THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
sequently, the will of what is good. In reality, however, whenever he aims to insure the doing of what is good, he virtually assumes that his readers or hearers do not do so out of love, the predominating motive being "the fear of eternal pain." He is always guarding against the contingency that the acceptance of forgiveness may result in a relaxation of the fight against sin; so that he not only requires the Church to intermingle hope and fear for its believers; but also stresses his conviction that "no sin is forgiven without punishment." If man will not punish himself, God will punish. On one occasion, to be sure, he can say: "Certainly God has no joy in our suffering; he simply cures our sin sickness by means of corresponding remedies." But if he then declares that "upon sinful pleasure there must follow the bitterness of tears; upon unrestraint in what is disallowed, restraint from what is allowed"; this, in turn, he can call "a satisfaction for the Creator," a "sacrifice to cancel guilt." If Gregory's exaltation of the contemplative life above the secular be borne in mind, and if to all this there be added the consideration that the idea of intercession is already so great a factor in his life, while not only Christ but also the angels and saints are recommended as interceding protectors; it becomes clear that the type of Christianity which finds expression in Gregory's writings became the religion of the Middle Ages, and underwent but little further development.
Gregory died on Mar. 11, 604. The Church received him into the number of her saints, and honored him by the title of "the Great." His earnest monastic piety; his restless toiling for Gregory's the extension and strengthening of the Character faith, for the elevation of morals, for and influ union of the various churches with
ence. the see of Rome; and the justice and
gentleness, energy and patience that
he showed all this makes him one of the noblest
representatives of the papacy. If, notwithstand
ing his defects of actual scholarship and original
thoughts, he has been reckoned one of the four
great doctors of the Western Church, the explanar
tion is, on the one hand, the comparative power of
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Lists of literature will be found in Potthast, Wegweiaer, pp. 539 540, 1349 50. The Opera are collected in MPL, Lcxv. lxxix. His Dialogorum libri quatuor, ad. W. Forster, appeared Halle, 1876 (the best). The moat worthy edition of his Epistles is by P. Ewald and L. Hartmann, 2 vols., Berlin, 1887 99. His Decretals are in the Bullarium magnum Romanum, ed. A. Tomaesetti, i. 159 160, Turin, 1857; and his Hymns in H. A. Daniel, Thesaurus hymnologicus, i. 175 sqq., Halls, 1841; King Alfred's Version of Gregory's Pastoral Care, ed. H. Sweet, appeared London, 1871. Parts of the Works, tmnsl. by J. Barmby, are in Fathers for English Readers, London, 1878, and by the same person his Pastoral Rule and Seceded Epistles, with Introductory Notes and Indices, in NPNF, 2d ser., vol. ail. Interesting issues are: The Dialogues of S. Oregorie, Paris, 1608, ed. H. J. Coleridge, London, 1872; and The Life and Miracles of S. Benedict, from an old Version by P. W., Paris, 1808, ed. F. J. Luck, ib. 1880. An Eng. tranal. of the Morale on the Book of Job, 3 vols., ed. E. B. Pussy, app,amd in the Lives of the
Fathers, London, 1838, and selection from the Dialogues, ib. 1901.
The sources for a life are: Liber pontifmlis, ed. Duchesne, f. 143 eqq., Paris, 1888, and ed. Mommsen in MOH, Oest. poet. Rom.. i (1898), 180 162; the Vita by Paulus Diaconus, in MPL, Ixxv. 41 eqq., and that by Johannes Diaconus, ib. pp. 63 sqq.; Paulus Ihaconue, Hist. Langobardorum, iii. 24 25, and iv. 5, ed. Waits in MOH, Script. rer. Langob., i (1878), 12 187; Gregory of Tours, Hid. Francomm, x. 1 2, ed. Waits in MOH, Script. rer. Memo., i (1885), 1 450; Bede, Hist. ecd., i. 22 23, ii. 1 3, v. 25; Jaff6, Regesta, i. 443 aqq.; P. Ewald, Die alteste Biographie Gregor# l., in G. Waits, HiatoriaeAe Aufsatee, Hanover, 1886.
Modern treatises on the subject are: G. Lau, Oregon I., Leipsic,1845; E. Clausier, S. Gksgoire, 3 vols., Paris, 18891890; T. Bonsmann, Oregon 1. den Grosse, Paderborn,1890; A. Snow, St. Gregory, his Works and his Spirit, London, 1892; F. Gregorovius, Hist. o/ the City of Rome, ii. 3br 99, ib. 1894; C. Wolfegruber, Oregon den Grosse, 8sulgrau, 1897; F. H. Dudden, Gregory the Great, 2 vols., London, 1905 (critical and independent); Mann, Pop", I. 1 250 (his letters to Leontia and Phocas, pp. 419 424); Ceillier, Auteura sacrEs, xi. 429 587, cf. Index; Neander, Christian Church, iii. 112 119, 141 151 et passim, consult Index (very full and varied discussion); Schaff, Christian Church, iv. 211 229; Bower, Pop", i. 390 424; Milman, Latin Christianity, ii. 42 85; Heimbucher, Orden and Kongregationen, i. 104 sqq.; Rettberg, KD, ii. 584; Hauck, KD, i. 425 sqq. et passim; DCB, ii. 779 791; much of the literature given under AUGUSTINE (AUSTIN), SAINT, bears on this subject.
For treatment of various phases of Gregory's activities consult: P. Game, Kirchengeschichte won Spanien, ii., part 2, Regensburg, 1862; L. Pingaud, La Polstique do S. Glrdgoire, Paris, 1872; Grisar, in ZKT, i (1877), 321 eqq., 526 sqq., xiv. 1890 T. Wollachack, Die Verhdltnisse Italians . . . nach deco Briefwechsel Gregors I., Horn, 1888; W. Weisbaum, Die wichtigsten Ricktungen and Ziels den Thdtigkeit des Papatea Oregon Bonn, 1884; F. GSrres, in ZWT, xxix (1886), 36 eqq.; H. Gelser, in JPT, xiii (1887), 549 sqq.; L. M. Hartmann, Untersuchung cur Gesehichte den byzantiniadhen Verwaltung in Italien. Leipsie, 1889; F W. Kellett Pope Gregory the Great and his Relation. with Gaul, Cambridge, 1889: E. Basaenge, Die Sendung Augustine cur Bekehrung den Angelsaeheen. Leipsic, 1890; R. Heinrichs, in Katholik, 1894, pp. 12 sqq.; The Mission of St. Augustine to England according to the Original Documents, Cambridge, 1897; F. H. Dudden, Gregory the Great, his Place in Hist. and Thought, London, 1905.
On his writings: A. Ebert, Geachichte den chriselichlateinischen Literatur, pp. 516 sqq., Leipsic, 1874. On his liturgical influence: W. Hohaus, Die Bedeutung Gregors . als liturgischer Schriftatsiler, Glats, 1889; F. A. Gevaert, Lee Origines du chant liturgique de llgliw latine, Ghent, 1890; G. Morin, Los Veritabfes Origines du chant Grtgorien, Abbaye de Maredsous, 1890; Grisar, in ZKT, xiv (1890), 377 sqq.; Julian, Hymnology, pp. 469470. On his significance as a theologian: G. F. Wiggers, in ZHT, 1854, pp. 7 12; C. E. Luthardt, Die Lehre vom freien Willen, p. 53, Leipsic, 1863; J. Nlrschl, Lehrbuch den Patrologie and Patriatik, iii. 533 sqq., Mainz, 1885; F. Loofa, Leitfaden sum Studium den Dogmengeschichte, pp. 244 aqq., Halls, 1893; R. Beeberg, Lehrbuch den Dogmengeschichte, ii. 1 aqq•, Leipaic, 1898; Harnack, Dogma, iii. vi. passim.
Gregory II.: Pope 715 731. A Roman by birth, he was destined from childhood for the ecclesiastical state. Under Sergius I. (687 701) he became a subdeacon, and was made treasurer and librarian of the Roman Church. He accompanied Constantine I. (q.v.) on his journey (709 711) to the Byzantine court, and is said to have made his mark in the discussions there. He was elected pope May 19, 715. His pontificate was marked by the beginning of the great conflict between the Roman see and the Lombards, which ended in the downfall of the Lombard kingdom; by his controversy with the iconoclastic Emperor Leo III.; and by his relay
69 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Gregory I. IP.
tion to Boniface and the nascent Germanic national churches of central and northern Europe. In regard to the first point, Gregory recognized from the beginning of his pontificate the danger offered by the Lombard kingdom to Rome and the Church; but for some time he contrived to maintain friendly relations with the court of Pavia, succeeding in gaining from Liutprand in 715 or 716 the restoration of a portion of the patrimony of Peter near Genoa, and in 728 the city and district of Sutri. The first outbreak of trouble was caused by the iconoclastic edict of Leo III., which caused all Italy to rise against the Byzantine overlordehip. Even Ravenna opened its gates to the Lombards. But Gregory was forced to proceed against the emperor, and solemnly condemned the iconoclasts in a synod held about 729. The east coast from Venice to Osimo threw off the Byzantine rule, and the election of an Italian emperor was even discussed. Gregory, however, rightly perceived a greater danger in Liutprand than in Leo. When the eunuch Eutychius was sent as exarch of Ravenna about 730, he made common cause with the Lombards against the pope, whose opposition to the emperor was on purely ecclesiastical grounds, and even on those kept within the bounds of moderation. In these difficulties Gregory was comforted by the submissive reverence of the Western peoples, greater than they had shown to any of his predecessors. King Ins, of Wessex founded the achola Saxonum at Rome and established the payment of Peter's pence in his kingdom for its support. Theodo of Bavaria came to Rome in 716 to consult the pope about the ecclesiastical organization of his dominions, and a few years later Gregory came into relations with Boniface, sending him to Thuringia in 719 and consecrating him bishop in 722 that he might go to the north as an ecclesiastical organizer in the interests of the Holy See (see BONIFACE, SAINT; PAPAL STATES). No pope since Gregory the Great had done so much for the increase of the papal territory, for the elevation of the spiritual life of Rome, or for the promotion of monasticism, and none had followed with such intelligent force the path of development marked out by the first of
his name. (H. BOHMER.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: His Epietolm et eanones are in MPL, Ixmx. Consult: Libor pontfificalia, ed. Ducheane, i. 249 267, Paris, 1888; Paulus Diacanus, Hist. Langobardorum, vi. 40, ed. Waits in MGH, Script. Per. Lanpob., i (1878), 12187; Jaff€, Repesta, i. 249 257; F. Kunstmann, Die lateinischenP3nitentialUcher der Anpelsachsen, Mainz, 1844; A. von Reumont, GsacAiahte der StaM Rom, ii. 213 eqq., Berlin, 1887; R. Baxmann, Die Pofitik der Papate, i. 195 209, Elberfeld, 1888; J. Langen, Gewhichte der r6miechen Kirche, i. 802 818, Bonn, 1885; F. Gregorovius, Hist. of the City of Rome, ii. 215, 231 241, London, 1894; Schaff, Christian Church, iv. 231; Neander, Christian Church, iii. 47 48 (his letter to Leo is on pp. 210 212); Mann, Popes, i. 141 202, and the letters to Leo, pp. 498502; Bower, Popes, ii. ZO 89; Mihnan, Latin Christianity, ii. 311 317 et passim; Hauck, KD, i. 384 388 et passim; DCB, ii. 791 798.
Gregory UL: Pope 731 741. He was of Syrian origin, and was elects Mar. 18, 731, succeeding Gregory II. His first care was to establish better relations with Constantinople, and to induce Leo III. to abandon his iconoclastic position, though without success. The stubbornness of the em
peror and the danger from the Lombards ultimately
forced Gregory to widen the breach between new
and old Rome. Of the measures which he took to
strengthen himself against the Lombards, his alli
ance with the dukes of Benevento and Spoleto
brought him into direct conflict with Liutprand,
who appeared before Rome in the summer of 739.
Gregory twice urgently besought the aid of Charles
Lombard attack, it was clear that only in alliance
with the Franks could the papal see maintain
its independence (see PAPAL STATEs). He was
more successful in the province of ecclesiastical ad
ministration. He maintained the relations of his
predecessor with Boniface, whom he made arch
bishop in 732 with the right to organize new dio
cases as he saw fit in Germany, and in 738 739 in
duced him to give up his Saxon missionary plans
and devote himself as papal vicar to the organiza
tion of the Bavarian and Alemannic churches (see
BONIFACE, SAINT). In the same spirit he at
tempted to draw closer the ties between himself
and the Anglo Saxon Church, to attach the
North Italian bishops more firmly to Rome, and
generally to extend the scope of the papal
jurisdiction. After Gregory II., he was undoubt
edly the most important pope of the eighth century.
BIBLIOGRAPHr: His Saropta are in MPL, lxxxix., and his Epiatola: in MPL, xeviii. Consult: Liber pontifuxilis, ed. Duchesne, i. 416 426, Paris, 1886; Paulus biaconus, Hist. Lanpobatdorum, vi. 54 68, ed. Waits in MGH, Script. Per. Lanpob., i (1878), 12 187; Fredegar, Chronieon, Continuationes, xaii., ed. Kruech in MGH, Script. Per. Merov., ii (1888), 188 193; Jaffd, Repesta, i. 267 282; R. Bammaun, Die Poiitik der Pdpak, i. 209 218, Elberfeld, 1888; J. Laogen, Geachichte der r6miscAen Kirchs, i. 818 828, Bonn, 1885; F. Gregorovius, Hist. of the City o/ Rome, ii. 241 284, London 1894; Neander, Christian Church, iii. 50 87; Schaff, Christian Church, iv. 231 232; Mann, Popes, i. 203 224; Bower, Popes, ii. 89 78; Milman, Latin Christianity, ii. 323, 382 388; Hauck, KD, i. 488 489 et passim; DCB, ii. 796 798.
Gregory IV.: Pope 827 844. He was a Roman of noble birth and had been priest of the basilica of St. Mark. His election was the first at which the Constitutio Lotharii was carried out, the Roman proceres acting as electors, and an imperial miamta confirming the choice before his consecration, to which another preliminary was the taking of an oath of fealty to the emperor. This dependence on the Frankish power lasted through the first years of his pontificate, and was only mitigated by the conflicts in the imperial family. Early in 833 he went to Germany at the summons of the young Lothair to work for peace in the imperial house and for the unity of the empire. But after efforts in which he was misunderstood by both parties his intervention proved fruitless, and he went back to Rome feeling that he had been tricked, and remained friendly to Louis as long as the latter lived, attempting again to work for peace upon his death, but with what success is not known. He labored with great liberality for the building and furnishing of churches and monasteries, and erected a strong fortress against the Saracens in the ruins of Ostia. He died in Jan., 844. (H. BSRafER.)
Gregory V. IM.
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
BLBmOORAPHT: His Egiatolm are in MPL, evi. Consult: Liber pontti.ficalia, ed. Duehesne, ii. 73 85, Paris, 1892; Einhard, Annalea, ed. Peru in MGH, Script., i (1826), 135 218; Theganus, Vita Hludmvics, chaps. AL, xlviii., lvi., ed. Pertz in MGH, Script., ii, (1829), 585 603; R. Baxmann, Die Politik der Pdpste, i. 339 349, Elberfeld, 1868; B. Simson, Jahrbileher des deutschen Reicha unter Ludwig dem Frommen, i. 28b 286, ii. 32 61, 164 eqq., Leipsic, 1876; J. Langen, Geachichte der romischen Kirche, i. 816 822, Bonn, 1885; M. Heimbucher, Papetwahlen unter den Karolingern, pp. 144 148, Augsburg, 1889; F. Gregorovius, Hint. of the City of Rome, iii. 65 81, London, 1895; Neander, Christian Church, iii. 277 et passim; Bower, Popes, ii. 209 314; Milman, Luton Christianity, ii. 540 541; Hauck, KD, ii. 468 470.
Gregory V. (Bruno of Carinthia): Pope 996 999. He was a great grandson of Otto the Great and uncle of the later emperor, Conrad II.; and this relationship, together with his German education, accounts for his partial subserviency to the views then prevalent at the imperial court. Under the influence, however, of the old curial traditions, he took the papal standpoint in the strife about the see of Reims (see SYLVEsTER II., POPE), and at a synod at Pavia in the spring of 997 suspended all the French bishops who had taken a part in Arnulf's deposition, and declared energetically in favor of his restoration. He took strong moral ground also against the uncanonical marriage of Robert of France and against simony. Toward the end of 996 he was driven from Rome by Crescentius, the leader of the Roman nobles, who the next year set up John, archbishop of Piacenza, formerly the tutor of Otto III., as antipope (see JOHN XVI.). In Feb., 998, Gregory was forcibly restored by Otto, after which he was wholly dependent upon the imperial power. At his death (Feb. 18, 999) the papacy was more dependent on the crown than at any time since the restoration of the Empire by Otto the Great. (H. B6HMER.)
BISmoaRAPRT: Liber pontifualia, ed. Duchesne, ii. 261, Paris, 1892; Vita Nili, in ASB, Sept., vii. 336; Jaff€, Regesta, i. 489 495; Annales Hildeaheimanaes, ed. Peru in MGH, Script., iii. (1839) IS 22, 42 70, 90 112; Annalea Quedlinburiensea, in the acme, pp. 2269, 72 90; Theitmar, Chronicon, IV. xxvii., axg., xliii. xliv., ed. Pertz in MGH, Script., iii. (1839) 723 781; R. Baxmann, Die Politik der Pdpste, ii. 147 159, Elberfeld, 1869; J. Langen, Geachichte der r6miachcn Kirche, ii. 381 387, Bonn, 1892; Hauck, KD, iii. 259 264, 559; F. Gregorovius. Hiat. of the City of Rome, iii. 410 462, London, 1895; Schaff, Christian Church, iv. 292, 294 295; Neander, Christian Church, iii. 374; Bower, Popes, ii. 329 331; J. Bryce, Holy Roman Empire, pp. 235 236 et passim, New York, 1904.
Gregory VI.: Antipope 1012. He was set up by the Crescentian party as antipope to Benedict VIII. (q.v.), who was elevated by the Tusculan party in 1012. Being compelled to flee from Rome, he betook himself to Germany, to King Henry II., but was by him constrained to lay down the ptwpal dignity. What became of him is not known.
$InLIoORAPBT: Thietmar, Chronicon, vi. 61, ed. Peru in MGH, Script., iii. (1839); Jaffd, Regeata, i. 514; S. Hirsch, Jahrbucher des deutschen Reichs unter Heinrich 11., ii. 385, 390 391; F. Gregorovius, Hit. of the City of Rome, iv. 14, London, 1896; P. G. Wappler, Paps6 Benedict VIII., pp. 15, 19, 22, Leipsic, 1897.
Gregory VI. (Johannes Gratianus): Pope 1045 46. While arohprieat of San Giovanni a Ports Latina,
he bought the papal dignity from Pope Benedict IX.
by a written contract dated May 1, 1045, for the
sum of 1,000 (or 2,000) pounds silver. It is probable
him the direction of St. Paul's monastery at Rome,
and in 1054 employed him as legate in France.
Victor II. also showed appreciation of him, both
admitting him to the papal, chancery and also send
ing him as envoy to France. When Stephen IX.
found it desirable to have the acquiescence of the
Empress Agues in his election, he committed this
81 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Gresory v. vxx.
difficult mission to Bishop Anselm of Lucca and to Hildebrand. Nor did the result fail to justify this mark of confidence. How highly this pope esteemed Hildebrand appears further from the fact that when seized with forebodings of death, he solemnly bound the clergy and people of Rome to institute no new papal election before Hildebrand had returned from Germany. The pope's apprehensions proved, after his sudden death (Mar. 29, 1058), to be well founded. Bishop John of Villetri was immediately made pope (Benedict X.) by the Roman nobility. But he was unable to maintain his position, and this was Hildebrand's work (see BENEDicT X:). He heard the news of the occurrences in Rome at Florence on his way back from Germany, and he at once effected an understanding with Duke Godfrey concerning an opposition candidate; then he alienated a portion of the Roman people from Benedict, and won the German court to his plans. After the preliminaries, Bishop Gerhard of Florence was elected pope by the cardinals in conclave at Sienna, and enthroned in Rome as Nicholas II. on Jan. 24, 1059.
Hildebrand's influence during the administration of Nicholas is unmistakable; and he had his full share in the great events which mark this pontificate (the law as to papal election, 1059; alliance of the papacy with the Patarenes; Nicholas 11. treaty with the Normans; see NICHo
and Alex ies II.). He became archdeacon in
ander II. 1059. When the pope's death (1061)
Hildebrand imperiled the hardly won independ
Chosen ence of the papacy from the Roman
Pope, 1073. nobility and the German kingdom, it was Hildebrand again who knew how to act with promptness and success. The fact that Alexander II. (Anselm of Lucca) was elected, and finally asserted himself in opposition to Bishop Cadalus of Parma (Honorius II.), was made possible through Hildebrand's energy (see ALEXANDER II:, POPE; HONORIUS II., ANTIPOPE). After Alexander's death (Apr. 21, 1073), Hildebrand's time had come. During the funeral solemnities in the Church of the Lateran, the shout went up: "Hildebrand for bishopl" and amid the tumult Hildebrand was hurried to the Church of St. Peter ad Vincula and enthroned. It took place in direct contradiction to the election law of 1059; but attacks against the validity of the election were not brought forward till after 1076.
By far the most important chapter in the history of Gregory's policy deals with his relations to Germany. After the death of Henry III. (1056), the power of the kingdom became greatly weakened under the regency of the Empress Agnes and the princes. In 1073 Henry IV. (b. 1050)
Relations was still inexperienced in statecraft, with and was so preoccupied with affairs
Germany. of home government that he could not
Quarrel maintain his father's attitude toward with the Curia. The situation, accord
Henry IV. ingly, was uncommonly favorable for
Gregory. In 1073 74 Henry was in
such straits by reason of the insurgent Saxons that
pope's legate in Nuremberg, which so thoroughly satisfied Gregory that he turned his thoughts to plans for a crusade and purposed, during his absence, to commit the protection of the Roman Church to Henry. In the summer of 1075, however, the situation of the German king changed completely by his victory over the Saxons near Homburg on the Unatrut, thus gaining a free hand in Germany, with corresponding changes in his status toward the pope. Henry despatched his trusted servant, Count Eberhard, to Lombardy to restore the imperial prestige shattered by the Patarene movement. He appointed Teobald archbishop of Milan, and opened negotiations with the Normans. These steps on the king's part were at variance with the pope's policy, and Gregory addressed him an ultimatum, at the same time referring to alleged crimes of the king for which he might be excommunicated and deposed. Henry forthwith convened a council at Worms on Jan. 24, 1076. The attending prelates sided with the king and the excitement was intensified by the attacks of Candidus upon the pope, with the result that the bishops declared Gregory deposed, while Henry summoned the Romans to elect a new pope. The documents were hurriedly despatched to northern Italy, and the episcopate bf Lombardy indorsed them at the Synod of Piacenza.
The papers were now conveyed to Rome, and an ecclesiastic of Parma contrived to have them read aloud before the Lenten synod just then in session.
Gregory retorted by excommunicating
Henry Ex the king, declaring him deposed, and
communi releasing his subjects from their oath cated, ro76. of fealty. Nevertheless, the political