Contributions in this category were discussed Sunday 0930–1245 (chaired by JRO), and 1430–1550 (chaired by JRO and GJS).
JVET-E0021 AHG8: On 360360° video testing procedure [V. Zakharchenko, C. Kim, E. Alshina (Samsung)]
This contribution provides a discussion on recommended testing procedure and quality evaluation for virtual reality 360-degree video sequences in scope of Future Video Coding Standardization activity AhG8. As omnidirectional video compression involves multiple transformation process among different projections it is stated that definition of ground truth signal may affect comparison results. This contribution demonstrates pitfalls and summarizes suggested practices for virtual reality video content quality evaluation at each conversion stage.
There are two versions of WS-PSNR: End-to-end (comparing ERP 8K original and reconstructed) and codec-in/out (which would be good to compare benefit of coding tools within one projection format). To other references are on a sphere (common set of points) and viewport.
Problem is that interpolation is involved in the reconstruction which influences the comparison. In particular, the ERP format is put in advantage by this.
The projection on the sphere (S-PSNR) is also problematic, since comparison is made between rounded integer position. It is reported that this gives better match than using interpolation by Lanczos filters. In the discussion, it is also suggested to try using HEVC interpolation filters.
The end-to-end PSNR values (without compression) are not exactly known. If they are in the range of 50 to 60 dB, the influence may not be too severe (It was suggested to investigate for the cases of end-to-end WS-PSNR, CPP-S-PSNR and Viewport PSNR for different projection formats).
Following solutions were also suggested as possible solutions:
Measure CPP-PSNR not in 8K but 4K (include this in the report above)
Measure PSNR over a large number of viewports and average them (this however seems unpractical due to the long processing time)
Some sequences (Train) have synthetic parts at top/bottom for which PSNR is misleading. This could either be resolved by removing such sequences or by restricting the elevation angles (cropping). To be further discussed in context of test set definition.
For subjective testing, it was also suggested to get in contact with Vittorio to identify whether the viewport based evaluation gives reasonable evidence. Further efforts -> see BoG JVET-E0135.
Multiple layouts for projection formats? ERP is default, for which coding tools have to be evaluated, and other projection formats and layouts can better be regarded as coding tools.
JVET-E0139 AHG8: Cross-check for JVET-E0021 [Hendry, M. Coban (Qualcomm)] [late] JVET-E0024 AHG8: Dynamic viewport generation for 360° video evaluation [T. Ikai, Y. Yasugi, T. Aono (Sharp)]
This contribution proposes methods to generate dynamic view ports, which would be required in subjective evaluation. The proposed methods are parametric, which means basic movement can be understood for everyone but the actual starting position and its trajectory can be changed / decided with a few parameters on evaluation timing (i.e. after submission of possible CfE and CfP). Four options are provided for a basis of discussion:
Option0 (a.k.a Sine, not recommended): longitude(yaw) utilizes linear movement while latitude(pitch) utilizes sine curve movement
Option1 (a.k.a Triangle): longitude(yaw) utilizes linear movement while latitude(pitch) utilizes triangle wave movement
Option2 (a.k.a Constant): longitude(yaw) utilizes linear movement (same as option1 ) while latitude(pitch) utilizes mostly constant movement with time change.
Option4 (a.k.a Sine&cosine, not recommended): longitude(yaw) utilizes cosine curve movement while latitude(pitch) utilizes sine curve movement
The contribution comes with video examples indicating
Trying to cover the full 360 degrees is uncomfortable (changes too fast)
Too many up and down movements are also uncomfortable
If the viewport is selected after submission of material by an independent person, or if a number of viewports is predefined beforehand and one of them is randomly picked, it does not matter because encoding has to take care that it could be any.
Then, also one dynamic viewport does not necessarily need to cover the whole sphere, but in total, each part of the sphere should be addressed by at least one of them.
Tracking data from HMDs could be used to define the predefined cases.
Mix of static and dynamic viewports could also be defined.
JVET-E0070 AHG8: TSP Evaluation With Viewport-Aware Quality Metric For 360360° Video [G. Van der Auwera, M. Coban, Hendry, M. Karczewicz (Qualcomm)]
This contribution presents a viewport-aware quality metric and reports on the evaluation of the truncated square pyramid (TSP) scheme for VR/360360° video. Results are reported comparing TSP, equirectangular (ERP) and two downsampled cube map projections (DCP). The results suggest that: (1) TSP gives BD-rate savings over ERP for S-PSNR window sizes up to approx. 170°; (2) TSP provides coding gains of 6% and 12% over the two DCP projections, respectively.
Presentation deck to be uploaded.
(Follow-up of JVET-D0071)
The reported gain is due to the fact that only a part of the scene which corresponds to the current viewport is encoded with high resolution. This is probably an interesting concept, but other solutions might be possible (e.g. tile base, scalability with local increase).
However, currently defining quality metrics for this application scenario does not seem of high priority, as long as the global quality metric is not yet solved.
It is also pointed out that in a streaming scenario, this would lead to a high storage overhead., because the TSPs associated with the different viewports are highly overlapping (it is mentioned that there might be more than 100 with the example overlap that is reported).
JVET-E0131 AHG8: Cross-check of JVET-E0070 on TSP Evaluation with Viewport-Aware Quality Metric for 360360° Video [P. Wang (MediaTek)] JVET-E0071 AhG8: Viewport-based subjective evaluation of 360-degree video coding [P. Hanhart, Y. He, Y. Ye (InterDigital)]
At the 4thJVET meeting, common test conditions and evaluation procedures for 360-degree video coding were established (JVET-D1030). Different viewports (VPs) were defined for each 360-degree video sequence for evaluation on 2D displays. This document reports results of two subjective evaluations comparing VPs rendered from 360-degree video sequences encoded with HM-16.14 and JEM-4.1 in the equirectangular projection (ERP) format at low bit rates. A preliminary experiment was conducted using QP=37 for both HM and JEM. To have a fairer comparison, a second experiment was conducted using QP=37 for JEM and floating QP for HM in order to match the JEM bit rate. In both experiments, the stimulus comparison method was used to compare the quality difference between HM and JEM. Two video sequences were presented side-by-side on a 4K TV and expert subjects were asked to rate which video has better overall quality. Results show that JEM achieves some visual quality improvements over HM at low bit rate. Finally, based on observations made during the subjective tests, this document discusses issues regarding viewport selection.
Only predefined static viewports were tested
Coded 8K/4K ERP original format
Another proposal is “bullet time dynamic viewport”, with frozen frame.
In our investigations, we should more concentrate on video, because frame freezing can be quite different in terms of compression artifacts.
JVET-E0083 AHG8: On 360360° Video Quality Evaluation [Hendry, M. Coban, G. Van der Auwera, M. Karczewicz (Qualcomm)]
Current available quality metrics for 360360° videos (S-PSNR-I, S-PSNR-NN, WS-PSNR and CPP-PSNR) show inconsistent gain / loss trends when comparing compression performance of different projection types due to use of different references for distortion comparison.
This contribution studies end-to-end quality evaluation for 360360° videos by implementing end-to-end (E2E) S-PSNR-I and end-to-end CPP-PSNR in addition to the currently available end-to-end WS-PSNR. Simulation results show that the use of these end-to-end metrics results in consistent results between different metrics. It is suggested that WS-PSNR (E2E) method should be used for 360360°-video evaluation for its relative simplicity. Further subjective visual testing should be conducted for verification of selected objective metrics for 360360° video quality evaluation.
Presentation deck to be provided.
The contribution proposes to use only WS-PSNR (E2E) as quality metric for comparing different projection formats, since its results are consistent with other metrics. Further discussion on this is needed, after information about lossless end-to-end quality of the different metrics would be available (see discussion under JVET-E0021).
JVET-E0107 AHG8: Requirements and proposed method for viewport-adaptive quality assessment [A. Aminlou, M. Hannuksela (Nokia)] [late]
If JVET plans to perform systematic comparison or analysis of omnidirectional projection and/or region-wise packing formats for viewport-adaptive encoding and streaming, it is proposed to establish a testing methodology and metrics for that purpose first. This contribution discusses and suggests requirements for such testing methodology, based on which a nested zonal SPSNR (NZ-SPSNR) test method is proposed.
Example of viewport adaptive scheme: Tile based streaming where tiles can be switched in quality.
It is suggested to establish center view zone, weighted with a ramp in a transition zone up to +/− 90 degrees, and remaining part (back). Currently, 3 zones are proposed, but could be more.
Concept is similar to JVET-E0070
The total quality would be judged by averaging MSE from almost all possible directions.
It is claimed that unlike JVET-E0070 this would lead to a equal weight of all samples; however, this would only depend on how the overlapping view windows are positioned in E0070.
As a general conclusion, at the current stage, defining quality metrics for application scenario with view-dependent streaming does not seem of high priority, as long as the global quality metric is not yet solved.
Establish BoG (chaired by Jill Boyce)
Collect data (for the lossless case) to further analyze the WS-PSNR end-to-end metrics, and its relation with CPP and S-PSNR (according to further notes under E0021)