Muhammad: (570-632 AD) Muhammad ibn Abdallah ibn Abd al-Muttalib. The (supposed) Prophet of Islam who received the revelations from Allah contained in the Qur’an (sometimes spelled Muhammad, Mohammed). Nicknamed al-Amin = “The Trustworthy”. His name means “Highly Praised” or “the Praised One”.
Muhammad Iqbal: (1873-1938) was for many years the leader of the Muslim League, a movement founded in 1906 to focus the political aspirations of Muslims in India. From 1930 he began to argue for a separate Muslim state in India, and because of his widespread influence he is generally regarded as “the spiritual founder of the state of Pakistan.”
Muhammad Omar: a Mullah who was the former head of the Taliban regime who exhorted Muslim youth: “Head for jihad and have your guns ready.”
Nadir: A Jewish tribe of Medina; Muhammad beseiged and exiled them.
Nakhla: An Arabian town where Muslims carried out their first military raid against the Quraysh.
Omar Abdel Rahman: a terrorist who was put on trial for (and found guilty of) conspiracy to blow up New York bridges and buildings.
Osama bin Laden: sees the United States as an “enemy of Islam” that must be destroyed by violence.
Qaynuqa: A Jewish tribe of Medina; Muhammad beseiged and exiled them.
Quraysh: The pagan Arabas of Mecca; Muhammad belonged to this tribe, but they rejected his prophetic message.
Qurayzah: A Jewish tribe of Medina; Muhammad supervised their massacre after they betrayed an alliance with the Muslims.
Ramzi Yusuf: the convicted mastermind of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, was a electronics engineer and explosives expert with an advanced degree from the Swansea Institue in South Wales. The remarkable thing about Ramzi Yusuf was his apparent pleasure in learning about new languages, cultures and peoples, then proceeding to blow them up.
Razi: (865-925) One of the most celebrated physicians of the East. Known as Rhazes in Latin. He compiled a monumental medical encyclopedia, compiled from Greek, Syrian, Persin, Hindu and Arabic sources. He also wrote on alchemy and chemistry.
Raymond Lull: (1234-1315) from Majora was a Franciscan missionary who worked with Muslims in Tunis, Sicily, Cyprus and Algeria where he was stoned by a crowd, who were angry at his criticisms of Muhammad.
Sa’d bin Mu’adh: The Muslim warrior who pronounced sentence, with Muhammad’s permission, against the Qurayzah tribe.
Safiyya bint Huyayy: Wife of Kinana ibn Rabi; Muhammad took her as his own wife after killing Kinana.
al-Shafi: (d. 820) Muhammad ibn İdris al-Shafi organized the laws of şhari’a into the “Usul al-fiqa”. He lived in Baghdad and Egypt and his position represented a compromise between the Maliki and Hanafi Schools, rejecting the role or private judgement.
Sayyid Ahmad Khan: (1817-1898) of Dellu was more positive than many other Muslims toward modern scientific knowledge and he argued that it was fully compatible with Islam. He also tired to convince fellow Muslims that Islam and Christianity have much in common.
Sayyid Qutb: (1906-1966) an Egyptian Muslim thinker who advocated offensive agressive jihad to restore Islam as the only dominant world religion. He helped found the Muslim Brotherhood (Al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimun) together with Al-Banna which tried to install İslamic rule by various means including violent jihad. He was imprisoned in Egypt for 10 years and then executed. Although educated in Amercia he despised what he called “American decadence”.
Shah Wali Allah: (1702-1762) of Dehli worked for the renewal of Islam in India more than anyone else by trying to get rid of Hindu elements that had crept into Islam, and encouraging a Sufi world-view. More than anyone else he is responsible for the religious regeneration of Indian Islam.
Shajarat ad-Durr: (d. 1250) was the Turkish slave girl of the Egyptian Ayyubid ruler Malik as-Salih, but she became his wife after bearing him a son. After his death Shajarat ad Durr assumed the title of sultana on May 2, 1250, and retained rule until July 30th of that year. She was soon thereafter killed in a revolt.
Sheikh Rahman: a radical Muslim cleric who was cast out of Egypt by the government, came to New Jersey to become the leader of a mosque, and inspired and encouraged those Muslims who bombed the World Trade Center in 1993.
Siraj Wahhaj: a black convert to Islam, the recipient of some of the Muslim community’s highest honors, and called, “one of the most respected Muslim leaders in America.” In June 1991, he enjoyed the honor of being the first Muslim to deliver the daily prayer invocation for the U.S. House of Representatives, at which time he recited from the Qur’an and appealed to the Almighy to guide American leaders “and grant them righteousness and wisdom.” Wahhaj openly calls for replacing the U.S. government with a caliphate. (Dr. Daniel Pipes, Militant Islam Reaches America, p. 96). He served as a character witness for Omar Abdel Rahman when the later was on trial for (and found guilty of) conspiracy to blow up New York bridges and buildings.
al-Tabari: ??? (839-923) Muhammad İbn Jair al-Tabari was a well-educated Nestorian Christian physician from Baghdad who converted to Islam at the age of 70. In the introduction of his book Refutation of Christianity, he stated openly that his aim was to destroy the faith of Christians.
Tabuk: A northwest Arabian city to which Muhammad led an expedition against the Byzantines.
Ta’if: A city south of Mecca that initially rejected Muhammad and was later conquered by the Muslims.
Theodore Herzl: (1860-1904) A Hungarian Jew born in Budapest, he was the founder of the modern Zionist movement who said, “Only anti-Semitism has made Jews out of us.”
Tamerlane: (Timur the Lame of Timerlane) A bloodthirsty Muslim Mongol descendent of Ghengis Khan who ruled an Asian empire from his fabled capitol of Samarkand. In 1379 his group of Mongols came from central Asia into the Middle East and attacked other Muslims. He also conducted furious jihad against Nestorian and Assyrian Christians destroying their cities and churches.
Umar ibn al-Khattab: (Omar) One of Muhammad’s earliest companions and the successor of Abu Bakr as leader of the Muslims (the 2nd caliph).
Uthman: The 3rd Caliph, who followed Umar (Omar), who ruled for 12 years, and who standardized the Qur’an by burning all the other variant copies. A fastidious aristocrat of the Umayyad clan who in his youth was known for his love of elegant clothing. He was murdered by fellow muslims who opposed his habbit of appointing his own relatives and friends to positions of power.
al-Uzza: One of the goddesses worshipped by the pagan Quraysh along with Kuba, al-lat and al-Manat.
al-Wahhab: (1703-1792) Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab was sheikh and a reformer of Islam from Saudi Arabia who at the age of 40 declared jihad on all other forms of Islam. Predicated his teachings on the Sunni teachings of Ibn Hanbel (780-855). He taught that all additions to Islam after the third century of the Muslim era (after about 950) were unauthentic and must be erased. The challenge of the Wahhabi movement to moral corruption within Islam has had a lasting effect in that this became an almost universal feature of subsequent reform movements, both in Arabia and elsewhere in the Muslim world.
Wallace D. Fard: (Wali Fard Muhammad) originally David Ford was the son of Elijah Muhammad. He began the Allah Temple of Islam (ATI) later changing its name to Nation of Islam (NoI). He proclaimed himself as “Allah’s incarnation” or God in the flesh. He was succeeded by Robert Poole, later known as Elijah Muhammad, Minister of Islam.
Waraqah: Waraqah bin Naufal bin Asad bin ‘Abdul-Uzza bin Qusai, Khadija’s uncle and a Christian priest who was a convert from Judiaism. He is supposed to have confirmed Muhammad’s prophetic status. He was of the opinion that Muhammad had been visited by the Namus al Akbar that is the messenger and message who was thought to have visited both Moses and Jesus.
Zaid bin Haritha: Initally was one of Khadijah’s slaves who became Muhammad’s adopted son and the first husband of Zaynab bint Jahsh. Muhammad compelled Zaid to divorce his wife so that he could take her for himself.
Zaid Shakir: formerly the Muslim chaplin at Yake University, has said that Muslims cannot accept the legitimacy of the secular system in the United States, for it “is against the orders and ordainments of Allah... the orientation of the Qur’an pushes us in the exact opposite direction as the forces that are at work in the American political spectrum.” (Dr. Daniel Pipes, Militant Islam Reaches America, p. 113)
al-Zamakhshari: (d. 1143) a well-known commentaror on the Qur’an.
(Terminology*, Islamic Terminology, Important*,
Words*, Dictionary*, Glossary*) 25.1
A List of Important Terms in Islam Abd = Slave, used in common names,
eg. abdullah = slave of God.
Abbasid Dynasty= Replaced the Umayyid Dynasty in 740 A.D. and
ruled from Baghdad for the next five centuries.
Abaaya = A black full-length outer garment worn by Saudi
Abu = Father of, used in common names,
eg. Abu Hamid.
Abu Talib = The 5th caliph who followed Ali. He was elected
as caliph in A.D. 656 but the governor of
Syria, Muawiya refused to recognize his
authority. A five year civil war ended with the
assassination of Ali and Muawiya succeed him.
Adhan = The call to prayer. The five daily Islamic calls