Selected Research Papers in Social Change, Education, Labour Market, and Criminology Volume II



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universität

Johann Bacher r Jaroslaw Gorniak r Georg Mladenovski r Marian Niezgoda r Bernhard Prosch (Eds.)



Selected Research Papers in Social Change, Education, Labour Market, and Criminology

Volume II Linz 201

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Impressum

Johann Bacher r Jaroslaw Gorniak r Georg Mladenovski r Marian Niezgoda r Bernhard Prosch (Eds.) Selected Research Papers in Social Change, Education, Labour Market, and Criminology Volume II Linz 2011

© 2011 Alle Rechte bei den Heraus­ geberInnen Herstellung Kern: Johannes­Kepler­Universität 4040 Linz, Österreich/Austria

Umschlag: Trauner Druck GmbH & Co KG Köglstraße 14, 4020 Linz, Österreich/Austria

ISBN 978­3­85499­959­1 www.trauner.a


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Contents Preface....................................................................................................................v I. Social Trends and Developments Marian Niezgoda Education in a Global and Media-Oriented Society: A Clash of Value Systems?....3 Anica Dragovic Fertility in the Republic of Macedonia....................................................................14 Alfred Grausgruber Deinstitutionalisation of Psychiatric Long-Stay Patients in Upper Austria A Successful Example or only Trans-Institutionalisation? .....................................36 II. New Ways of Teaching in Higher Education Nicoleta Socaciu / Simon Haagen / Bernhard Prosch Drive-by Sociology – An Activating Teaching-Learning Framework......................53 Laura Henke The Development of Key Competencies in Higher Education Theoretical and Didactic Foundations of a New Way of Teaching in higher Education ..............................................................................................................66 III. Youth Transitions: Education and Labour Market Marlene Lentner Educationally Disadvantaged Youth in Austria......................................................83

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Daniela Wetzelhütter Youth Unemployment in Finland Factors Explaining High Youth Unemployment Rate............................................ 95 IV. Criminology Helmut Hirtenlehner / Barbara Starzer / Christoph Weber Patterns of Stalking Victimization: A Behavioral Typology.................................. 109 David Kemethofer Criminal and Antisocial Behaviour in Upper Austrian Print Media Results of a Content Analysis............................................................................. 132 V. Miscellaneous Maria Swia tkiewicz-Mos ny / Aleksandra Wagner Social Representations of the Energy Crisis in the Polish Press A Research Report............................................................................................. 147 Marcin Kocór Analysis of Ideological Profiles of Political Parties Theoretical and Methodological Approaches...................................................... 158 About the Editors and Authors............................................................................ 171

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Preface This volume summarises the presentations of the Nuremberg-Krakow-Linz-Skopje Research Seminars 2008 and 2009. The research seminars took place in Krakow and Skopje. The main aim of the research seminar was to bring together young scientists of different universities and to enable them to present their research results under the supervision of senior researchers and professors.

The papers cover different fields reflecting the main research areas of the participating institutions. Three papers discuss central issues of social trends and developments, asking questions like: How does the educational system handle the process of globalisation? What factors influence fertility in Macedonia? How successful was de-institutionalisation in psychiatry in Austria?

As in the last volume, two papers report on the attempts of the Nuremberg research group to introduce new kinds of teaching and learning in higher education. Two papers on youth transition follow. One paper analyses the situation of disadvantaged youth in Upper Austria. The second paper is more methodologically orientated and discusses youth unemployment in Finland. The background of this study is the fact that Finland has an excellent educational system on the one hand but a high youth unemployment rate on the other.

The new phenomenon of stalking is analysed in one of the papers in criminology. The paper is able to develop a typology of stalkers. The second paper reports on a content analysis of media reports on criminal behaviour. The paper is able to refer to biases in criminal reports.

Content analysis is used in the next paper, too. The discourse of the energy crisis in the Polish media is studied by quantitative and qualitative methods. Methodological considerations for the analysis of ideology and political parties conclude the volume.

The volume reflects the diversity of sociological, demographic and criminological research of the partners. However, all these approaches are based on the common idea that sociology can provide important knowledge to improve living conditions in society.

We wish to thank the authors for the contributions. Finally, thanks to colleagues (Martina Beham-Rabanser, Joachim Gerich, Alfred Grausgruber, Fritz Hemedinger, Helmut Hirtenlehner, Antonia Kupfer, Roman Langer, Heinz Leitgöb, Joachim Nemella and Christoph Weber) for reviewing the papers and to Daniel Ross for proofreading.

Linz, Krakow, Skopje and Nuremberg 2011

Johann Bacher / Jaroslaw Gorniak / Georg Mladenovski / Marian Niezgoda / Bernhard Prosch


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I. Social Trends and Developments

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Marian Niezgoda

Education in a Global and Media-Oriented Society: A Clash of Value Systems?

1 What society?

The last century has been claimed to be the era of ideology which through its attractiveness, the visions of the world, and a new better society appealed to many people. At the same time putting those ideals into practice cost the lives of millions of human beings. Social experiments undertaken on their basis ended as a complete failure. The last century was indeed the century of ideologies and wars fought for them – two world wars, a long-lasting so-called “cold war” between communist and democratic worlds, and many other local ones. It seems that the last wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have the same ideological character.

It is very likely that this is the reason why the term ‘ideology’ was deprived, also in academic discourse, of its initial, value-free understanding as the “science of ideas”. Academics adopted, perhaps unconsciously, the Marxist conception of ideology as “false consciousness”, an efficient instrument of manipulation (with the use of propaganda methods) on a mass scale (see Wiatr, 1968). Ideological theses became not only elements of political programs, but important factors of education as well. As a result there were many attempts to educate young people in accordance with the adopted educational ideals, which often had their origins in ideology. The institution of the school became (or perhaps it has always been?) an instrument of such educational influence. One of the founding fathers of sociology attributed to this institution the basic function of preparing individuals not only for living in society but for the society as well (see Durkheim, 1973).

Undoubtedly, the school was used as an instrument of personality formation of young people by totalitarian or authoritarian regimes (fascism, Nazism, communism) or by systems based on nationalistic or religious ideas. We can assume that the school has been performing this function up until now because the educational function is the primary one of this institution. However, sociologists analyzing the processes of teaching and educating and educational institutions have always put emphasis on the fact that one of its most important functions is the reproduction of the existing social order, both by education as well as teaching processes (which often had an ideological value). A question appears, whether this educational function of the school is still of such social importance? Which factors influenced its social role? What is the impact of the clash of values generated by global and local processes changing the value systems, ideologies or, broadly speaking, culture? These are the questions to which I will try to find an answer.

Education in a Global and Media-Oriented Society: A Clash of Value Systems?


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At present, just like earlier, representatives of social sciences face the problem: how and in what categories can we describe contemporary society? There have been many attempts to answer the question formulated in such a way. Such concepts as post-industrial, post-capitalist, post-modern society stress the fact that something is over and something new appears. Such an approach is commonly named endism. The precursors of this type of thinking were the French philosopher Raymond Aron (1955) and the American sociologist Daniel Bell (1962), who in the early sixties published The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties, putting a hypothesis that the significance both of history and ideology became considerably reduced due to the triumph of Western democracy and capitalism. It referred primarily to the decline of Marxist thinking in America, where leftist ideas became marginalized due to democracy and free market mechanisms by creating for the individuals the new opportunities for accomplishing their aspirations and life plans. The emergence of the capitalist welfare state – different from a socialist-oriented one – became the challenge with which leftist ideas in American conditions were not able to win.

The followers of the “post-type” theories stress that the processes of dynamic social transformations were caused by many factors (technological, economic, political, and cultural), which resulted in the appearance of new categories describing present societies and social mechanisms which change social texture and determine the chances of an individual and social groups. It has been stressed that at present the economy and the role of economic system elements to some extent influencing the form of the society have been changed. It is no longer manufacturing but the service sector which is more important. It is the service sector which generates more GNP and the most jobs. Toffler (1980) claims that a metaphor of an industrial society was a factory chimney with black smoke, but a metaphor of the postindustrial (the third wave) is the same chimney as an artifact without smoke. Clean environment and air become symbols.

For Bell, “post-industrialism” means an orientation towards services and a dominant role of information. The change from industrial production to services, central position of new knowledge-based industries (new technologies), promotion of new technological elites, and the emergence of new stratification mechanisms are some very likely processes we can expect. It is worth mentioning that his book The Coming of Post-Industrial Society was published in 1973 already, and Toffler’s Future Shock in 1970 and Toffler’s The Third Wave in 1980. It seems the problem is not new.

For Peter Drucker (1993), post-capitalist society means changes in the management system; namely strategic positions on boards of big corporations are occupied by people with unique qualifications, specialists in managing big organizations. The stress is put not on capital but on human factors, which is as important as the first one. The epoch of great owners is over; the new era of highly qualified managers begins. Burnham already described this phenomenon in his book The Managerial Revolution published as early as 1941 (Burnham, 1943).

At this point it would be hard not to mention the author and the work which became the final version of endism, namely Francis Fukuyama and his book The End of History and the Last Man (1992). His conception of the end of history referred to the situation after 1989, the fall of the Berlin Wall, the actual end of the Cold War. So the division into the two opposite worlds based on ideological

Education in a Global and Media-Oriented Society: A Clash of Value Systems? 4






differences has gone, at least in Europe. The victory of the Western model of social order based on democracy in politics, the free market in economy, and individualism and liberalism in ideology seemed to be evident. F. Fukuyama declared “the end of history” – in fact, the end of the socialist/communist ideology – and the final triumph of liberal democracy. In fact it means the end of great ideologies and the end of a quest for new visions of society and man. Although Fukuyama states that his concept of liberal democracy is not based on an American model, many features of his ideal are similar to the American version of liberal democracy.

The conception of post-modern society is of the different type. Its analysts show that it can be characterized by relativism (the lack of clear rules of social life for all individuals), the emergence of new forms of trust necessary for the feeling of safety and a continuity of social life, the appearance of new forms of risk, and nontransparency (inability to understand all rules of social life).

Thinking about a new type of society is not only endism, i.e. emphasis on the role of new factors which change the social world. In the late sixties and early seventies social scientists stressed the importance of knowledge and technology on the whole, creating, like R. Richta (1971) in his book Civilisation on the Crossroads, conceptions of scientific-technological revolution. In contrast to that, in the nineties and at present, there is more emphasis put on the role of information technologies, which became factors deeply changing the social texture – intermediation of human interactions, their individualism, knowledge and skills in using information technologies – both hardware and software – generate new types of social divisions. That is why, perhaps, for the description of contemporary society sociologists use such terms as information society, media-oriented society, or knowledge society. Nevertheless, in all mentioned types of society one factor is still present – mass media and especially its new telematic, interactive kind: personal computers connected to the global network, the Internet. And, what is important, they are responsible for the globalization processes. Without these methods of rapid communication, globalization would not occur.

When all factors mentioned above result in the fact it is the society of permanent and often deep change. Social processes, which earlier took centuries to occur, have undergone radical acceleration. Changes take place within one generation. Developments in communication have become factors activating the globalization processes, which will be the subject of my analysis in the next part of this paper.




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