel Mendes Oliveira, Maria Emília Novo & João Paulo Lobo Ferreira

103

3

Water Quality





Aluminium contents in drinking water from public water supplies of Galicia (northwest Spain) David A. Rubinos, Manuel Arias, Carlos Aymerich & Francisco Díaz-Fierros

113

1Constructions cyanobactériennes calcaires dans les rivières de Haute-Normandie: perspectives de gestion / Management perspectives of the calcareous cyanobacterial build-ups in the hardwater rivers of Haute-Normandie (France) Frederic Pitois, Alain Jigorel & Paul Ferlin

120

An indicator system for surface water quality in river basins R. E. S. Oliveira,
M. M. C. L. Lima & J. M. P. Vieira


128

Eutrophication in the River Vouga basin—impacts on the quality of water for public supply J. Figueiredo Da Silva & Fausto Oliveira

139

Stockage du phosphore dans les sédiments d’un réservoir eutrophe (Gouet, Bretagne, France) / Phosphorus storage in sediments of an eutrophic reservoir (Gouet, Britanny, France) Alain Jigorel, Annick Bouedo, Remy Nicolas &
Jean Pierre Morin


148

4

Groundwater




Assessing aquifer vulnerability to seawater intrusion using the GALDIT method: part 1—application to the Portuguese Monte Gordo aquifer João Paulo Lobo Ferreira, A. G. Chachadi, Catarina Diamantino &
M. J. Henriques


161

Assessing aquifer vulnerability to seawater intrusion using the GALDIT method: Part 2—GALDIT Indicators Description A. G. Chachadi & João Paulo Lobo Ferreira

172

On wellhead protection assessment methods: a case study in Montemor-o-Novo, Portugal Maria João Moinante & João Paulo Lobo-Ferreira

181

A new method for groundwater plume detection under uncertainty
Luís Miguel Nunes, Maria Da Conceição Cunha, Luís Ribeiro & João Azevedo

191

5

Hydrology




Mechanisms of flooding in the Mawddach catchment Graham Hall &
Roger Cratchley


201

Le littoral des Bas-Champs soumis aux risques perpétuels d’inondation / The coast of Bas-Champs subjected to constant risk of flood Julia Bastide,
Edward Anthony & Franck Dolique


211

Water balance and observed flows in the Anllóns River basin (NW Spain)
M. Ermitas Rial Rivas, Manuel Alí Álvarez Enjo &
Francisco Díaz-Fierros Viqueira


224

Influence of 7-year old Eucalyptus globulus plantation on the low flow of a small basin B. Soto, M. A. Brea, R. Pérez & F. Díaz-Fierros

232

Marnage et biodiversite en etang peu profond: estimation et relations (Limousin, France) / Water levels variations and biodiversity in a shallow pond: appreciation and relations (Limousin, France) D. Brunaud

242

6

Modelling




Using hydrological models and Geographic Information Systems for water resources evaluation: GIS-VISUAL-BALAN and its application to Atlantic basins in Spain (Valiñas) and Portugal (Serra da Estrela) Javier Samper,
Miguel Angel García Vera, Bruno Pisani, Diego Alvares
,
Jorge Espinha Marques, Alberto Varela & José Angel Losada

259

Application of Artificial Neural Networks for river flow simulation in three French catchments Monomoy Goswami & Kieran M. O’Connor

267

Mathematical modelling of salt water intrusion in a northern Portuguese estuary José L. S. Pinho & José M. P. Vieira

277

7

Management and Environmental Impact Assessment




Cycleau: integrating research and decision-making for whole river basin management Loveday Jenkin & David Watkins

291

Methodologies for pollution risk assessment of water resources systems
Catarina Diamantino, Maria José Henriques, Manuel M. Oliveira &
João Paulo Lobo Ferreira


298

The environmental impact and risks associated with changes in fluvial morphodynamic processes José Simão Antunes Do Carmo

307

Application of RIAM to the Environmental Impact Assessment of hydroelectric installations Paulo S. F. de Araújo & Naim Haie

320

Quality assurance for hydrometric network data as a basis for integrated river basin management Frank Schlaeger, Michael Natschke & Daniel Witham

327

Impact of road runoff in soil and groundwater: Portuguese and other European case-studies Teresa E. Leitão

338

1A suggested approach to effective water resource management using the Umgeni resource system as a test case Anthony J. Tollow

348

Post face (1Reasons for InterCeltic colloquiums on hydrology and management of water resources) Anthony J. Tollow

354

Key word index

356

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________Water in Celtic Countries: Quantity, Quality and Climate Variability (Proceedings of the Fourth InterCeltic Colloquium on Hydrology and Management of Water Resources, Guimarães, Portugal, July 2005). IAHS Publ. 310, 2007, 3-22.
Exchange between systems: from river catchments to coastal marine waters

J. C. Lefeuvre1 & E. Feunteun2

1 Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, France

jean-claude.lefeuvre@univ-rennes1.fr

2 University of la Rochelle, Rochelle, France
Abstract The European Water Framework, promulgated in 2000, proposed a global approach with a precise schedule and a clear objective: the long term protection of aquatic environments and resources and, especially for the rivers, their ecological integrity from the source to the mouth. For a long time, the “ecosystem approach” appeared a good way in terms of research to show, at a landscape level, the reality of a link between the functioning of such different systems as watersheds, rivers, streams, estuaries and marine coastal water systems. Much research on exchange, transfers of energy and materials between these systems have proved that, finally, the water quality in rivers and in the sea as well as and the functioning of aquatic ecosystems (freshwater and marine ecosystems) depend on the evolution of land cover and land use of the watersheds. The development of intensive agriculture that takes no account of the environmental issues, regularly destroys the integrity of biogeochemical and water transfers between land and ocean. It is one of the main causes of the disturbance of the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. In Celtic Countries, at a local scale, the Mont-Saint-Michel bay and its watershed appears as an appropriate model to analyse the multiple consequences of land use changes in the watershed, due to agriculture, on the deterioration of aquatic ecosystem and water quality. Brittany in its entirety seems to be one of the best models to study the same processes at a regional scale.

Key words coastal marine water; ecosystems; exchange; freshwater; functions; holistic model; industrial agriculture practice; landscape; river; transfer; watershed
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________Water in Celtic Countries: Quantity, Quality and Climate Variability (Proceedings of the Fourth InterCeltic Colloquium on Hydrology and Management of Water Resources, Guimarães, Portugal, July 2005). IAHS Publ. 310, 2007, 23-36.
Hydroinformatics support to flood forecasting and flood management

ADRI VERWEY

WL | Delft Hydraulics, Delft, The Netherlands

adri.verwey@wldelft.nl
Abstract This keynote paper describes state-of-the-art hydroinformatics support to the water sector. A few examples are worked out in some detail, whereas for other examples the reader is guided to recent literature. The focus is on flood forecasting and flood management, with a brief description of the potential of changing technologies that support studies and facilities in this area. Examples are: new data collection methods; data mining from these extensive new sources of information, e.g. the use of genetic programming; data driven modelling techniques, e.g. artificial neural networks; decision support systems; and the provision of a hydroinformatics platform for flood forecasting. Particular attention is given to advances in numerical flood modelling. Over recent years the robustness of numerical models has increased substantially, solving for example, the flooding and drying problem of flood plains and the computation of supercritical flows. In addition, the emergence of hybrid 1D2D models is discussed with their different options for linking model components of flood prone areas.

Key words data mining; flood forecasting; flood management; flow resistance; flood simulation modelling; hydroinformatics; Open MI; open source; proprietary software; unsteady flow modelling
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________Water in Celtic Countries: Quantity, Quality and Climate Variability (Proceedings of the Fourth InterCeltic Colloquium on Hydrology and Management of Water Resources, Guimarães, Portugal, July 2005). IAHS Publ. 310, 2007, 37-48.
Impacts of climate change on water resources:
a case-study for Portugal


LUIS VEIGA DA CUNHA1, RODRIGO PROENÇA DE OLIVEIRA2,1, JOÃO NASCIMENTO3 & LUIS RIBEIRO3

1 Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal

lvdacunha@mail.telepac.pt

2 Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal and Chiron, Information Systems, Lisbon, Portugal

3 Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
Abstract The paper briefly analyses the impacts of climate change on water resources and identifies, in general terms, the specific impacts related to different hydrological variables and different characteristics of the water systems. A case study of the impacts of climate change on Portuguese water resources developed within the SIAM project, is introduced. The climate scenarios considered, corresponding to selected climate models, show a small increase of annual precipitation for the northern region of Portugal and a decrease for the central and southern regions. The models also predict an increase of seasonal asymmetry with relevant decreases in summer precipita­tion. The annual average temperature appears to increase, particularly in southern Portugal. These climatic scenarios lead to a probable trend towards a concentration of river runoff in winter and an increase in the current seasonal asymmetry of water availability in Portugal. It also appears that the concentration of rainfall in winter and the estimated general increase in the frequency of heavy precipitation events is likely to augment the magnitude and frequency of flooding, particularly in the northern part of the country. The predicted decrease of river flow in southern Portugal, during the next century, associated with an increase in the spatial and temporal asymmetry of water resources distribution, may have very serious consequences and be a cause of major concern. It may, in fact, have strong implications for the water resources management strategies and policies to be designed for Portugal. Finally, how the consideration of climate change on water resources should influence the future planning and management of water resources, both in general terms and in the specific case of Portugal, is analysed. In particular, the joint study of climate change impacts on the water resources shared by Spain and Portugal is proposed as a major focus for scientific and technological co-operation of the two countries of the Iberian Peninsula.

Key words adaptation measures; climate change; impacts; water resources
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________Water in Celtic Countries: Quantity, Quality and Climate Variability (Proceedings of the Fourth InterCeltic Colloquium on Hydrology and Management of Water Resources, Guimarães, Portugal, July 2005). IAHS Publ. 310, 2007, 49-56.
Regional hydrological impacts of climate and socio-economic change in North West England, UK

IAN PAUL HOLMAN

Institute of Water and Environment, Cranfield University, Silsoe, Bedford MK45 4DT, UK

i.holman@cranfield.ac.uk
Abstract An integrated approach to assessing the regional hydrological impacts of climate and socio-economic change is described for North West England, UK for the 2050s. A series of models were linked to investing­ate the effects of future climate and socio-economic change on the sectors driving landscape change. Many factors will affect future catchment behaviour including changed precipitation and temperature regimes, flooding, urbanization, woodland establishment, and changes in cropping and rotations. The results show that to focus on the direct impacts of climate change is to neglect the potentially important role of policy, societal values and economic processes in shaping the landscape of our catchments, and thus hydrological processes.

Key words climate change; numerical modelling; socio-economic aspects; water management; water resources
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________Water in Celtic Countries: Quantity, Quality and Climate Variability (Proceedings of the Fourth InterCeltic Colloquium on Hydrology and Management of Water Resources, Guimarães, Portugal, July 2005). IAHS Publ. 310, 2007, 57-68.
Water Safety Plans: methodologies for risk assessment and risk management in drinking water systems

JOSÉ M. P. VIEIRA

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minho, 4704-553 Braga, Portugal

jvieira@civil.uminho.pt
Abstract Worldwide, providing good and safe drinking water is considered to be a fundamental political issue for public health protection, and must be the primary objective of water supply systems. Drinking water quality control has currently been based on detection of pathogens and toxic concentrations of chemicals by means of monitoring programmes and compliance with national or international guidelines and standards, relying mainly on indicator bacteria and chemicals maximum concentration levels. However, this methodology is often slow, complex and costly. Even for sophisticated and well-operated systems these monitoring schemes have proved to be inefficient in preventing waterborne diseases, such as Giardia or Cryptosporidium outbreaks. From this evidence we can conclude that end-product testing is a reactive rather than preventive way to demonstrate confidence in good and safe drinking water. This justifies the need for the formulation of a new approach in drinking water quality control based on an understanding of system vulnerability to contam­in­ation and on preventive means and actions necessary to guarantee the safety of the water supplied to the consumer. The water safety plan is a concept for risk assessment and risk management throughout the water cycle from the catch­ments to the point of consumption. This approach includes the identification of the hazards and introduction of control points that serve to minimize these potential hazards, providing for more effective control of drinking water quality. This paper presents an overview of the first two years experience in developing and implementing a water safety plan in a Portuguese multi-municipal water company. Since key personnel have contributed to the assess­ment of hazards and evaluation of corrective actions for control points, a greater understanding of water quality control and improvements to the technical operation and performance have been registered, demonstrating good value for the methodology.


Yüklə 179,53 Kb.

Dostları ilə paylaş:
  1   2   3   4




Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©muhaz.org 2020
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə