Dan’s Course on Islam



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Muhammad: (570-632 AD) Muhammad ibn Abdallah ibn Abd al-Muttalib. The (supposed) Prophet of Islam who received the revelations from Allah contained in the Qur’an (sometimes spelled Muhammad, Mohammed). Nicknamed al-Amin = “The Trustworthy”. His name means “Highly Praised” or “the Praised One”.
Muhammad Iqbal: (1873-1938) was for many years the leader of the Muslim League, a movement founded in 1906 to focus the political aspirations of Muslims in India. From 1930 he began to argue for a separate Muslim state in India, and because of his widespread influence he is generally regarded as “the spiritual founder of the state of Pakistan.”
Muhammad Omar: a Mullah who was the former head of the Taliban regime who exhorted Muslim youth: “Head for jihad and have your guns ready.”
Nadir: A Jewish tribe of Medina; Muhammad beseiged and exiled them.
Nakhla: An Arabian town where Muslims carried out their first military raid against the Quraysh.
Omar Abdel Rahman: a terrorist who was put on trial for (and found guilty of) conspiracy to blow up New York bridges and buildings.
Osama bin Laden: sees the United States as an “enemy of Islam” that must be destroyed by violence.
Qaynuqa: A Jewish tribe of Medina; Muhammad beseiged and exiled them.
Quraysh: The pagan Arabas of Mecca; Muhammad belonged to this tribe, but they rejected his prophetic message.
Qurayzah: A Jewish tribe of Medina; Muhammad supervised their massacre after they betrayed an alliance with the Muslims.
Ramzi Yusuf: the convicted mastermind of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, was a electronics engineer and explosives expert with an advanced degree from the Swansea Institue in South Wales. The remarkable thing about Ramzi Yusuf was his apparent pleasure in learning about new languages, cultures and peoples, then proceeding to blow them up.
Razi: (865-925) One of the most celebrated physicians of the East. Known as Rhazes in Latin. He compiled a monumental medical encyclopedia, compiled from Greek, Syrian, Persin, Hindu and Arabic sources. He also wrote on alchemy and chemistry.
Raymond Lull: (1234-1315) from Majora was a Franciscan missionary who worked with Muslims in Tunis, Sicily, Cyprus and Algeria where he was stoned by a crowd, who were angry at his criticisms of Muhammad.
Sa’d bin Mu’adh: The Muslim warrior who pronounced sentence, with Muhammad’s permission, against the Qurayzah tribe.
Safiyya bint Huyayy: Wife of Kinana ibn Rabi; Muhammad took her as his own wife after killing Kinana.
al-Shafi: (d. 820) Muhammad ibn İdris al-Shafi organized the laws of şhari’a into the “Usul al-fiqa”. He lived in Baghdad and Egypt and his position represented a compromise between the Maliki and Hanafi Schools, rejecting the role or private judgement.
Sayyid Ahmad Khan: (1817-1898) of Dellu was more positive than many other Muslims toward modern scientific knowledge and he argued that it was fully compatible with Islam. He also tired to convince fellow Muslims that Islam and Christianity have much in common.
Sayyid Qutb: (1906-1966) an Egyptian Muslim thinker who advocated offensive agressive jihad to restore Islam as the only dominant world religion. He helped found the Muslim Brotherhood (Al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimun) together with Al-Banna which tried to install İslamic rule by various means including violent jihad. He was imprisoned in Egypt for 10 years and then executed. Although educated in Amercia he despised what he called “American decadence”.
Shah Wali Allah: (1702-1762) of Dehli worked for the renewal of Islam in India more than anyone else by trying to get rid of Hindu elements that had crept into Islam, and encouraging a Sufi world-view. More than anyone else he is responsible for the religious regeneration of Indian Islam.
Shajarat ad-Durr: (d. 1250) was the Turkish slave girl of the Egyptian Ayyubid ruler Malik as-Salih, but she became his wife after bearing him a son. After his death Shajarat ad Durr assumed the title of sultana on May 2, 1250, and retained rule until July 30th of that year. She was soon thereafter killed in a revolt.
Sheikh Rahman: a radical Muslim cleric who was cast out of Egypt by the government, came to New Jersey to become the leader of a mosque, and inspired and encouraged those Muslims who bombed the World Trade Center in 1993.
Siraj Wahhaj: a black convert to Islam, the recipient of some of the Muslim community’s highest honors, and called, “one of the most respected Muslim leaders in America.” In June 1991, he enjoyed the honor of being the first Muslim to deliver the daily prayer invocation for the U.S. House of Representatives, at which time he recited from the Qur’an and appealed to the Almighy to guide American leaders “and grant them righteousness and wisdom.” Wahhaj openly calls for replacing the U.S. government with a caliphate. (Dr. Daniel Pipes, Militant Islam Reaches America, p. 96). He served as a character witness for Omar Abdel Rahman when the later was on trial for (and found guilty of) conspiracy to blow up New York bridges and buildings.
al-Tabari: ??? (839-923) Muhammad İbn Jair al-Tabari was a well-educated Nestorian Christian physician from Baghdad who converted to Islam at the age of 70. In the introduction of his book Refutation of Christianity, he stated openly that his aim was to destroy the faith of Christians.
Tabuk: A northwest Arabian city to which Muhammad led an expedition against the Byzantines.
Ta’if: A city south of Mecca that initially rejected Muhammad and was later conquered by the Muslims.
Theodore Herzl: (1860-1904) A Hungarian Jew born in Budapest, he was the founder of the modern Zionist movement who said, “Only anti-Semitism has made Jews out of us.”
Tamerlane: (Timur the Lame of Timerlane) A bloodthirsty Muslim Mongol descendent of Ghengis Khan who ruled an Asian empire from his fabled capitol of Samarkand. In 1379 his group of Mongols came from central Asia into the Middle East and attacked other Muslims. He also conducted furious jihad against Nestorian and Assyrian Christians destroying their cities and churches.
Umar ibn al-Khattab: (Omar) One of Muhammad’s earliest companions and the successor of Abu Bakr as leader of the Muslims (the 2nd caliph).
Uthman: The 3rd Caliph, who followed Umar (Omar), who ruled for 12 years, and who standardized the Qur’an by burning all the other variant copies. A fastidious aristocrat of the Umayyad clan who in his youth was known for his love of elegant clothing. He was murdered by fellow muslims who opposed his habbit of appointing his own relatives and friends to positions of power.
al-Uzza: One of the goddesses worshipped by the pagan Quraysh along with Kuba, al-lat and al-Manat.
al-Wahhab: (1703-1792) Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab was sheikh and a reformer of Islam from Saudi Arabia who at the age of 40 declared jihad on all other forms of Islam. Predicated his teachings on the Sunni teachings of Ibn Hanbel (780-855). He taught that all additions to Islam after the third century of the Muslim era (after about 950) were unauthentic and must be erased. The challenge of the Wahhabi movement to moral corruption within Islam has had a lasting effect in that this became an almost universal feature of subsequent reform movements, both in Arabia and elsewhere in the Muslim world.
Wallace D. Fard: (Wali Fard Muhammad) originally David Ford was the son of Elijah Muhammad. He began the Allah Temple of Islam (ATI) later changing its name to Nation of Islam (NoI). He proclaimed himself as “Allah’s incarnation” or God in the flesh. He was succeeded by Robert Poole, later known as Elijah Muhammad, Minister of Islam.
Waraqah: Waraqah bin Naufal bin Asad bin ‘Abdul-Uzza bin Qusai, Khadija’s uncle and a Christian priest who was a convert from Judiaism. He is supposed to have confirmed Muhammad’s prophetic status. He was of the opinion that Muhammad had been visited by the Namus al Akbar that is the messenger and message who was thought to have visited both Moses and Jesus.
Zaid bin Haritha: Initally was one of Khadijah’s slaves who became Muhammad’s adopted son and the first husband of Zaynab bint Jahsh. Muhammad compelled Zaid to divorce his wife so that he could take her for himself.
Zaid Shakir: formerly the Muslim chaplin at Yake University, has said that Muslims cannot accept the legitimacy of the secular system in the United States, for it “is against the orders and ordainments of Allah... the orientation of the Qur’an pushes us in the exact opposite direction as the forces that are at work in the American political spectrum.” (Dr. Daniel Pipes, Militant Islam Reaches America, p. 113)
al-Zamakhshari: (d. 1143) a well-known commentaror on the Qur’an.
25.*

Important Terms*

(Terminology*, Islamic Terminology, Important*,

Words*, Dictionary*, Glossary*)
25.1

A List of Important Terms in Islam
Abd = Slave, used in common names,

eg. abdullah = slave of God.



Abbasid Dynasty= Replaced the Umayyid Dynasty in 740 A.D. and

ruled from Baghdad for the next five centuries.



Abaaya = A black full-length outer garment worn by Saudi

women.


Abu = Father of, used in common names,

eg. Abu Hamid.



Abu Talib = The 5th caliph who followed Ali. He was elected

as caliph in A.D. 656 but the governor of

Syria, Muawiya refused to recognize his

authority. A five year civil war ended with the

assassination of Ali and Muawiya succeed him.

Adhan = The call to prayer. The five daily Islamic calls

to prayer spoken over the loudspeakers.



Ahadith = The plural form of hadith

Ahmad = Another name for Muhammad

Ahmadis = A group which considers themselves to be

Muslims but who are regarded by orthodox

Muslims as heretical because they call the

founder of their group al-Masih (the Messiah).

They are banned in Saudia Arabia.

Akl = Reason or intelligence.

A.H. = After Hijrah (Anno Hegirae) Hijra is the

migration of the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to

Medina (Yathrib) on June 20, 622 AD which marks

the beginning of the Muslim calendar. Medina is

450 kilometers (280 miles) north of Mecca

(Makkah). It is the reference used in the Islamic

calendar, instead of A.D. which is used in the

Christian calendar, or C.E. for the Christian Era

in the Jewish Calendar.

Alaykum Salaam = The greeting response “Peace be unto you”

Alhamduallah = Praise God! Used frequently by Muslims.

Alim = A scholar of Islamic Theology.

Allah = The Arabic name for God, the Supreme Being used

by all Muslims and by Arabic speaking

Christians. Literally means “the god” a

generic name used for the one true God and for

other gods in Arabia before Muhammad’s time,

most typically used of the “Moon God”.



Allahu akbar = God is greater, or God is the Greatest. This

statement is made by Muslims during prayer, when

they agree with a statement, and also when they

slaughter an animal.



Alawites = (Alevis) A Shiite subsect, found in Syria and

Turkey. They are the closest Islamic sect to

Christianity.

Amir = (Emir) a ruler, a commander, a chief or a

nobleman. A prince or leader of some Islamic

state.

Ansar = Assistant, helper. A term first used for the

earliest converts in Medina.



Anti-Zionism = the strategy aimed at the elimination of the State

of Israel. This strategy uses various techniques:

military warfare, local and international

terrorism, deligitimization through a defamatory

campaign with stong media support, and usurpation

of Israel’s history.



Akıl = (aqel) reason, rationality, the ability to use our

heads in order to keep our passions from getting a

hold of us and controlling us.

Aqeedah = Deeply held Islamic beliefs.

Arabization = means a return to the dhimmi condition, a

condition of alienation, of subjugation or of

exile – not for Israel alone but also for the

Maronite Christians and for any other movement of

national independence within dar-al-Islam.

Arabiyun mubinun= The Qur’an was written in clear Arabic: 2:159,

2:218, 3:7*, 10:15, 24 & 61, 14:4, 18:1-2*,

27:1-2, 43:2, 54:17

Arafat, plain of= A plain north of Mecca. It is on this plain that

humanity will be judged of the Day of Judgement.

During the Hajj, on the ninth day of the month of

Zhu-l-Hijjah, Muslim pilgrims gather on this plain for

one day.

Asabiyya = Clan spirit

Ashab an-nazool = Circumstances of revelation.

Awrah = A thing to be ashamed of (used of being a

woman). Bukhari reported: “The Prophet said...

‘If you do not feel ashamed, then do what you

like.” (4:690) An Arab proverb says: “Nothing

cleanses the shame except blood.” Cf. Prov.

13:18; Num 12:14; 2 Sam 13:1-32 & Heb 12:1-3.

Assalamu Alaikum= A greeting to other Muslims. “Peace be upon you.”

Ayet = (ayat) a sign or verse.

Ayatollah = Means “sign of God”, a Shi’ite leader

recognized as a teacher, judge, and

administrator. The title is the highest rank

among Shi’ite Muslims and is bestowed by

informal acclamation.

Bedouin = A nomadic desert people, the original Arabs.

Bida = An innovation in Muslim belief or practice; the

converse of Sunna, the alleged practice of

Muhammad.

Bi-la kayf = Al-A’shari says that the Qur’an should be accepted

‘without asking questions.’



Bin = (or Ibn) Following a man’s given name and

preceding a man’s father’s or grandfather’s

name. Means “son of”.

Bismillah = (basmallah) In the name of God, the Merciful,

the Compassionate



CAIR = Council on American-Islamic Relations,

a Washington-based institution founded in 1994.



Caliph = A deputy of the prophet who serves as a

guardian of Muhammad’s message. Literally the

“successor” in Arabic, but it came to refer to

the role of the religious and political leader

who would govern the Muslim community.

Chadır = (chador) women’s covering

Dejjal = (Dajjal) The person Muslims identify as the anti-

Christ. The Deceiver, a mythologial character who

changes depending upon who is tellng the story and

which part of the “hadith” is being consulted. In

Islamic Eschatology he is the Antichrist or anti-

Messiah. He will come forth before the end of time

and, after a reign of 40 days, or 40 years (again

depending on the Islamic source) he will be

destroyed by İssa, Jesus, or by the mahdi, or

both, and the whole world will submit to Allah.



Dar al-Islam = The house of Islam, peace & justice; a Muslim

country. The world of faith in Allah.



Dar al-harb = The house or territory of war. A country

predominantly of non-Muslims ie. infidels, not

yet subdued by Islam. The land of the

unbelievers and heretics who are destined to be

absorbed or conqured by the dar al Islam.

Dar al-kufr = A non-Muslim country, the abode of apostasy.

Dawa = (daw’ah) Islamic Mission: is meant to deal with

the sphere of disobedience, ignorance, and war

and bring the peoples of this sphere into Islam

through conversion, capitulation, or coercion

and either be a part of Dar al-Islam or to live

under it with restrictions. Jihad is the way to

accomplish this mission either peacefully or

sometimes violently. Literally it means “call”

or “invitation”. The proliferation of Islamic

teachings through word and deed.



Dhikr = Outer conformity through meditation or

rememberance



Dhimma = Originally a protection pact or treaty granted

by the Prophet Muhammad to Jewish and Christian

populations whom he had subjected.

Dihimmis = (Zimmis) Monotheists who are non-Muslims living

in Islamic countries against whom is levied an

annual capitation tax which in return is meant

to afford a degree of protection for their

person and property. A 2nd class citizen.

Dispensationalism = history has to be divided into a number of

different periods of time or ‘dispensations’ in

order to be rightly understood. In each of

these periods ‘God reveals a particular purpose

to be accomplished in that period, to which men

respond in faith or unbelief.

Dispensationalists are generally supportive of

the return of Israel to the Land of Palestine.



Dhimmitude = Subordination or the institutionalized

opression of non-Muslims



Din = Required practices or duties of the religion of

Islam. Right religion. Obedience to the

revelation of Allah’s Qur’an. It involves total

submission.



Druze = A Shiite sub-sect which originated in Syria and

Lebanon in 1021, deriving their name from

Darazi, an Iranian mystic.

Dua = (doa) the suppliciaton of spontaneous prayer.

Non-ritual prayer in distinction from “salat”,

which is formal prayer in Arabic.

Eid-al-Adha = The feast of sacrifice commemorating Abraham’s

sacrifice of his son, Ishmail. It lasts for four

days between the tenth and the thirteenth of Zul-

Hijjah, the twelfth month of the lunar calendar

and is performed during the Hajj.

Eid-al-Fitr = The feast ending the month of fasting (Ramadan).

This takes place on the first day of Shawwal, the

tenth month of the Islamic calendar.

Fakir = A disciple

Faqih = A doctor of the sharia; a cannon lawyer of

Islam.


al-fath = The victory.

Fatwa = A legal ruling of Islamic Law, an opinion or a

declared jihad, a religious or judicial sentence

pronounced by an appropriate religious authority,

a “mufti” or a “faqih”. Legal rulings with

religious authority based on the Qur’an and the

Sunnah which are the recorded sayings and deeds of

Muhammed.

Five Pillars = the 5 principal religious duties of Islam:

1. the recitation of the creed (shahada)

2. prayers (salat)

3. fasting (sawm)

4. almsgiving (zakat) and

5. the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj).



Fiqh = Four main schools of Islamic jurisprudence:

Hanifites, Malikites, Hanbilites, Shafities.



Fitne = anarchy, trouble

Furqan = Separation, distinction, proof, (between good

and evil) revelation, salvation. Also a term

applied to the Qur’an.

Futuhat al = This name has been used for all Islamic

Islamiya invasions and conquests, starting in 625 AD and

continuing right up to the 21st Century.



Ghusl = A complete washing of the entire body after

legal or religious impurity.



Gnostics = Tended to think that matter was evil and that

salvation dedended on an experiece of mystical

enlightenment. They denied the incarnation, and

some believed that Jesus was not crucified.



Hadith = The oral traditions, that is sayings, actions

or words attributed to the Prophet Muhammad

which help to formulate Islamic law.(cf. Rom. 3:4)

Hadith Qudsi = The “Hadith Qudsi” are hadiths in which the

Prophet says what Allah said. The maneing of these

hadiths was revealed to the Prophet but he put

them in his own words, unlike the Quran which is

the actual words of Allah.

Hafiz = Memorizer, protector; One who has committed to

memory the verses of the Qur’an and thus

protects it from being changed. A professional

reciter.


Hajar = The Black Stone set into the corner of the Ka’aba

in Mecca. Tradition states that it fell from

heaven.

Hajj = The annual pilgrimage to Mecca and its

enviorns; always in the last month of the

Muslim calendar; if possible, required for

every Muslim once in a lifetime. One of the five

pillars of Islam.

Hajji = A Pilgrim who makes the pilgrimage to Mekka

(a title that denotes honor).



Hamas = The leading Islamic fundamentalist group among

Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank.

Palestenians feel like Hamas is the only group

defending their families and land from the

İsraeli occupation.

Hanbilites = The strictest sect of four main Islamic schools

of thought.



Hanifs = Those inclined toward seeking truth.

Hanifites = The followers of Abu Hanifa in Iraq (d. 767)

Their main emphasis is on the Qur’an, and the

sunna is regarded as secondary.

Haram = That which is unlawful or prohibited.

Harram = A sanctuary copied from the Biblical cities of

sanctuary. According to Islam Mecca has been

considered a “Harram” since the time of Abraham

even though there is no record of such a place in

his time. Medina was also declared a “Harram” by

the Prophet.



Hawijah = The sixth level of hell which is the place for

Christians.



Hazrat = An honorific title meaning "respected."

Hejira = (Hijrah) Islamic calendar that started on the date

that the Prophet Muhammad fled Mecca and escaped

to Medina in 622 AD. The “Hijrah” is the

emigration or exodus of the Prophet and his

followers from Mecca to Medina on July 16, 622 AD,

which marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar.

(AH = after the Hijra) Medina (Yathrib) is 200

miles north of Mecca (Makkah). It denotes moving

from a land where a Muslim cannot practice his

faith to a land where he can.



Helal = (Halal) That which is lawful or permitted. Food

that has been prepared according to Islamic

law. For example “Halal” meats are those permitted

and slaughtered according to Muslim law.



Hezbollah = The leading fundamentalist group in Lebanon

comprised of Shi’ite Muslims. Established in

1982 through Iran’s Revolutinary Guards to aid

Lebanon during the civil war. It continues to

be sponsored mainly by Syrian and Iran.

Hijab = Muslim women’s dress, veil or covering.

Hijaz = barrier or that which separates.

Hudaybiya = A town about nine miles from Mecca where

Muhammad concluded a treaty with the Quraysh.

The Treaty of Hudaybiya held that the two sides

“agreed to remove war from the people for ten

years. During this time the people are to be

security and no one is to lay hands on

another... Between us evil is to be abstained

from, and there is to be no raiding or

spoilation.” In Dec. of 629, some of the Bani

Bakr, possibly with Quraysh help, too vengeance

on a party of the Bani Khuza’a, killing several

of them. Upon hearing this news, Muhamamd

instantly opted for the most drastic response:

to attack Mecca. So impressive was his army

that the Meccans made no effort to resist it.

Instead they surrendered their city without a

fight in Jan. of 630.



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