I. Introduction This master’s thesis represents study of female newspaper and magazine editors in Azerbaijan based on Western and Soviet definitions of journalism with explanation of local national features of this p



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VII. Index

Alibeyova Khadija 18

Aliyev Heydar 21

Arno, A. 8

Askerova Salatyn 20

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic 18

Azerbaijan Journalist Women Association 1

Azerbaijan Journalists Union 2, 28, 40, 52-56, 60, 69, 74

Azerbaijan newspaper 19

AzTV 4


Bass, A. 23

Beam, R. 7,

Birkhead, D. 11

Boris, B. 4

Carter, C. 22

Caspian Sea 18

Chramchikhin, A. 15

CIS 3


Coalition for freedom of speech and Journalist professionalism 28

Czarist Russia 18

Day.az 4

Deprofessionalizaton 2, 16, 17, 18, 25, 52, 66, 67, 73

Diamond, L 3,

Dzirkals, L. 9

Eastern Woman magazine 19

Elegant signatures 1

Eni 15

Entman, R 11



External independence 4

Freedom House 25

Freedom of speech 5, 28, 38

Friedson, E. 17

Gahramanova Sadagat 21

Gender question in Azerbaijani media 2, 69

Gerbner, G. 21

Gieber, A. 23

Great Soviet Encyclopedia 13

Gurevitch, M 4

Hallin, D. 8, 15, 16, 52, 67,

Haug, M. 16

Healy, D. 16

Hentof, N. 10

Hooghe, M. 21

Hoyer, S. 8

Hybrid regime 3

Il Giorno 15

Inkeles, A. 13

Instrumentalization 2, 20, 26, 52, 66

International Journalist Federation 2, 69

Isiq 18


Jirak 6, 17, 73,

Johnson, T. 7

Karabakh 3, 18, 20, 69,

Karol Jakubowicz 4, 5, 15,

Katz, J. 11

Kerimova Zahra 19

Kollontai Alexandra 19

Lauk, E. 8

Lenin 14

Lewin, K. 23

Lichtenberg, J. 12

Linz, J. 3,

Lipman, W. 11

Maleshenko, A. 3

Mancini, P. 8, 15, 16, 52, 67

Masculine bias 1, 22

Mattei Enrico 15

McNair, B. 6, 14

McNelly, J. 23

McQuail, D 10, 12

Metzler, K 12

Molodezh Azerbaijana newspaper 20

Moore, W. 6

Mr. Gates 23

Nomenklatura 10, 23, 73

NTV 4,


Objectivity 2, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 23, 67, 69

Paletz, D. 11

Party in Azerbaijan 19

Pasti, S. 17

Politburo 20

Press Council 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 60, 65, 74

Professionalization 6, 7,8,15, 16, 17, 18, 25

Proletarization 2, 16, 17, 18, 26, 52, 61, 66, 67, 73,

Putin, V. 4

Raelin, J. 17

Remington, T. 9

Richter, A. 5, 14

Roberts, C. 23

Ronshu, K. 17

Safiga Afandizade 2, 19

Schiller, D. 10

Schramm, W. 8

Schudson 6, 10

Seth, R. 14

Shoemaker, P. 22

Siebert, F. 8, 14

Social construct 6,

Souhradova, E. 24

Steiner, L. 1, 22,

Sultanova Ayna 19

Sussman, M. 16

Swert, K. 21

Symbolic annihilation 21, 73

Tarschys, D. 14

Toren, N. 17

Trend 4

Tuchman, G. 21



Turan news agency 25

Unveiling campaign 19

Volek J. 6, 7, 17, 18, 52, 58, 67, 73, 74,

Weaver D. 8

Westerstahl, J. 12

White, M. 23

Yeni Azerbaijan 1

Yeni Nesil 25

Yusifova, S. 1

Zasurski, I. 14

Zelizer, B. 15, 22

Zeynalabdin Tagiyev 18

Zinin, Y. 3


VIII. List of literature:
Arno, A. 2009. Alarming Reports: Communicating Conflict in the Daily News. Oxford: Berghahn Books.

Azerbaijan Journalists Union, Gender Question in Azerbaijani Media. 2011. Baku.

Bass, A.Z. 1969. “Redefining the gatekeeper concept: A U.N. radio case study.“ Pp. 59-72 in Journalism Quarterly, 1969, 46.

Beam, R. 1990. “Journalism Professionalism as an Organizational Level Concept” in Journalism Monographs 1990, June, No. 121.

Birkhead, D. 1986. “News Media Ethics and the Management of Professionals.” Pp. 37-46 in Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 1986 (spring/summer).

Chramchikhin, A. 2003. Kompleks nepolnotsennosti. Otechestvennye zapiski. 4(12).

Diamond, L. 1999. “Thinking about Hybrid Regimes: Elections without Democracy.” Pp. 21-35 in Journal of Democracy 1999, 12 (2).

Dzirkals, L. 1982. The media and intra-elite communication in the USSR. Santa Monica 1982 Rand Corporation. Available at: http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reports/2006/R2869.pdf (Nedatováno.)

Elliot, P. 1972. The Sociology of the Professions. London: Macmillan.

Friedson, E. 1984. The Changin Nature of Professional Control. Available at: http://www.scribd.com/doc/47509563/Freidson-E-1984-The-Changing-Nature-of-Professional-Control

Gerbner, G. 1978. “The Dynamics of Cultural Resistance.” Pp. 46-50 in Tuchman, Gaye –Arlene Kaplan Daniels & James Benét. Hearth and Home. Images of women in the Mass Media. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gieber, W. 1964. News is what newspapermen make it. In L.A. Dexter & D.M. White. People, society and mass communication. 1964. London: Collien-MacMillan.

Gurevitch, M. – Blumler, J. 1977. “Mass Media and Political Institutions: The Systems Approach,” in Mass Media Policies in Changing Cultures ed. by George Gerbner, London: Wiley.

Halin, D. – Mancini, P. 2004. Comparing media systems. Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge: University Press.

Hall, R. 1968. “Professionalization and Bureaucratization”. Pp. 92-104 in American Sociological Review 1968, Vol. 33, No 103.

Haug, M. 1977. “Computer Technology and the Obsolescence of the Concept of Profession.” In Work and Technology, ed. Haug, M. and Dofny, J. Beverly Hills: Sage.

Haug, M – Sussman, M. 1969. Professional Autonomy and the Revolt of the Client. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/799862?uid=3737856&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=47699047323867 (Nedatováno.)

Healy, D. 1992. The deprofessionalization of the Writing Instructor. Available at: http://wpacouncil.org/archives/16n1-2/16n1-2healy.pdf (Nedatováno.)

Hentoff, N. 2006. The History and Possible Revival of the Fairness Doctrine. Available at: http://www.hillsdale.edu/news/imprimis/archive/issue.asp?year=2006&month=01 (Nedatováno.)

Hooghe, M. – De Swert, K. 2009. Gender Model or Job Model? New views of Female Sources in Belgian Tv News. Available at: https://lirias.kuleuven.be/bitstream/123456789/229177/1/gender-model.pdf

http://javnost-thepublic.org/article/pdf/1996/4/7/

Inkeles, A. 1950. Public Opinion in Soviet Russia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Inkeles, A. 1968. Social Change in Soviet Russia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Jakubowicz, K. 2009. “Back to the future.” Pp. 112-121 in Index on Censorship 2009, 12(3).

Jakubowicz, K. 1995. “Lovebirds? The Media, the State and Politics in Central and Eastern Europe”. Pp. 75-91 in Javnost/The Public, 1995 2(1).

Johnson, T. 1979. Professions and Power. London: Macmillan.

Katz, J. 1997. Virtuous Reality. New York: Random House.

Lewin, K. 1947. “Frontiers in group dynamics II: Channels of group life; social planning and action research”. Pp. 143-153 in Human Relations 1.

Lichtenberg, J. 1996. “In Defense of Objectivity revisited.” Pp. 225-242 in Mass Media and Society 2nd ed. Ed. James Curran and Michael Gurevitch. London: Arnold.

Lipman, M. – McFaul, M. 2001. “Managed Democracy” in Russia: Putin and the Press”. Pp. 116-127 in The Harward International Journal of Press/Politics, 2001, 6(3).

Lippmann, W. 1972. Liberty and the Press. Birmingham, AL: University of Alabama Press.

MacDonald, K. 1995. The Sociology of the Professions. London: Sage publications.

McNair, B. 2004. Sociologie žurnalistiky. Praha: Portál

McNair, B. 1998 .The Sociology of Journalism, London: Arnold.

McNelly, J. T. 1959. “Intermediary communicators in the international flow of news.” Pp. 23-26 in Journalism Quarterly, 1959. 36(1).

McQuail, D. 2007. Mass communication theory: an introduction. Praha: Portal.

Metzler, K. 1979. Newsgathering. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Millerson, G. 1964 “Dilemmas of Professionalism” in New Society 1964, June, No 4.

Millerson, G. 1964. The qualifying Associations. A Study in Professionalization. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Moore, W. 1970. The Professions: Roles and Rules. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.



News, Gender and Power. 1998. ed. by Carter, C. – Brantson, G. – Allan, S. London: Routledge.

Pasti, S. 2007. The Changing Profession of a Journalist in Russia. Available at: http://acta.uta.fi/pdf/978-951-44-7101-8.pdf

Raelin, J. 1989. “Unionization and deprofessionalization: Which comes first?” Pp. 101-115 in Journal of Organizational Behavior, 1989, 10.

Remington, T. 1985. “Politics and professionalism in Soviet journalism.” Pp. 489-503 in Slavic Review, 1985 vol. 44, No. 3.

Remington, T. 1988. The Truth of Authority: Ideology and Communication in the Soviet Union. Pittsburg: University of Pittsburg Press.

Richter, A. 2007. Post-Soviet Perspective on Censorship and Freedom of the Media. Moscow: Ikar.

Roberts, C. 2005. Gatekeeping theory: an evolution. Available at: http://www.chrisrob.com/about/gatekeeping.pdf

Ronshu, K. 2006. Professionals in Organizations: Implications from Academic Literature. Japan. Available at: http://www.osaka-ue.ac.jp/gakkai/pdf/ronshu/2005/5606_ronko_sekiguchi.pdf (Nedatováno.)

Schiller, Dan. 1979. “An Historical Approach to Objectivity and Professionalism in American News Reporting.” Pp. 46-57 in Journal of Communication 1979, 29(4).

Schudson, M. 1978. Discovering the News: A Social History of American Newspapers. New York: Basic Books.

Seth, R. 2011. The language of the press in Soviet time and post-Soviet Russia, Available at: http://jou.sagepub.com/content/early/2011/05/27/1464884911400844 (Nedatováno.)

Shoemaker, P. 1991. Gatekeeping. Newbury, CA: Park Sage.

Souhradova, E. 2002. Etická a Hodnotová Orientace Editoru Českých Celostátních Medii. Brno.

Steiner, L. 1997. “Gender at work : Early Accounts by Women Journalists.” Pp. 2-12 in Journalism History 1997, R. 23(1), Spring.

Terence J. 1972, 1981. Professions and Power. London: Macmillan.

The Paradoxes of the Journalistic Profession An Historical Perspective. 2004. SVENNIK HØYER & EPP LAUK.

Toren, N. 1975. Deprofessionalization and its Sources: A Preliminary Analysis Work and Occupations November, Available at: http://wox.sagepub.com/content/2/4/323.abstract

Tuchman, G. – Kaplan, A., Benét D. & J. Hearth and Home. 1978. Images of Women in the Mass Media. New York: Oxford University Press.

Valiyev, E. 2008. Professionalization of Azerbaijani Journalists in regard to ethical standards. Brno.

Volek, J. 2007. Czech Journalists After Collapse of Old Media System: Looking for New Professional Self-Image. University of Wroclaw.

Volek, J. 2008. Quality press and (or) economic success? Professional attitudes of Czech editors to the commercialization of press. University of Wroclaw.

Volek, J., Jirák, J. 2006. „Vybrané atributy profesního sebepojetí českých novinářů.“ Pp. 21 – 48 in: Mediální studia, 2006, R. 1, č. 1.

Wilensky, H. 1964. “The Professionalization of Everyone?” Pp. 137–158 in The American Journal of Sociology 1964, Vol. LVV, No. 2.

Westerstahl, J. 1983. Objective News Reporting, Pp. 403-424 in Communication Research 10.

Zasurski, I. 1998. SMI Rossii v uslovijax globalnych processov transformacii. Dis. kand. fil. nauk. Moskva: 68 http://jou.sagepub.com/content/early/2011/05/27/1464884911400844 (Nedatováno.)

Zelizer, B. 2004. Taking Journalism Seriously: news and the academy, London: Sage, New Dehli: Thousand Oaks.

Zinin, Y./ Maleshenko, A. 1994.“Azerbaijan.” Pp. 99–115 in Central Asia and the Caucasus after the Soviet Union: domestic and international dynamics ed. by Mesbahi, Mohiaddin. Gainsville, FL: University Press of Florida.



http://javnost-thepublic.org/article/pdf/1996/4/7/


IX. List of tables
Table 1. Comparison of Statutory protection for freedom of mass information…………………………..5

in the Post-Soviet countries. Source: Richter 2007
Table 2. Criteria of Objectivity according to Westerstahl ………………………………………………..12

Source: Valiyev 2008
Table 3. Soviet system according to Siebert’s Four Theories of Press…………………………………….14

Source: http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/2152/siebert.htm#communication
Table 4. Gatekeeping theory…………………………………………………………………………………22

Source: Communicationtheory.org
Table 5. Newspapers and magazines participating in the research……………………………………….28

Source: Valiyev 2011
Table 6. Selected characteristics of female editors…………………………………………………………29

Source: Valiyev 2011
Table 7. Socio-demographic characteristics of selected editors.…………………………………………..34
Table 8. Types of Editors……………………………………………………………………………………..68



Appendix 2. Press Council’s Code of Professional Ethics for Journalists

Adopted March 2003, Amended: September 6, 2010
PRINCIPLE 1: To serve the truth, accuracy and objectiveness

1.1 The primary goal of journalism is dissemination of truth; and objectiveness is a main professional criteria.


1.2 Journalists shall study and convey the viewpoint held by the target of criticism in their articles. If this is not possible and if the target of criticism requires so, the journalist shall create conditions for such persons to communicate their views. The principle of pluralism shall be upheld.
1.3 Opinions in articles shall be expressed in a way that readers could differentiate them from news and facts; and attribute such opinions to the journalist.

PRINCIPLE 2: Respectful approach towards sources of information

2.1 The source must always be indicated while disseminating official information from organizations, parties, societies, unions and other interest groups. However, if the person who provides the information prefers to remain anonymous, journalists or media entities must adhere to his/her privacy conditions. The confidentiality of the source of information shall be protected.


2.2 The information provided by unofficial sources shall be checked for its authenticity and informative value before being disseminated. The content of the information shall not be distorted while being prepared for print. When quoting from another article or speech, journalists should note precise starting and ending points of the quotation. When printing photo-symbols (illustration, photo-editing) together with texts, it should be noted that such images do not have documentary importance. Titles of articles should correspond to their content.
2.3 Journalist should try to have his/her interview signed by interviewees or their authorized agents. If this is not possible, interviewees should be notified of the way in which the interview will be published and whether the questions asked by the journalist will be modified.
2.4. If there are no other methods available, journalists may use special equipment (hidden cameras, hidden microphones or other hidden tools) or methods (“fake” IDs and etc) as an exception for obtaining information that has public importance.
2.5. Journalists shall not resort to intimidation, application of force or threats in order to obtain information or images.
PRINCIPLE 3: Protection of honor and dignity, inviolability of personal life

3.1 Journalists shall not condemn people for their nationality, race, sex, language, profession, religion, and place of birth or residence and shall not highlight such data.


3.2 Journalists shall respect the honor, dignity, and inviolability of personal life of the person he/she meets with and writes about.
3.3 Journalists may not disseminate facts about citizens’ personal lives without their consent, unless dissemination of such information does not violate the rights of the society, is lawful, does not contradict social interest and is of public unimportance.
3.4 Journalists and mass media entities must correct their errors wholly and as soon as possible, regardless of the person who identified the error. The correction should indicate whether the related article was erroneous in whole or in part.
3.5 When publishing personal letters, the author, the person to whom the letter is addressed to, or their heirs, should be asked for permission.
3.6 Names or images of victims who suffered from accidents or crime must not be disclosed without their consent. This is possible under special conditions and if the victim is a public figure. If the crime was committed by teenagers or children (persons below 18 years of age), journalists should refrain from disseminating the names or pictures of the criminals.
3.7. Journalists should respect the right to presumption of innocence of persons who are suspected of committing crimes and should introduce such persons not as criminals, but as persons who have been detained for being suspected of committing crimes.
3.8. If a mass media entity disseminated information on detention or indictment of a citizen as a suspect and if his/her innocence was later proven, the media entity must inform the public in this regard.
3.9. Journalists shall not take advantage of children’s innocence and trust; shall respect their rights and demonstrate a special responsibility in communicating their views; and shall seek to avoid interviewing children without the consent of their parents or lawful guardians. Journalist shall not publish information or photographs about private life of a child unless there is an over-riding public interest. Journalist shall protect the identity of children involved in or affected by tragedy or criminal activity.
3.10. If a person is charged with committing of a crime, journalists shall not prepare reports which could undermine the objectiveness of the court in this issue and opinions from all involved parties should be reflected in such reports. If victims of a crime have not given their consent to be identified, journalists shall treat the identities of such individuals with sensitivity. This rule is especially important in cases involving sexual assault. If witnesses have not consented to being identified and if their identification does not have any public importance, journalists shall treat their identity with sensitivity.
3.11 Journalists shall refrain from glorifying or unnecessarily sensational reporting about crime, violence, brutality and suicide. Journalists shall be careful not to be used as a means by those who promote, incite or use violence; instead, journalists shall report on their activities with due constraint and only if there is a clear public interest.
3.12. Journalists or editorials should not prepare reports that exaggerate terror acts; reports that serve the interests of terrorists; reports that create fear or those which promote or justify terror acts.

PRINCIPLE 4: Protection of journalists’ own reputation and of the organization he/she works for

4.1. Journalists shall not accept any personal, political or financial inducements that may impact their ability to provide the public with accurate information; shall not receive expensive gifts; and shall not induce others to serve them for free. Journalists shall not use his/her access to editorial documents and information as a means of obtaining personal gain, especially in respect to information about business performance and financial markets. Journalist shall avoid covering stories where he/she has a direct personal interest, or should at least declare such personal interests where it is relevant.


4.2. Journalists shall maintain a clear distinction between editorial decision-making and commercial policy of the media entity. Journalists shall refrain from engaging in activities that can undermine his own reputation or that of the media entity that he/she works for or acts that could weaken the confidence in its objectiveness, from membership to political organizations; and shall not be subject to political or commercial pressures and be independent.
4.3. Journalists shall maintain a clear distinction between editorial content and marketing, advertisements or sponsored materials. Journalists shall have the right to refuse assignments, if such assignments are against the laws and rules of professional conduct. If a journalist’s opinions have been distorted during the editorial process, the journalist has the right to decline from having the article published under his/her signature.
4.4. If an editorial secret is not related with violation of the legislation of the Republic of Azerbaijan and this Code, journalists are obliged to protect such secrets.
4.5. Journalists may not offer the material that he/she has prepared to other parties without prior consent from the management of the media entity that he/she works for.
4.6. Plagiarism is an intolerable act. Any form of plagiarism under all circumstances is unacceptable. Journalists shall respect copyright and the terms of copyright agreements. Journalists shall always acknowledge the source of complete materials or short extracts from other media which may be used without express permission. Journalist shall only reproduce longer extracts or complete materials from other media with prior permission and with acknowledgement of the author and media.
4.7. Journalists must avoid the use of vulgar expressions, jargons and should try to contribute to enrich and protect the purity of the Azerbaijani language.
4.8. Journalists shall not pay sources for information, but where payment is considered necessary in order to obtain information that the public has a right to know, it shall be made clear in the relevant report that payments have been made.
4.9. Relationships between different media outlets and between media professionals should be characterized by mutual respect and fair competition in order to preserve the integrity of the media.
4.10. The public has the right to be informed about who owns and controls media outlets.
4.11. Journalists shall support media colleagues when they are unfairly attacked or criticized; however, professional solidarity should not be an excuse for suppressing or distorting information.
Infringement of the terms of this Code may only be justified where it can be demonstrated that the relevant publication serves the best interests of the public.
For the purposes of this Code, information ‘of public interest’ should not be confused with information which is ‘interesting to the public’.
A publication is in the public interest only if:
It protects health, safety and security;

It helps the prevention and disclosure of serious crimes and abuse of power;

It prevents the public from the danger of being seriously misled.

Appendix 3

Zahra Kerimova was born in 1909 in Eyvazly village of Qubadli district. In 1918, when Armenians were about to enter the outskirts of their village, her family left their homes, leaving all their possessions behind and moved to city Agdam currently occupied by Armenian forces. Being very poor Zahra along with her parents had to become a servant in a wealthy house.

After the Soviet annexation of Azerbaijan Republic her father Adigezal Kerimov supports Bolsheviks and even names Zahra’s younger sister after the new government – Shura [Rus: Soviets]. However, the family continues to suffer from poverty and 12-year-old Zahra starts working at a stockings factory.

Under influence of her older brother Karim, Zahra goes to evening school and soon joines Komsomol or the Communist Union of Youth. Shortly after she is already in charge of the Komsomol branch in Ganja city then in Jalilabad and then travels to Baku for studies in the Party School.

During the unveiling campaign she is among the first Azerbaijani girls to drop her veil. In the mid 20s she is a teacher and actively works to eliminate illiteracy among young women especially from the regions of the country.

In 1929 she is appointed the first secretary of the Kirov District Committee of the Komsomol and in 1930 joins the Communist Party and becomes editor of newly opened magazine "Azerbaycan gadini» [Aze: Azerbaijani woman]. In 1938 she is elected the first secretary of the Kirov District Party Committee, and in 1939-40 attends the Higher Party School and soon after is elected a deputy from Azerbaijan to the XVIII and the XIX Party Congresses. Zahra Kerimova holds high posts in party and government, she is a member of the Bureau of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan.

In 1941, she is appointed the Minister of social welfare and in this capacity she will work for about 10 years including 4 years of the World War Two. In 1942 Kerimova for her outstanding hard work is awarded the combatant award - the Order of Lenin.

After the war Karimova held senior positions: she was a member of the City’s Party Committee, member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan. In 1952-1954 she became the first Azerbaijani woman to become member of the Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan and the first Chairwoman of the TUA (Trade Union of Azerbaijan).



Zahra Karimov passed away in the turmoil of the 1990 when the country she was building was about to collapse and Azerbaijan and neighboring Armenia were preparing to enter bloody conflict. The collapse of the country to which she has invested all her life, youth and strength seriously affected her health. Yet, name of Zahra Kerimova will remain forever inscribed in the history of achievements of Azerbaijani women.

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