Basel Convention

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VIET NAM




Status of Ratification/Accession/Acceptance/Approval:

21.02.1996 (a)

Ratification/Acceptance of the Amendment to the Basel Convention:

Not yet as of 20.11.2002






Competent Authority







Focal Point





National Environment Agency

Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MOSTE)


67 Nguyen Du Str., Hanoi

tel: (84-4) 822-4420

fax: (84-4) 822-3189

e-mail: baselvn@nea.gov.vn


Same as the Competent Authority



National Definition

Wastes are substances which are disposed of from households, from production process or from other activities. Wastes can be in form of solid, liquid, gas or in other forms.
Law on Environment Protection defines that hazardous wastes are wastes which contains substances or compounds/mixtures having one of directly hazardous characteristics (flammable, explosive, poisonous, corrosive, infectious or other toxic characteristics) or which, by interaction with other substances, harm the environment and human health.
There are no wastes defined as, or considered to be hazardous wastes by national legislation in accordance with Art. 1, para 1(b) of the Basel Convention.
In Viet Nam there are no wastes other than those pursuant to Art. 1 (1)a and/or Art. 1 (1)b of the Basel Convention that require special consideration when subjected to transboundary movement.



Restrictions on Transboundary Movement

Amendment to the Basel Convention

Viet Nam has not formally ratified the Amendment to the Basel Convention (Decision III/1) but the Law of Environment Protection of Vietnam in fact prohibits any importation or exportation of hazardous wastes regardless of their sources or destinations.






Restrictions on export for final disposal and for recovery

Vietnam restricts the export of hazardous wastes and other wastes for final disposal and for recovery. The relevant legislation is the Law on Environment Protection, which entered into force on 10 January 1994. The restriction covers all countries and all wastes under the definition. The prohibition of the exportation of wastes may be subject to change or revision in future.







Restrictions on import for final disposal and for recovery

Vietnam restricts the import of hazardous wastes and other wastes for final disposal and for recovery. The relevant legislation is the Law on Environment Protection, which entered into force on 10 January 1994. The restriction covers all countries and all wastes under the definition. However, the State allows importation of certain categories of scraps after being treated and cleaned outside the country for use as material for industrial production. The List of scraps to be imported is updated regularly.







Restrictions on transit

Vietnam restricts the transit of hazardous wastes and other wastes. The relevant legislation is Law on Environment Protection, Art. 47 Organizations, individuals and owners of transportation means, in transit through the Vietnamese territory, carrying potential sources of environmental incidents or environmental pollution must apply for permission, declare and submit to the control and supervision by the State Management Agency for Environmental Protection of Vietnam. Decision No. 155/1999/QD-TTg dated July 16, 1999 of the Prime Minister on issuing the regulation on Hazardous Wastes Management, Art. 47 states that transporting hazardous wastes across borders must comply with the regulations of the Basel Convention, as follows:




  • Hazardous waste transited through Vietnamese territory including internal waters and territorial waters must obtain written approval from the central agency in charge of State Management of Environment Protection, and to be controlled, supervised by the relevant offices in accordance with Vietnamese Law on Transit of goods.



Reduction and/or Elimination of Hazardous Waste Generation

National strategies/policies

  • Prohibition of any act causing environmental degradation, environmental pollution or environmental incidents; and

  • Wastes containing toxic substances must be properly treated before discharge.










Legislation, regulations and guidelines

  • Law on Environment Protection of December 27, 1993;

  • Decree No 175-CP dated November 18, 1994 of the Government on the implementation of Law on Environment Protection;

  • Decision No. 155/1999/QD-TTg dated July 16, 1999 of the Prime Minister on issuing the Regulation on Hazardous Wastes Management; and

  • Decision No. 10/2001/QD-BKHCNMT dated 11 May 2001 of the Minister of Science, Technology and Environment on issuing of List of treated scraps for utilisation as material allowed to be imported into Vietnam.







Economic instruments/ initiatives

Individuals and/or organizations have the obligation to pay compensation fees (damages) according to relevant legislation if their activities or operations are causing harm to the environment.







Measures taken by industries/waste generators

In carrying out production, business and other activities, all organizations and individuals must implement measures for environmental sanitation and have appropriate waste treatment equipment to ensure compliance with environment standards and to prevent and combat environmental degradation, environmental pollution and environmental incidents.





Transboundary Movement Reduction Measures

National strategies/policies

Decision No. 152/1999/QD-TTg of the Prime Minister dated 10 July 1999 on approval of solid wastes managing strategy in urban areas and industrial zone of Vietnam towards the year 2020.







Legislation, regulations and guidelines

NEA issued 6 technical guidelines on hazardous wastes disposal (pesticides wastes).







Measures taken by industries/waste generators

MOSTE reported to the Government to allow development of the centralized facility for hazardous waste treatment in Dongnai Province for Southern part of the country.





Disposal/ Recovery Facilities

None.



Bilateral, Multilateral or Regional Agreements

None.

Technical Assistance and Training Available

The available sources are: National Environment Agency; Ministry of Industry; Ministry of Agricultural Rural Development; and Ministry of Construction.


Basel Convention

Country Fact Sheet

ZAMBIA




Status of Ratification/Accession/Acceptance/Approval:

15.11.1994 (a)

Ratification/Acceptance of the Amendment to the Basel Convention:

Not yet as of 20.11.2002






Competent Authority







Focal Point





Environmental Council of Zambia
Box 35131, Lusaka,

tel: (260-1) 25-4130/1

fax: (260-1) 25-4164

e-mail: necz@zamct.zm

web site: www.necz.org.zm



Same as the Competent Authority




National Definition

According to the Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, 2001 “waste” means garbage, refuse, sludges and other discarded substances resulting from industrial and commercial operations and from domestic and community activities, intended to be disposed of, or are disposed of or are required to be disposed of, but does not include waste water as defined in Part IV of the Act. The Hazardous Waste Management Regulations were signed on the 23 November 2001 and are now in force.
According to the Hazardous Waste Management Regulation “hazardous waste” means waste, including objects, articles or substances, which is poisonous, corrosive, irritant, explosive, inflammable, toxic or harmful to man, animal, plant or environment.
Zambia regulates/controls additional wastes as hazardous that are not included in Article 1 (1)a of the Basel Convention and would be controlled for the purpose of transboundary movements pursuant to Article 1 (1)b. Schedule 4 (Regulation 3), Schedule 5 (Regulation 3), Schedule 6 of the Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, 2001 provides a list of hazardous waste, list of hazardous characteristics (Annex III of the Basel Convention) and categories of wastes to be controlled (Annex I of the Basel Convention) respectively.
In Zambia there are no wastes other than those pursuant to Art. 1 (1)a and/or Art. 1 (1)b of the Basel Convention that require special consideration when subjected to transboundary movement.


Data* on the Generation and Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes** and Other Wastes*** in 2000 (as reported)








Quantities (in metric tonnes)

Generation

Total amount of hazardous wastes generated

No data

Total amount of other wastes generated

1 000 000 1)

Transboundary Movement

Total amount of hazardous wastes and other wastes exported

1.235 2)

Total amount of hazardous wastes and other wastes imported

No import

* Figures are rounded to the nearest integer.

** Covers wastes under Art. 1 (1)a (Annex I: Y1-Y45) and Art. 1 (1)b.

*** Covers wastes under (Annex II: Y46-Y47).


  1. Figure refers to the total amount of household wastes (Y46).

2) Consists of 1 mt of lead exported to South Africa for recovery and 0.235 mt of PCBs exported to Finland for disposal.


Restrictions on Transboundary Movement

Amendment to the Basel Convention

The amendment to the Basel Convention (Decision III/1) has been implemented in Zambia. The Environmental Protection and Pollution Control Act (EPPCA) No. 12 of 1990, amended 1999 prohibits the import of any type of hazardous waste.




Restrictions on export for final disposal and for recovery

Zambia restricts the export of hazardous wastes and other wastes for final disposal and for recovery. The restriction covers those countries which have not consented to receive the waste and those that are not under Annex VII, unless a bilateral agreement exists.




Restrictions on import for final disposal and for recovery

Zambia restricts the import of hazardous wastes and other wastes for final disposal and for recovery. The relevant legislations are Environmental Protection and Pollution Control Act, 1990, amended in 1999; and Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, 2001. The restriction covers all countries and all wastes.




Restrictions on transit

Zambia restricts transit of hazardous wastes and other wastes. The relevant legislations are Environmental Protection and Pollution Control Act, 1990, amended in 1999; and Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, 2001. The restriction covers all countries. But permission for transit of hazardous waste can be obtained from the authorities.





Reduction and/or Elimination of Hazardous Waste Generation

National strategies/policies

The National Environment Action Plan (NEAP, 1994) whose objective is to integrate environmental concerns into the social and economic development planning process of the country.


PCB Sub Project for management of PCBs in Zambia – draft policy paper prepared.
The final draft of the national waste management strategy has been developed and will be launched in February. The strategy seeks among other things to ensure producer responsibility among industries, introduce a system of levies and incentives, establish and improve coordination among stakeholders in waste management, encourage reuse and recycling of waste materials as a resource, develop a database of all types of waste and establish a classification system for all types of waste.
The Environmental Council of Zambia in conjunction with the industry association has been conducting training on cleaner production techniques.
The Environmental Council of Zambia conducts public awareness on proper management of hazardous materials. The Environmental Council of Zambia has also conducted projects that aim at disposal of hazardous material and reduction of generation of hazardous material.





Legislation, regulations and guidelines

  • The Zambian Government has an environmental Protection and Pollution Control Act which was enacted in 1990;

  • Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, 2001 have been developed to address all aspects of hazardous waste management;

  • The pesticides and Toxic Substances Regulation came into effect 1994. It addresses all aspects of chemicals management; and

  • Technical guidelines for the management of waste oil being developed.







Economic instruments/ initiatives

Still to be developed.







Measures taken by industries/waste generators

Implementation of cleaner production techniques; and setting up of environmental departments.







Others

Public awareness programmes.





Transboundary Movement Reduction Measures

National strategies/policies

The final draft of the national waste management strategy has been developed and will be launched in February.



Legislation, regulations and guidelines
Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, 2001.




Economic instruments/ initiatives

Provide for fees to be paid for export of hazardous waste.




Measures taken by industries/waste generators

Implementation of cleaner production technologies; and change in the processes of production.






Disposal/ Recovery Facilities


Disposal facilities

  • Indeni Petroleum Oil Refinery, Po Box 71869, Ndola, crude oil refinery (D4);

Bata Tannery, PO Box 170, Kafue, leather tanning (D1);

  • Ndola City Council, PO Box 70797, Ndola, municipal dump site, (D1); and

  • Kitwe City Council, Po Box 20070, Kitwe, municipal dump site, (D1).

These disposal sites have commenced operation without environmental impact assessment being conducted


Recovery/recycling/re-use facilities

  • Kafco Ltd. Ndola, reprocessing of used oils into fuels (R1, R9).

Still over 10,000 tonnes are not collected. Need for increased capacity of recycling via a sound collection / take back system.




Bilateral, Multilateral or Regional Agreements

Bilateral agreement with South Africa and Zimbabwe (for transit), effective for the year 2000.




Technical Assistance and Training Available

Environmental Council of Zambia; University of Zambia; Copperbelt University; Zambia Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ZACCI); and Disaster Management and Mitigation Unit, Office of the Vice President.



1 For details please refer document UNEP/CHW.6/29.





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