defeated the last large-scale resistance to him
Hudna = Truce.
Huris = The perpetual virgin, beautiful maidens who
welcome righteous men into Paradise and
İbadat = Worship.
İblis = Satan.
İftar = (Ifter) The meal taken at sunset during the
month of Ramazan to break the fast.
fulfill all the rites of pilgrimage. A special
time during the Haj that all Muslims refrain
from normal life and dwell on nothing but
İjma = The consensus of the community. The word means
“convergence” as in “convergence of opinion”
and the principle is based on a saying of
Muhammad, “My community will never agree on an
error.” (Dawud, Book 35, No. 4240)
İjtihad = Independent decision making, a concensus upon a
matter by scholarly Muslim leadership, is
another source for settling matters with affect
Muslims. The first two or three centuries of
the Hejira, was called the period of original
such as God, angles, prophets, holy scriptures,
and the Day of Judgement. Distinguished from
this are Muslim practices (din).
religious leader of a mosque. The person who
leads communal prayers and/or delivers the
sermon on Fridays. Shia Muslims use this term to
refer to one who is considered to be a descendant
of Ali. This is because the hosue of Ali is
revered by them as the sacred line designated by
Allah to assume leadership.
Muslims for the New Testament. According to
Islam the original book has been lost and only
the corrupted Christian version remains. Denotes
the inspired sayings of Jesus, or the message of
“shaking off” or “an abrupt and sudden waking
up from sleep.” The first intifada started in
1987 and lasted nearly six years and 80
Israelis and 1,070 Palestinians were killed. In
just the first year of the 2nd intifada (Dec
2000 > Dec 2001 232 Israelis and 904
Palestinians were killed.
may be kept in confinement until they repent.
hadith. Whenever a Hadith is quoted the
supporting chain of people (isnad) who passed
on the information is often quoted with the
İslam = A religion founded by the prophet Muhammad.
It literally means “submission” or “surrender”
(to the will of Allah); used in reference to
the nation of believers and their faith.
"group" or "denomination"
of the faithful in the afterlife.
barbarism in pre-Islamic Arabia.
corps, a crack force of young men who were
seized from their Christian families as boys,
enslaved, and forcibly converted to Islam to
fight for the Ottoman Empire against
have ascended to Paradise on his Night Journey.
to have been the medium of revelation of the
Quran to Muhammad.
Jihad = The word means to strive; a Holy war or struggle;
a term sometimes used generally, but also
specifically, to designate either a war waged in
accordance with the Sharia (law) in defense of the
faith or the personal struggle to overcome
one’s imperfections and baser impulses in
order to become a better Muslim. A continuous
holy war waged agianst all non-Muslims to
Jinn = Spirit creatures similar to angels and demons.
Some are good and some are bad. They are a
supernatural, invisible race of beings, below
angles. They were made from fire and are capable
of looking like humans or animals. Some may dwell
in rocks, trees, etc, and may possess black dogs,
and black cats. There are good and bad Jinn and
all will be judged on the Judgement Day.
wherever Islam rules but who have not (yet)
submitted to that which Islam enforces. This
levy is meant to afford a degree of protection,
has to be paid individually at a humiliating
public ceremony to remind non-muslim minorities
that they are inferior to the believers, the
Muslims. It literally means “tribute” or
“penalty”. (Cf. 9.29)
Jumma = Friday, usually refers to the Friday prayers a
the mosque. The Muslim sabbath.
Central courtyard of the Grand Mosque in Mecca
which encases the black stone (thought to be a
meteorite) 30ft. wide, 40 ft. long & 50 ft.
high. The point toward which Muslims pray and
the focal point of the hajj. It contained 360
idols, one for approximately each day of the
year. It was in fact a shrine to the idols of
several hundred gods in the time of Muhamamd, and
he simply took it over and incorporated it into
his own religion.
Kafir = Infidel, an unbeliever according to Muhammad and
and the message of the Qur’an. A Non-Muslim.
that Allah is the One God.
to the Quran and also used of Jesus.
leader over Muslims; usually the title is used to
refer to one of Muhammad's four successors.
Khalifah = (Caliphate) The concept of a centralized world
-wide Muslim government which administers
totally through Islamic law.
Kharaj = A kind of land tax levied against non-Muslims.
Khutbah = Sermon preached in the mosque at Friday noon
and the Scriptures of Jews and Christians.
when revelation was sent on the 27th night of
the month of Ramazan. During the visitation
Muhammad was ordered to read (or recite or cry
al-Lat = An idol goddess associated with the moon and
the sun, worshipped by ancient Arabians.
(37:35-36, 68:2, 52:28, 81:22)
bride in classical Islam.
woman’s mahram is any relative to whom she
canot be married, such as her father, brother,
uncle, nephew, stepfather, father-in-law, or
son-in-law. The Prophet said: “She who believes
in Allah and the Last Day must not travel any
distance that is normally covered by one day’s
and one night’s traveling unless accompanied by
a mahram.” She is allowed to travel with her
husband as a matter of course.
sentence of the Quran which has been abrogated by
a later revelation.
Mashallah = A statement with the concept of public
good and general welfare said after a
compliment or mentioning a blessing in
order to keep away the jinn or evil eye.
spirits. (44:13, 25:8, 17:47, 81:22)
performed in groups. In general useage a “Masjid”
can be a formal and freestanding mosque or a room
in a house or apartment building used for Muslim
Mawlid al-Nabi = Muhammad’s birthday. Born on the 12th of Rabi
I, in the year of the Elephant estimated to be
August 29, 570 AD.
Mecca = (Makka) Muhammad’s birthplace; a principal city
for trade and pilgrimage in pre-Islamic Arabia.
The holiest city in Islam and must be visited
for pilgrimage by all Muslims who are
physically and financially able.
Medina = (formerly Yathrib) An Arabian city north of
Mecca, in which Muhammad first became a
political and military leader after his flight
there (Hijra). The 2nd most holy city in Islam
and the burial place of Muhammad. Muhammad fled to
Medina after announcing Islam.
ruler who is to appear on earth. The Islamic
“Messiah” who will appear at the end of time to
combat the “Dajjal”, or antichrist, who will
eventually be destroyed by “Issa”, the Muslim
Jesus. Then the Mehdi will bring the universal
worship of Allah in the form of global Islam.
Mejlis = (Majlis) Parliment of Council of Elders.
Mekruh = That which is forbidden, abominable, disgusting.
Mihrab = The niche in the end wall in a mosque
indicating the direction of Mecca.
(sancturary) of Mecca, five kilometers from the
city. During the Hajj pilgrims spend the night
between the eithth and ninth day and continue to
Arafat on the ninth day.
Minaret = A tower attached to mosques from where the
summons to prayer is called by a “muezzin”.
(sermon) is spoken.
dreamed he was taken from the Ka’ba in Mecca to
Jerusalem’s holy temple from which he went for
a brief visit with Allah in heaven.
Jesus’s human nature had been absorbed into his
divine nature, and who were bitter rivals of
the Nestorians. They emphasized the divinity
of Jesus and gave the impression that Jesus was
not fully human. They practiced hospitality,
almsgiving, fasting and obliged their women to
be veiled when out of doors.
prayers and other congregational meetings.
Islamic law states that all Muslim men must attend
prayers and a sermon at a Mosque at noon every
Friday. Other worship (prayer five times a day)
may be accomplished anywhere but should be
conducted on a prayer rug.
Mount Hira = A mountain near Mecca where it is believed that
Muhammad received his revelations from the
angel Gabriel in a cave called Gharat.
Mu’addib = A person who helps the families of the dead in
their mourning by reciting the Qur’an over the
graves of the dead relatives.
Mubeen = Clear (book, mentioned of the Qur’an)
Muezzin = The one who gives the call to prayer from the
“minaret” of a mosque five times a day to
summon the faithful.
Mufti = A Muslim scholar or judge who expounds the law.
the Qadi (qazi) or judge and supplies him with
fatwas, or decisions. He must be learned in the
Koran and Hadith, and in the Muslim works of
trained in the Islamic laws. He acts as the head
of a Mosque.
Murid = A follower of a Sufi sect.
Mushrik = A polytheist.
Muslim = A person who submits to the will of God;
an adherent of Islam (sometimes Moslem).
A follower of Islam and Muhammad.
Mustahabb = Recommendations (concerning the sunna). For
example: Female circumcision [female genital
mutilation] is commendable (mustahabb).
Musta’min = a protected one. A person who comes to an
Islamic country as a messenger, merchant,
visitor, or student wanting to learn about
Islam. Muslims are forbidden to hurt
him in any way.
Mut’ah = Temporary marriage allowed to those of the
of the “Committee for Enforcing the Right and
Forbidding the Wrong” in Saudi Arabia. Men who
seek out, arrest, and punish those who do not
abide by Saudi religious law.
al-muwahhidun = Unitatians of the Wahhabi movement who oppose
anything that diminishes the glorification of
one God, Allah. Supports radical Islam and
over the last 250 years involves many conflicts
between Muslims. They advocate the
establishment of a Muslim state based on a
literal understanding of the Quran and Hadith
based on Islamic Law.
inhabitants of this area are known for their
conservative behavior. The ruling family of
Saudia Arabia are Najdis.
Allah and sway to and fro to various teachings.
Christianized/Western societies, Muslim activists
deliberately hide a major Islamic doctrine called
"al-Nasikh wal-Mansoukh" (the Abrogator and the
Abrogated). This simply means that in situations
wherein verses contradict one another, the early
verses are overridden by the latter verses.
Nefs = Passion, corresponds somewhat to “id” in
Muhammad who were anathematized at the 3rd
ecumenical council in Ephesus in 431 for
refusing to confess the unity of Jesus’s Divine
Personhood. They accepted the two natures of
Jesus (divine and human) but thought that they
were separate. Their clergy prostrated
themselves on the ground facing eastward
whenever they prayed.
Paradise = Another word for heaven. A garden (79:41) of
bliss and fruit (69:21-24), has rivers (3:198),
with maidens pure and holy (4:57), and carpets and
cushions (88:8-16). It is the hope of all Muslims.
for all “the prophets” by using this expression
whenever they mention their names in speech or in
writing. It is generally used after the word
“Muhammad” is used.
Pir = A leader of a Sufi sec
PLO = Palestine Liberation Organization: Founded in
1964 as a Palestinian nationalist organization
dedicated to the establishment of an
independent Palestinian state. In 1974 the
PLO was recognized at the Summit Conference of
the Arab League at Rabat Morocco as ‘the sole
leitimate representative’ of the Palestinian
people. Yasser Arafat, as Chariman of the PLO
he said, “I have come bearing an olive branch
and a freedom fighters gun. Do not let the
olive branch fall from my hand.”
Purdah = Veiling or the practice of confining women to
their homes. This total seclusion of females
can occur in some Muslim countries.
Qadar = (Kader) Preordainment is the teaching that all
things, good and bad, are preordained to occur.
Similar to extreeme Calvinism.
Qibla = (Kibla) The direction which Muslims turn for daily
prayers, towards Mecca.
scholars, employed as a means for ascertaining
answers for Muslim thought and practice.
Qadi = A judge empowered to arbitrate domestic
controlled the Ka’ba during Muhammad’s time and
from which Muhammad traced his lineage.
Qur’an = (Kor’an) Literally means “recitation” or “the
recital”; the book of recitations of the word of
Allah as dictated to Muhammad by the angel Gabriel
(Jabra’il) over a period of 23 years. It is the
final revelation of Allah given to the prophet
Muhammad. It has 114 surahs, or chapters.
One complete cycle of sacred words and gestures
during the ritual prayer.
Ramadan = (Ramazan) The month of fasting, celebrated
during the 9th month of the lunar year, which
is why the dates change every year. Muslims
believe that it was during this month that
Allah revealed the Qur’an to the Prophet
Muhammad. During this month Muslims fast from
sunrise to sunset as one of the Five Pillars of
revelation from Allah to be written down as
Rasullah = (Risalah) prophethood and messengership.
Ruh = The soul that comes from God and returns to
sleep and causes dreams.
consider most authentic.
“Peace be unto you” a common Muslim greeting.
At one point Muhammad identifies three pagan
idols as being valid, thereby temporarily
making Islam a polytheistic religion (and
appeasing his Quraysh critics), but later
changes his mind saying that Satan had
corrupted his thinking.
Sawm = The fast or fasting during the month of Ramadan.
Sects of Islam = Sunni: Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi, Hanbeli
Shiite: Twelvers, Seveners, Druze, Zaydis,
Sehri = The meal Muslims eat before fasting.
Seveners = İsmailis are the largest sect of the Seveners,
headed by Aga Khan. They differ with the
Twelvers on the issue of succession. A shiite
Baghdad and Egypt. His position represented a
compromise between the Maliki and Hanafi
Schools, and rejected the role of private
Shahada(h) = The fundamental creed of Islam, or confession
of belief in Islam. To bear witness to the
creed of Islam that: “There is only one God,
Allah, and Muhammad is his Prophet.”
“La ilaha illa Allah, Muhammad rasul Allah”.
Shahid = A martyr who makes the ultimate sacrifice in
death to bering about the world of Islam.
body of rules governing both the individual
Muslim as well as the Muslim community.
Literally means “the way to the watering hole.”
Muslims who practice Sharia law define it as a
strict interpretation of the Qur’an. However,
many Muslims and Muslim nations choose not to
adopt Sharia law because of disagreement over
how the Qur’an is interpreted. Sharia law is
controversial because it often defies many
human rights issues, resulting in murder,
beheading, removal of hands or feet, and so on
when a Muslim or non-Muslim disobeys the laws
of the Qur’an.
master of a tribe or community.
branch of Islam whose adherents hold that Ali
was Muhammad’s legitimate successor because he
was his son-in-law. About 15% of Muslims are
Shi’ites. One of two major sects, ie. Sunni.