Plant Export Operations Manual Volume 6 Part A: Pests, Diseases and Contaminants of Grain and Plant Products (excluding horticulture) Contents

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Pests associated with stored grain and plant products (excluding horticulture)


Table 1: Common major and minor pest associated with stored grain and plant products (excluding horticulture) for which nil tolerance apply for detection of live pests in inspected sample

Major pests of stored grain (Injurious Pests)

Scientific name

Common name

Comments

Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say)

acanthoscelides obtectus

Bean weevil

It is a major pest of legumes.

The Anthribidae is a family of beetles which feed on fungi and dead wood except Acanthoscelides obtectus which is a well known pest of stored products (Rees 2004) and the larvae and pupae develop entirely within grain legumes and the adults emerge through a window (CABI 2012).

Females lay eggs in the seed coat, larvae bore into seeds and create round translucent ‘window’ in seed before pupation. Adult weevils emerge through ‘window’ leaving neat round hole. Adults are short lived, do not feed on grain, runs quickly and are good fliers (Rees 2001).

Acanthoscelides obtectus is a primary pest of legume grains and is adapted to live in conditions of low humidity. The larvae feed on grain and bore a hole. The damage as a result of larval feeding could be extensive depending on the level of infestation (Romano et al. 2006).



Main Hosts: A. obtectus is a serious pest of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus). Although it has also been recorded on a number of other legumes such as cowpeas in Mexico, chickpeas and Voandzeia subterranea it seldom attains pest status on these hosts. It has only been found developing on the common bean and other members of the Phaseolus family (CABI 2012).

Bruchus pisorum L.
bruchus pisorum

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Pea weevil

It is a major pest of Pisum spp.

Bruchid beetles attack ripe and ripening seeds, preferably leguminous seeds. However, species associated with stored products are exclusively pests of dried and ripening seeds of legumes. Moreover, Bruchids do not attack cereal grain and cereal based products (Rees 2004).



Bruchus pisorum is a major pest of field peas. It is now established in all major field pea growing areas of south eastern Australia. Infested seed reduces the weight and quality and may be rejected by millers and exporters (McDonald 1995).

Main Hosts: Pisum sativum (pea), Pisum sativum subsp. asiaticum, Pisum sativum subsp. elatius (wild pea), Pisum sativum subsp. sativum, Pisum sativum subsp. transcaucasicum, Pisum sativum var. arvense (Austrian winter pea) (CABI 2008).

Callosobruchus maculatus (L.)

callosobruchus maculatus

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Pea and bean beetle

Cowpea weevil



It is a major pest of peas and beans.

Bruchid beetles attack ripe and ripening seeds and prefer leguminous seed. Species associated with stored products are exclusively pests of dried and ripening seeds of legumes. However, Bruchids do not attack cereal grain and cereal based products (Rees 2004).

They prefer dried cowpeas but will attack other beans and peas in storage. Adults move about readily and can infest seeds in the field, but can also breed continuously in stored dry cowpeas. Larvae typically develop inside the dried peas. Larvae chew near the surface and leave a thin covering uneaten which appears as a window and the adults emerge from it later (Drees and Jackman 1999). Callosobruchus maculatus develops on cowpea and some other legumes but not on beans.

Main Hosts: Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea), Fabaceae (leguminous plants), Glycine max (soyabean), Len culinaris (lentil), Phaseolus (beans), stored products (dried), Vigna radiata (mungbean), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) (CABI 2012).


Callosobruchus chinensis (L.)

callosobruchus chinensis

Rees (2004)



Pea and bean beetle

Southern cowpea weevil



It is a major pest of legume seeds.

Bruchid beetles attack ripe and ripening seeds and prefer leguminous seed. Species associated with stored products are exclusively pests of dried and ripening seeds of legumes. They are most important pests of these commodities. However, Bruchids do not attack cereal grain and cereal based products (Rees 2004).



Main Hosts: Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea), Cicer arietinum (chickpea), Glycine max (soyabean), Len culinaris (lentil), Vigna mungo (black gram), Vigna radiata (mungbean), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) (CABI 2008).

Callosobruchus phaseoli

callosobruchus phaseoli

PaDil (www.padil.gov.au)



Cowpea weevil

It is a major pest of legumes.

Callosobruchus phaseoli feeds on ripening pea and bean crops in the field and continues breeding on the dried seeds in storage. The females lay their eggs on pea and bean seeds or pods. Only the larvae feed inside the seed and the adults do not feed on the plants or seeds (Rees 2004).

Main Hosts: Vigna radiate, V. angularis (Messina and Jones 2009).

Corcyra cephalonica (Staint.)

corcyra cephalonica

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Rice moth

It is a major pest of rice.

Many stored foods such as cereals, cereal products, oilseeds, pulses, dried fruits, nuts, and spices, are known to support infestations of C. cephalonica. However, it is especially a major pest of rice and rice products. It is also a major pest in flour mills in the tropics, and is common on sorghum and millet (CABI 2008).



Main Hosts: Oryza sativa (rice), Panicum miliaceum (millet), Pennisetum glaucum (pear millet), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum), Triticum aestivum (wheat), Vigna radiata (mungbean), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Zea mays (maize) (CABI 2008).

Cryptolestes ferrugineus

Cryptolestes pusillus

Cryptolestes pusilloides

cryptolestes ferrugineuscryptolestes pusillus

PaDil (www.padil.gov.au)



Flat grain beetles

The Laemophloeidae are small flattened beetles and the majority of these live under the bark of trees and are of very little importance. However, Cryptolestes spp. are important pests of cereals, cereal products and dried processed foods of vegetable origin. When infesting cereal-based products, Cryptolestes spp. breed most rapidly on milled produce or on grain previously damaged by insects or mechanically damaged during harvesting, storage and handling processes (Rees 2004).

Larvae feed preferentially on the germ of the whole kernels, but they also feed on the endosperm and sometimes hollow out the entire kernel. Growth of mould in the endosperm renders it more suitable as larval food. Cryptolestes species are apparently unable to feed on sound grain, but they can feed on kernels with very slight imperfections or injuries (DAFWA date unknown).



Major Hosts: Cryptolestes species have been found feeding on grain and cereal products and on a variety of other materials. They have been recorded in wheat, corn, rice, barley, flour, oilseeds, cassava root, dried fruits and chillies (DAFWA date unknown).

Ephestia cautella (Walk.)

ephestia cautella

Image source unknown



Tropical warehouse moth

Members of genus Ephestia are important pests of a wide range of stored products, especially milled, processed and manufactured produce. However, E. cautella is capable of infesting both bulk and bagged stored grain. Bulk grain infestation is normally restricted to surface layers (Rees 2004).

Carda cautella (synonym of Ephestia cautella) is one of the serious pests of a wide range of commodities, especially cereals such as maize, rice, wheat, sorghum, millet, oats, cereal flours, cereal products but also dried cassava, groundnuts, cocoa beans, dried mango, dates, nutmeg, mace, cowpeas, etc. (CABI 2011).

Major Hosts: C. carda is a major pest of a range of stored product including cereals such as maize, rice, wheat, sorghum, millet, oats, cereal flours and other cereal products, dried cassava, groundnuts, cocoa beans, dried mango, dates, nutmeg, mace, cowpeas and other dried stored products (CABI 2011).

Ephestia elutella (Hubn.)

ephestia elutella

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Cacao moth/warehouse moth

Members of genus Ephestia are important pests of a wide range of stored products, especially milled, processed and manufactured produce Rees 2004).

Major Hosts: E. elutella can infest a wide range of commodities, especially cereals, cereal products, dried fruit, cocoa beans and nuts. It is a well-known pest in chocolate factories and tobacco warehouses (CABI 2008).

Ephestia kuehniella (Zell.)

ephestia kuehniella

PaDil (www.padil.gov.au)



Mediterranean flour moth

Members of genus Ephestia are considered important pests of a wide range of stored products, especially milled, processed and manufactured produce (Rees 2004).

Major Hosts: E. kuehniella is considered a pest of many cereals, including wheat (grain, bran, flour, meal, semolina), maize, rice, sorghum, oats and barley. It also attacks nuts such as almonds, date palms, carob pods, fruits and flowers, pollen, leaves, roots (dried), biscuits, human food and animal feed (CABI 2012).

Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauv.)
oryzaephilus mercator

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Merchant grain beetle

Oryzaephilus species attack a wide range of stored products and are ranked the most important stored products pests. It is more often found on commodities such as dried fruit and oilseeds rather than cereals. However, the status of O. mercator is considered to be significant but not as major as O. surinamensis (Rees 2004).

Major Hosts: Oryzaephilus mercator is primarily a pest of oilseeds or products with a high oil content, but may also infest processed cereals, dried fruit, nuts and a range of stored products (PaDil 2012). Some of the other recorded hosts include coconut, dates, maize, Palm kernel, melon seed, cocoa, wild mango, bitter melon and groundnut (Dudu et al. 1998). In New Zealand it has been intercepted on imports of a wide range of products including chocolate, coffee, confectionary, coriander, corn meal, curry, dates, dried fruits, dried seafood,

dried plant material, grain, herbs, meat meal, milk powder, nuts, pepper, pulses, raisins, rice, spices, and walnuts, and has become established in parts of the North Island (Archibald and Chalmers 1983).



Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.)

oryzaephilus surinamensis

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Saw-toothed grain beetle

Oryzaephilus species attack a wide range of stored products and are ranked as most important stored products pests. It is an important pest of stored cereals, particularly milled and processed products. It also occurs on a very wide range of other commodities such as dried fruit, nuts and soil seeds (Rees 2004).

Major Hosts: O. surinamensis is a common secondary pest of cereals including oats, barley, rice, millet, sorghum, wheat, maize, and cereal products. It may also be found on copra, spices, nuts and dried fruit. It is prevalent on white milled rice (CABI 2012). O. surinamensis has been found feeding on cereals, dried fruit, bran, rolled oats, brown rice walnuts, breakfast foods, macaroni, sugar, drugs, fried meats, chocolate and tobacco. It is unable to attack perfectly sound grain, but can feed on slightly damaged grain. Thus, it is often found in whole grain in association with other insects. It has also been observed feeding on eggs and dead adults of stored-product moths (Agriculture Western Australia).

O. surinamensis is considered a secondary pest. However, heavy infestations can taint grain and reduce germination of seed. It is, however, the contamination of export grain which is the major problem. No grain insects whatsoever are permitted in grain shipments and this position is vigorously defended by inspection and fumigation (Emery 2000).

Plodia interpunctella (Hubn.)

plodia interpunctella

UKMoth (ukmoth.org.uk)



Indian meal moth

The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) is one of the most commonly reported pests of stored grains in the United States. The larvae feed upon grains, grain products, dried fruits, nuts, cereals, and a variety of processed food products. The Indian meal moth is also a common pantry pest (Jacobs and Calvin 2001).

Major Hosts: P. interpunctella infests all types of dried produce of plant origin including grain products, dried fruit, oilseeds and products, pulses, citrus pulp, fallen fruits, nuts, dried vegetables, dried milk, spices, chocolate, pet foods, flaked fish food, bird seed, drugs, and dead insects. In grain, larvae feed primarily on the embryo (Mason 2003; Cranshaw 2008).

P. interpunctella attacks stored grain (oats, sunflower, barley, rice, maize, wheat, etc.), milled products, nuts, spices, peas, beans, lentils and other commodities (CABI 2011).

Rhizopertha dominica (F.)

rhizopertha dominica

Lesser grain borer

It is one of the most important pests of stored grain. Newly hatched larvae either bore into grain or feed amongst the matrix of damaged grain and flour produced by adults (Rees 2004).

Major Hosts: The lesser grain borer attacks a wide variety of stored foods including cereals, seeds and dried fruit; almost all grains, particularly wheat, barley, sorghum and rice, commodities such as seeds, drugs, cork, timber and paper products (Canadian Grain Commission 2009). R. dominica is a major pest of wheat and other cereal grains in storage in typically dry warm conditions found in temperate regions of Australia (PaDil 2012).

Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.)

sitotroga cerealella

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Angoumois grain moth

Sitotroga cerealella is an important pest of whole cereal grain. Females lay eggs on the outside of grain in cracks and crevices. Newly hatched larvae burrow into the grain.

Major Hosts: S. cerealella is a pest of stored products including grains and oats, barley, rice, sorghum, wheat and maize are considered the main hosts of this pest (CABI 2011).

Sitophilus granarius (L.)

sitophilus granarius

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Granary weevil

The Sitophilus female chews a small hole on the surface of grain and lays an egg into it. The hole is then plugged with waxy secretion. Larvae develop within the grain. Pupae also develop inside the grain and adults feed on grain as well. Sitophilus species are major pests of whole cereal grains (Rees 2004).

Major Hosts: S. granarius is a frequent pest of wheat and barley. It can attack other cereals such as maize, sorghum and rice, but it does not compete well with the other two Sitophilus species on these grains (CABI 2011). Three species of Sitophilus including S. granarius, S. oryzae and S. zeamais are seed parasites of cereal crops such as wheat, corn, rice, and sorghum and are important economic pest species in stored grain. The species share the same life history but do have a number of differences in their seed exploitation strategies (Longstaff 1981).

Sitophilus oryzae (L.)

sitophilus oryzae

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Rice weevil

The Sitophilus female chews a small hole on the surface of grain and lays an egg into it. The hole is then plugged with waxy secretion. Larvae develop within the grain. Pupae also develop inside the grain and adults feed on grain as well. Sitophilus species are major pests of whole cereal grains (Rees 2004).

Major Hosts: Rice, wheat, maize and sorghum are considered as the main hosts S. oryzae (CABI 2011). Three species of Sitophilus, S. granarius, S. oryzae and S. zeamais are seed parasites of cereal crops such as wheat, corn, rice, and sorghum and are important economic pest species in stored grain. The species share the same life history but do have a number of differences in their seed exploitation strategies (Longstaff 1981).

Sitophilus zeamais Motsch.

sitophilus zeamais

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Maize weevil

The Sitophilus female chews a small hole on the surface of grain and lays an egg into it. The hole is then plugged with waxy secretion. Larvae develop within the grain. Pupae also develop inside the grain and adults feed on grain as well. Sitophilus species are major pests of whole cereal grains (Rees 2004).

Major Hosts: Rice, sorghum, wheat and maize are considered as the main hosts of this species (CABI 2012). Three species of Sitophilus, S. granarius, S. oryzae and S. zeamais are seed parasites of cereal crops such as wheat, corn, rice, and sorghum and are important economic pest species in stored grain. The species share the same life history but do have a number of differences in their seed exploitation strategies (Longstaff 1981).

Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)

tribolium castaneum

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Rust-red flour beetle

Tribolium castaneum is one of the most important pests of stored grain worldwide. It is tolerant of low humidity (Rees 2004).

Major Hosts: Hosts of T. castaneum include cereals, millet, wheat bran, flour, grain spillage, broken grains, grain products, mixed feeds, beans, peas, lentils, butter beans (Phaseolus lunatus), lucerne seed, groundnut seed, flax, flax seed, rubber seed, cotton seed, cottonseed meal, safflower seed, sunflower seed, soybean meal, ginger, mustard, chillies, cinnamon, nutmeg, cocoa, copra, copra meal, yams, tapioca, raisins (including sultanas), dried figs, dried fruit, areca nuts, brazil nuts, walnuts, almonds, snuff, derris root, oilseed cakes, cakes, cotton gin trash, lac (USDA/APHIS-PPQ 1980).

Tribolium confusum Jacq. du Val

tribolium confusum

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Confused flour beetle

Tribolium confusum is one of the most important pests of stored grain worldwide. It is tolerant of low humidity (Rees 2004).

Major Hosts: T. confusum is an important pest of many commodities, especially cereals and cereal products, but also dried fruits, nuts, spices (Sauer, 1992) and oats, rice, sorghum, wheat and maize are considered as the main host of this pest (CABI 2012).

Trogoderma granarium Everts

trogoderma granarium

Shea et al. 2000



Khapra beetle

(Absent from Australia)



T. granarium is one of the most serious pests of stored grain especially when stored under hot, dry conditions. It is a frequent pest of storage structures, packaging and transport vehicles, and is a regulated quarantine pest in many countries (Shea et al. 2000).

Major Hosts: Lucerne, almond, barley, bean, corn/maize, chickpea, cowpea, dried fruit peanuts, oats, pecans, rice, walnuts, wheat as well as miscellaneous foodstuffs such as powdered milk, dried blood along with their packaging (Shea et al. 2000).

Trogoderma variabile

Warehouse beetle

Trogoderma variabile was first detected in Southern NSW in 1977. By 1981 it had spread to Queensland and Victoria. An outbreak was recorded in WA in 1979. It was later recorded in SA in the early 1990s. Despite numerous attempts at eradication, it has become established in Australia (Wright 1993). It is now a frequent pest of storage structures and is becoming a pest of bulk-stored canola in Australia. It is now widely distributed from northern NSW to SA east of Port Augusta and only has limited distribution in QLD and WA (Rees et al. 2003).

The physical appearance and lifestyle is similar to that of T.granarium. The larvae can diapause for two years or more under favourable conditions. Their natural habitat is in nests of native bees and wasps, or under tree bark. The larvae are scavengers on insect and other animal remains. They have been found in packaged grocery commodities, particularly rat and snail bait pellets, dead flies in shop windows, rodent carcases and mud-dauber wasp nests and occasionally in grain stores as scavengers.



Major Hosts: T. variabile has a broad range of hosts (Beal 1954; Strong and Okumura 1958). It is most common pest of cereals and cereal products such as rice, wheat, maize, barley, oatmeal, pasta and breakfast cereals, but has been found on pulses, fruit and nuts (CABI 2008).

Trogoderma inclusum (Le Conte)

trogoderma inclusum

ANIC - CSIRO



Larger cabinet beetle

(Absent from Australia)



Major Pest of stored grains

Major Hosts: Larvae are usually found within infested, stored items such as cereals, dried plant products, cocoa, corn meal, milk powder, dried soups, wheat, rice, seeds, dried insects and wool (PaDil 2012).




Minor pests of stored grain (Injurious Pests)

Scientific name

Common name

Comments

Acarus siro L.

acarus siro

Acarus siro on wheat grain (www.spike-international-agencies.com/grainmit.jpg)

Flour mite

Acarus siro is one of the most common mite species found in stored grain, flour and other commodities where microclimate is suitable. It is partly due to its effect on germination and the nutritive value of grain, but also for its potential to introduce fungi spores and other pathogenic organisms onto clean produce. It has been recorded in various foodstuffs - fresh, dried and mouldy, cheese, flour, grains, hay, soils, and bird nests (PaDil 2010).

A. siro is one of the most serious pests of stored foodstuffs (Griffiths 1970).

Under favourable conditions, they moult again (Lyon 1991).



Lasioderma serricorne (F.)

lasioderma serricorne

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Tobacco beetle/cigarette beetle

It is a major pest of dried processed food and a minor pest of grain.

Lasioderma serricorne is frequently found infesting a wide range of stored product. Newly hatched larvae are unable to attack undamaged grain. They search for cracks and crevices in commodities for an entry point. However, in grain storage, it is unimportant as it is primarily associated with residues (Rees 2004).

Lasioderma serricorne has a very wide host range and feeds on many kinds of dried plant and animal material, including spices, flour, cereals, dog and cat food, tobacco, leather, wool, meal, seeds, and dried fruits. In addition, they will check through non-food material such as paper and fabric to get to a food source. They are said to feed "upon almost anything except cast iron" (Day 2010).

Psocoptera

psocoptera

QDPI (dpi.qld.gov.au)



Psocids or book lice

Minor Pest of grain except Liposceli which is a Major Pest of stored grain.

Species that are associated with stored products mostly belong to four families: Lachesiilidae, Liposcelididae, Psylliposcidae and Trogiidae. Liposcelididae is considered the most important family of all the four mentioned above (Rees 2004).



Liposceli species eat almost any stored product of animal or plant origin. They are traditionally thought to be only minor pests of stored grain and grain products. However, some recent research suggested that L. bostrychophila, L. decolor, L. entomorphila and L. paeta, are considered the most important species infesting stored products. Huge populations have been found infesting stored grain in warm temperate and tropical areas (Rees 2004).

Aglossa caprealis (Hubn.)

aglossa caprealis

Murky meal caterpillar

The larvae feed in a silken tube or gallery amongst hay or wheat stacks and on associated vegetable matter (UKMoth).

It is a minor pest of residue and is associated with maize seed (DAFF 1999).



Ahasverus advena (Waltl.)

ahasverus advena

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Foreign grain beetle

It is a minor secondary pest of a wide range of commodities including cereal grain, oilseeds, copra, peanuts, dried fruit, dried herbs and cocoa beans. It does not persist in dry clean grain. Large populations and persistence is an indicator of poor storage conditions and the presence of mouldy grain. The females lay eggs in cracks and crevices in grain. The larvae move free among the foodstuff and pupate within cocoons made from small grain or food particles (Rees 2004).

Hosts

Main: Stored products, Theobroma cacao (cocoa) (CABI 2012).

Unknown: Avena sativa (oats), Coffea (coffee), Hordeum vulgare (barley), Oryzae sativa (rice), Triticum aestivum (wheat), Zea mays (maize) (CABI 2012).

Carpophilus dimidiatus (F.)

carpophilus dimidiatus

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Dried fruit beetle

A number of genera of Nitidulidss have been recorded on stored products and Carpophilus is by far the most important and frequently found on stored products. However, C. dimidiatus and C. hemipterus are two of the most important pests of stored products. In general, Carpophilus spp. feed on a wide range of damp and decomposing vegetative matter. They are considered as a minor pest of stored grain, Carpophilus spp. are common inhabitants of ripening cereal crops especially maize and are found primarily on mouldy grain residues (Rees 2004).

Carpophilus hemipterus (L.)

carpophilus hemipterus

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Dried fruit beetle

A number of genera of Nitidulidss have been recorded on stored products and Carpophilus is by far the most important and frequently found on stored products. However, C. dimidiatus and C. hemipterus are two of the most important pests of stored products. In general, Carpophilus spp. feed on a wide range of damp and decomposing vegetative matter. They are considered as a minor pest of stored grain, Carpophilus spp. are common inhabitants of ripening cereal crops especially maize and are found primarily on mouldy grain residues (Rees 2004).

Carpophilus ligneus Murray

carpophilus ligneus

PaDil (www.padil.gov.au)



Dried fruit beetle

A number of genera of Nitidulidss have been recorded on stored products and Carpophilus is by far the most important and frequently found on stored products. However, C. dimidiatus and C. hemipterus are two of the most important pests of stored products. In general, Carpophilus spp. feed on a wide range of damp and decomposing vegetative matter. They are considered as a minor pest of stored grain, Carpophilus spp. are common inhabitants of ripening cereal crops especially maize and are found primarily on mouldy grain residues (Rees 2004).

Carpophilus obsoletus Erich.

carpophilus obsoletus

PaDil (www.padil.gov.au)



Dried fruit beetle

A number of genera of Nitidulidss have been recorded on stored products and Carpophilus is by far the most important and frequently found on stored products. However, C. dimidiatus and C. hemipterus are two of the most important pests of stored products. In general, Carpophilus spp. feed on a wide range of damp and decomposing vegetative matter. They are considered as a minor pest of stored grain, Carpophilus spp. are common inhabitants of ripening cereal crops especially maize and are found primarily on mouldy grain residues (Rees 2004).

Endrosis sarcitrella (L.)

endrosis sarcitrella

CSIRO Division of Entomology



White-shouldered house moth

Moths of Oecophoridae are concealed feeders on dried and growing plant material in a wide range of environments. However, Endrosis sarcitrella is associated with stored products, primarily as a scavenger. Presence of this species in large number suggests poor hygiene (Rees 2004). Minor pest of damp grain.

Gnatocerus cornutus (F.)

gnatocerus cornutus

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Broad-horned flour beetle

Members of genus Gnatocerus are found under the bark of trees as scavengers. However, G. cornutus is considered a minor pest of stored products of both plant and animal origin. Although they are a minor pest of flour and feed mills they are scavengers on grain debris (Rees 2004).

Latheticus oryzae Waterh.

latheticus oryzae

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Long-headed flour beetle

Latheticus oryzae is a generalist feeder and a minor pest of whole grain and milled products including wheat, barley, corn, oilseeds, flour, oatmeal, pasta macaroni, cassava and beans. One sign of infestation is a disagreeable odour in the commodity caused by quinones secreted from abdominal glands (Rees 2004).

It is generally considered a minor pest of stored grain and grain products in temperate conditions as it is unable to compete with Tribolium spp unless the temperature is high. It can readily infest wheat or other grains damaged by primary insects or harvesting operations (PaDil 2010).



Mezium affine Boield

mezium affine

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Spider beetle black

Spider beetles including M. affine are minor pests typically associated with residue in a storage structure. In bulk commodities infestation remains near the surface (Rees 2004).

Spider beetle larvae infest dry animal and vegetable matter including grain, spices, fish meal, dog biscuits, dried fruit and a wide variety of miscellaneous debris (PaDil 2012).



Mezium americanum (Lap.)

mezium americanum

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Spider beetle

Spider beetles including M. americanum are minor pests typically associated with residue in a storage structure. In bulk commodities infestation remains near the surface (Rees 2004).

Mezium americanum is reported to feed and reproduce on a wide variety of foodstuffs, including almonds, animal skins, beans, books, bones, brushes, cacao, cereals, chocolate powder, corn meal, dates, dead insects and insect collections, dried fruits, dried mushrooms, dried soup, drugs derived from powdered leaves, excrement (dried), feathers, figs, fish meal, flour, ginger, grains, hair, herbarium specimens, hops, leather, maize, nutmeg, old wood in houses, paprika, rye bread, rye, seeds, silk, stuffed birds, textile fabrics, various spices, wheat, and wool (Jacobs 2006).

Nemapogon granella (L.)

nemapogon granella

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Mottled grain moth

Nemapogon granella is found in association with dried material of vegetable origin and is considered as a minor pest of stored grain (Rees 2004).

The larvae feed on grain and other stored vegetable products indoors, as well as various bracket fungi out of doors (Kimber 2012).



Palorus ratzeburgi Wissm.

palorus ratzeburgi

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Small-eyed flour beetle

Members of genus Palorus live under the bark of tree and in rotten wood. Several species including Palorus ratzeburgi are considered minor pests of stored grain. Moreover, Polarus spp. are primarily associated with residues or slightly damp grain, heated grain, mill machinery or grain that has been damaged by other insects and is contaminated with faeces. They are quite often found in on-farm grain storage facilities, especially in the tropics (Rees 2004).

It is classified as minor pest of stored grain (DAFF 1999).



Palorus subdepressus Woll.

palorus subdepressus

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Depressed flour beetle

Members of genus Palorus live under the bark of tree and in rotten wood. Several species are considered minor pests of stored grain. Moreover, Polarus spp. are primarily associated with residues or slightly damp grain, heated grain, mill machinery or grain that has been damaged by other insects and is contaminated with faeces. They are quite often found in on-farm grain storage facilities, especially in the tropics (Rees 2004).

Ptinus fur (L.)

ptinus fur

CSIRO Division of Entomology



White-marked spider beetle

It is a minor pest of damp grain.

It has been recorded in NSW, Tasmania and WA (CSIRO 2004).

Spider beetles including Ptinus fur are scavengers and primarily feed on materials of plant origin such as seeds, grain debris, herbs, dried fruit and fungi along with animal matter such as feathers and dead insects (Colostate University).

Spider beetles including Ptinus fur feed and reproduce on a wide variety of foodstuffs, including almonds, animal skins, beans, books, bones, brushes, cacao, cereals, chocolate powder, corn meal, dates, dead insects and insect collections, dried fruits, dried mushrooms, dried soup, drugs derived from powdered leaves, excrement (dried), feathers, figs, fish meal, flour, ginger, grains, hair, herbarium specimens, hops, leather, maize, nutmeg, old wood in houses, paprika, rye bread, rye, seeds, silk, stuffed birds, textile fabrics, various spices, wheat, and wool (Jacobs 2006).

It feeds on almost any organic matter of vegetable origin including stored food, paper, old fabrics, cork, decayed wood, sawdust or wood shaving. Infestation often starts in birds' nests in and around buildings (H + R 2005).


Ptinus tectus Boield.

ptinus tectus

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Australian spider beetle

It is a minor pest of damp grain.

The larvae feed on almost any type of dry, stored food, as well as carpets and furs. In dwellings, the beetles live on food and other organic debris, frequently hiding between floorboards, and sometimes emerging in large numbers. Mainly confined to towns (H + R 2005).



Pyralis farinalis (L.)

pyralis farinalis

The Australian Museum



Meal moth

It is a minor pest of mills and storage residue (Rees 2004).

The larvae feed on flour and stored grain (University of Alberta 2001).



Tenebrio molitor L.

tenebrio molitor

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Yellow mealworm

Members of genera Tenebrio normally live under the bark of tree and in rotten wood. However, two species T. molitor and T. obscurus are considered as minor pests, primarily of aged residues of stored grain. Tenebrio spp. are minor pests and scavengers of a wide range of cereals and cereal products, especially if damp and in poor conditions such as aged residues (Rees 2004).

Tenebrio obscurus F.

tenebrio obscurus

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Dark mealworm

Members of genera Tenebrio normally live under the bark of tree and in rotten wood. However, two species T. molitor and T. obscurus are considered as minor pests, primarily of aged residues of stored grain. Tenebrio spp. are minor pests and scavengers of a wide range of cereals and cereal products, especially if damp and in poor conditions such as aged residues (Rees 2004).

Tenebroides mauritanicus (L.)

tenebroides mauritanicus

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Cadelle

Tenebrio spp. are minor pests and scavengers of a wide range of cereals and cereal products, especially if damp and in poor conditions such as aged residues (Rees 2004).

Typhaea stercorea (L.)

typhaea stercorea

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Hairy fungus beetle

It is a minor stored product pest. It can breed and feed on grain under favourable conditions.

It feeds on a wide range of material of vegetable origin, including grain and grain products, especially if slightly damp. It is considered a minor pest of freshly harvested or slightly damp grain. In Australia, it is frequently found on hay presented for export. Presence of large or persistent populations in stores is key indicator of poor storage conditions (Rees 2001; Rees 2004).



Typhaea stercorea is most often referred to as a pest of stored products from warmer climates (Hinton 1945; Brower and Press 1992; Dowdy and McGaughey 1994; Hagstrum et al. 1994; Throne and Cline 1994). T. stercorea has been found in connection with compost (Hansen 1951) and poultry farms (Funder et al. 1992).


Table 2: Common field pest species associated with stored product and tolerances apply for detection of these pests in inspected samples

Field Species (Non injurious Pests)

Scientific name

Common name

Comments

Anobium punctatum (Deg.)

anobium punctatum

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Furniture beetle

Anobium punctatum is regarded as one of the most destructive pests of timber. It attacks the dead parts of trees and fallen timber and logs. It breeds in a variety of coniferous and hardwood timber. Overall, it attacks a very wide range of wood and wood products (Pinniger and Child 1996).

Anthrenocerus australis (Hope)

anthrenocerus australis

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Australian carpet beetle

Anthrenocerus australis is primarily a museum pest and it has been found attacking dried artefacts of organic origin and woollen goods. In has occasionally been found in grain storage mainly infesting residue. It is mainly associated with material of animal origin and infestation typically occurs in nests of birds, bees, ants and wasps, and dead birds and rodents. (Rees 2004).

Anthrenus flavipes Le Conte

anthrenus flavipes

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Carpet beetle

Anthrenus spp are primarily scavengers of material of animal origin. The infestation is mainly found in bird nests and dead birds and rodents (Rees 2004). It is a common pest of upholstered furniture and feed on hair, padding and upholstery (Gahlhoff Jr. 1997).

Anthrenus museorum L.

anthrenus museorum anthrenus museorum larvae

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Museum beetle

No records of its association with grain.

Present in Australia (CSIRO 2004).



Anthrenus verbasci (L.)

anthrenus verbasci

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Lesser mealworm

The larvae feed on material of dry organic origin including wool, fur, silk, felt, dried meat and carcasses. It also feeds on carpets, rugs, tapestries, clothes (PaDil).

Anthrenus spp are primarily scavengers of material of animal origin. However, the larvae of Anthrenus verbasci occasionally feed on a range of stored foodstuffs such as savoury biscuits, dried baby food, cakes, peanuts, wheat and maize. In commercial grain storages Anthrenus are of minor importance being associated with bird’s nests or animal remains. It is a pest of minor importance for stored grain (Rees 2004).

Hosts

Unknown: Cicer arietinum (chickpea) (CABI 2008).

Attagenus pellio (L.)

attagenus pellio

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Fur beetle

The genus Attagenus are mainly scavengers on dried material of animal origin. These are primarily pests of museum and attack dried artefacts or organic origin including skins, hides and woollen goods, oilseeds, fish meal and dog biscuits. In grain storage, Attagenus are considered as minor pests or scavengers (Rees 2004).

Attagenus unicolor (Brahm)

attagenus unicolor

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Black carpet beetle

The genus Attagenus are mainly scavengers on dried material of animal origin. These are primarily pests of museum and attack dried artefacts or organic origin including skins, hides and woollen goods, oilseeds, fish meal and dog biscuits. In grain storage, Attagenus are considered as minor pests or scavengers (Rees 2004).

Blaps polychresta (Forskal)

blaps polychresta

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Egyptian beetle

Blaps spp. are scavengers of minor importance. In some parts of southern Australia Blaps polychresta is a nuisance pest in and around homesteads and grain storage facilities, where it feeds on decaying plant material and animal faeces (Rees 2004).

Blattella germanica (L.)

blattella germanica

CSIRO Division of Entomology



German cockroach

Blattella germanica (L.) is one of the major urban pests in many parts of the world and is primarily found in hotels, restaurants and other food outlets (Lee et al. 1999).

Blatta orientalis L.

blatta orientalis

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Oriental cockroach

Blatta orientalis prefers relatively cool conditions and is most commonly found in southern parts of Australia. It feeds on a variety of decaying organic matter, frequently feeding in garbage disposal areas. The adult female produces egg cases that are usually found glued to surfaces. Outdoors, oriental cockroaches are found under leaf litter and bark. They can also be located in damp subfloors and around drainage systems.

Dermestes ater (Deg.)

dermestes ater

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Hide beetle

Members of the genus Dermestes primarily feed on any material of animal origin or on commodities of plant origin with high protein contents. D. ater is frequently found infesting copra and also attacks dried fish (Rees 2004).

Dermestes frischii Kug.

dermestes frischii

PaDil (ww.padil.gov.au)



Hide beetle

Members of the genus Dermestes primarily feed on any material of animal origin or on commodities of plant origin with high protein contents (Rees 2004).

Dermestes lardarius L.

dermestes lardarius

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Larder beetle

Members of the genus Dermestes primarily feed on any material of animal origin or on commodities of plant origin with high protein contents (2004).

Dermestes maculatus Deg.

dermestes maculatus

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Common hide beetle

Members of the genus Dermestes primarily feed on any material of animal origin or on commodities of plant origin with high protein contents (2004).

Ephestia figulilella Greg.

Raisin moth

Members of the genus Ephestia are important pest of a wide range of stored products, especially milled, processed and manufactured produce. E. figulilella is a relatively minor pest and typically attacks dry and drying fruit (Rees 2004).

Hofmannophila pseudospretella (Staint.)

hofmannophila pseudospretella

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Brown house moth

Hofmannophila pseudospretella is associated with stored products mainly as scavengers. Presence of large numbers of this species suggests the presence of aged residue or poor hygiene (Rees 2004)

Lyctus brunneus (Steph.)

lyctus brunneus

Agriculture Western Australia



Powder post beetle

It is a pest of timber (Agriculture Western Australia; Personal Communication with David Rees).

Necrobia ruficollis (F.)

necrobia ruficollis

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Red-shouldered ham beetle

It is found on stored products and animal parts and commonly found on the skin and bones of dead animals and on dead fish (PaDil 2012).

Necrobia ruficollis appears to be largely associated with materials of animal origin (Rees 2004).


Necrobia rufipes (Deg.)

necrobia rufipes

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Copra beetle/red-legged ham beetle

Necrobia rufipes is an important pest of copra and sometimes of oilseeds and cocoa. It is largely restricted to materials of animal origin (Rees 2004).

It is found on stored products and animal parts and commonly found on the skin and bones of dead animals and on dead fish (PaDil 2012).



Periplaneta americana (L.)

periplaneta americana

CSIRO Division of Entomology



American cockroach

Recorded in NSW, NT, QLD, WA (CSIRO 2004).

Periplaneta australasiae (F.)

periplaneta australasiae

CSIRO Division of Entomology



Australian cockroach

Recorded in NSW and QLD (CSIRO 2004).

Piophila casei (L.)

piophila casei

University of Florida



Cheese skipper

Piophila casei generally feed on overripe and mouldy cheese, and slightly salted or putrid-smelling meats, such as ham, bacon, and beef. Larvae typically feed on high-protein substrates ranging from salted beef to smoked fish and animal carcasses (Smith and Whitman 2003).

Sitona discoideus Gyll.

sitona discoideus sitona discoideus

Agriculture Western Australia

CSIRO Division of Entomology


Sitona weevil

Sitona spp. are pests of clover often grown under wheat crops. These can be contaminants of harvested grain in many temperate regions (Rees 2004).

Prietocella barbara (small pointed snail), Theba pisana (white Italian snail), Cernuella virgata (vineyard snail), Cochlicella acuta (pointed snail) snail 1

snail 2

snail 3

snail 4

Snails

Field Pest

There are four introduced species of snails (Prietocella barbara - small pointed snail, Theba pisana - white Italian snail, Cernuella virgata - vineyard snail, and Cochlicella acuta - pointed snail) considered to be pests of grain crops and pastures in the Southern Regions of Australia. These can be divided into two main groups; round or white snails and conical or pointed snails. Snails cause damage to field crops in winter and spring and contaminate harvested grain in summer due to their aestivation on the ear of cereals and pods of legumes. Apart from damaging harvesting machinery, grain shipments have been treated due to the interception of live snails.

Weed Seeds and other Contaminants


Presence of pests and other regulated articles not constituting an infestation in a commodity, storage place, conveyance, bulk vessel hold or container are considered as contamination. Contaminants are defined individually and may include ergot, cereal smut, earth (sand, soil, etc), foreign seeds, insects (large and small), objectionable material, odour, pickling compounds or artificial colouring. Contaminants may sometimes be referred to as foreign material, being all material other than whole or broken seeds or hulls of the grain being assessed. ISPM 5 confirms that some pests carried by plants and plant products which do not infest the product are also considered as contaminants. For detailed information on contaminants and tolerance levels, refer to Table 1 of PEOM Volume 8: Commodity Inspections - Grain, seeds, nuts and stockfeed. Some contaminating pests may be pests of quarantine concern to certain countries. Refer to MICoR for individual country listings.

AOs can refer to a range of reference material to assist in identification of these contaminants, for example the pocket reference guide ‘Seed Impurities of Grain, an identification kit” published by GrainCorp and PaDil (http://www.padil.gov.au).


Inert Material


AOs are advised that the definition of ‘inert material’ for phytosanitary certification purposes is restricted to only sand and soil. Inspection for quality issues such as broken grains is not required.

An importing country authority may require a consignment to be free from inert material. AOs are to interpret this as the consignment is to be practically free from sand and soil. Refer to Table 1 of PEOM Volume 8: Commodity Inspections - Grain, seeds, nuts and stockfeed for tolerances.

AOs should avoid using the term inert material to reject a consignment. In instances where sand, soil or any other contaminants are clearly detectable, the individual contaminant should be recorded.

Extraneous Matter


Extraneous matter is defined for the purpose of phytosanitary certification to be sand, soil and foreign plant debris. Extraneous matter does not include plant matter originating from the export commodity such as broken grains or seed coats.

DAFF provides certification for phytosanitary requirements and does not certify quality parameters. Phytosanitary certificates should only include statements that relate to plant health and mitigate against valid phytosanitary risks.

DAFF cannot include additional declarations on phytosanitary certificates for freedom from extraneous matter to meet a quality condition. Demonstrating freedom from extraneous matter to meet a quality condition is the responsibility of the exporter, and freedom certification documents can be obtained from commercial organisations.

An exporter may request a Declaration and Certificate as to Condition (EX188) to certify freedom from extraneous matter. The exporter is required to present testing documentation supporting the commodities freedom, and pass the DAFF inspection prior to a Declaration and Certificate as to Condition being issued by DAFF.


Ergot


Ergot is the common name for specialised fungi which parasitises the flowers of grasses and develops in the place of the seed. No other part of the plant is infected. The disease is caused by a fungal infection known as Claviceps purpurea, leading to the development of fungal sclerotia which contain poisonous alkaloids. Ergots are purplish-black or dark grey in colour and commonly infect ryegrass but is only infrequently observed in cereals.

AOs should inspect for ergot as part of normal inspection procedures for prescribed grains regardless of whether or not there is an importing country authority requirement.

Exported consignments should be within internationally accepted tolerance levels of 0.05%. Due to the speed of bulk loading, it is difficult to monitor ergot contamination in terms of percentages. Hence, the established tolerances (PEOM Volume 8: Commodity Inspections - Grain, seeds, nuts and stockfeed Table 1) relate to the maximum number of pieces of ergot in a defined volume. This enables authorised officers to count the pieces of ergot observed in a sample to facilitate decision making during inspection with a high level of confidence to adhere to the internationally recognised standard of 0.05% contamination.

Datura spp.


Datura spp. are also known as thornapples or the false caster oil plant. Datura spp. seeds are generally kidney shaped with many indentations and pits, appearing pale brown in colour and are approximately two thirds the size of a grain of wheat. Refer to PEOM Volume 8: Commodity Inspections - Grain, seeds, nuts and stockfeed Table 1 for established tolerances.

Rodents


Rodents live in burrows in warm locations on gathered nesting materials such as cloth, fur, paper and feathers. They will often nest within 5m of food sources in well sheltered areas, typically at ground level. They are usually particularly active at night and include the various species of rats and mice, Rattus spp. and Mus spp. respectively.

Mice typically have 5 to 10 litters per year. They can jump 30cm vertically and squeeze through a 6mm opening. Maturity is reached in 6 to 10 weeks. Rats typically have 4 to 6 litters per year and achieve maturity in 3-4 months. Rodents have highly developed taste, hearing and touch senses but poor eyesight and only live for about 12 months.

Rodents may contaminate consignments of prescribed goods, either in the form of live rodents or carcasses and droppings. Refer to PEOM Volume 8: Commodity Inspections - Grain, seeds, nuts and stockfeed Table 1 for tolerances.

Timber pests


AOs will need to be aware that timber pests and diseases may be present in a range of timber products including sawn timber, horticulture products, logs, wood chips and dunnage. Refer to PEOM Volume 8B Commodity inspections - Forest products for more information on timber pests.



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