The nature of the CAMPAS proposed measures are not anticipated to have adverse social or environmental impacts. The project will follow closely guiding principles of sustainable natural resource management. Environmental impact assessments will be undertaken where necessary in accordance with Cambodian law, in order to ensure that any interventions will not generate adverse environmental impacts. The project focuses on strengthening national biodiversity and forest carbon stock conservation through landscape-based collaborative management, through adaptation measures that center on enhancing the management effectiveness landscape connectivity, and sustainable forest management to restore ecosystem services and improve degraded ecosystems.
With regard to social safeguards, the project will contribute to national and regional development plans, and communities within the demonstration Eastern Plains Landscape site will be consulted during all stages of project implementation and will be involved in the field activities, investments and consultations in order to generate ownership of the project, particularly in community-based forest management and rehabilitation and landscape-based connectivity measures.
Please see also the UNEP ‘Checklist for Environmental and Social Issues’, submitted to GEFSEC separately. Principles and criteria that specifically apply to social aspects of CAMPAS are presented in Table 17 below, and on gender in Table 18.
Efforts to promote gender equity will be integrated in all aspects of project activities and management, through conscious integration of gender-based groups in community-based activities. The project will fully comply with UNEP gender guidelines, which are incorporated into the various parts of the project design, project framework activities, the budget, and the monitoring framework. IP-related and gender disaggregated data will be collected in consultation with local communities during the baseline surveys, to monitor project impacts following GEF and UNEP guidelines on Social and Environmental Safeguards, which include specific guidelines for the involvement of Indigenous Peoples.
Table . Applicable items and response to UNEP checklist for environmental and social issues (see full version)
CAMPAS will require temporary field support facilities, but these would have already been established by either counterpart organizations or government agencies
CAMPAS would not cause any losses to precious ecology, ecological, and economic functions due to construction of infrastructure, as it does not include components on infrastructure development.
Ecosystems related to CAMPAS are somewhat degraded, but not fragile. However, it is an objective of the project to strengthen management of these ecosystems to support their sustainability.
CAMPAS is not likely to cause any impairment of ecological opportunities within the demonstration landscape or at the national level.
CAMPAS does not involve issues that would directly or indirectly cause increase in peak and flood flows, including from temporary or permanent wastewaters.
CAMPAS will not project cause air, soil, or water pollution, soil erosion and siltation, increase of waste production, hazardous waste production, use pesticides, or cause excessive noise or traffic.
CAMPAS will not cause a threat to local ecosystems due to invasive species, as forest corridors will promote the use of assisted natural regeneration or enrichment planting with native species.
CAMPAS will not cause Greenhouse Gas Emissions except for those of normal transportation and use of facilities, but the project is all about strengthening carbon stock retainment.
At all stages, as applicable, CAMPAS will encourage the use of environmentally friendly technologies at the local levels with government, organization, and community stakeholders
CAMPAS will, on all of its implementation, respect internationally proclaimed human rights including dignity, cultural property, and uniqueness and rights of indigenous people.
CAMPAS is unlikely to cause social problems or conflicts related to land tenure and access to resources, although it will deal with issues of economic land concessions within protected areas.
In its design, CAMPAS incorporates measures to allow affected stakeholders’ information and consultation. At the demonstration site the project will be heavy on stakeholder engagement.
CAMPAS does not contain implementation aspects that would cause change to legal beneficial uses of land or resources, although will strengthen enforcement of conservation regulations.
CAMPAS will not include technologies that would cause land use modification that may change present social and economic activities.
CAMPAS will not cause dislocation or involuntary resettlement of local communities, or cause uncontrolled in-migration to possibly overload social infrastructure.
CAMPAS will include transparency measures to avoid corruption and promote adequate and equitable use of project financial and otherwise resources.
CAMPAS will take into full consideration the need for gender equality in all project workings, including the process of assessing the implications for women and men of planned action in all areas and at all levels. The project will ensure that the concerns and experiences of stakeholder women and men are an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of project resulting policies and programs, with the purpose of ultimately achieving gender equality. The project will assess the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programs, in any area and at all levels. Example of activities, (1) Organize specific women meetings/forums/focus group discussions (FGDs) where they can put forth their opinions, concerns, and suggestion prior to the formal meetings and workshop with male participants, (2) Support and strengthen capacity of existing women groups/gender networks in project target areas so that they are able to effectively perform their leadership, promote gender equality, and influence decision making in NRM, climate change and REDD+ , (3) Enhance women economic empowerment through livelihood improvement. As indicated elsewhere the project PMU will develop a project Gender Guidebook to assure gender is incorporated in the necessary operations, monitoring and reporting, such as: Training, Workshops, Meetings, Forum, Dialogues, Problem Analysis, Assessments, Appraisal, Project Intervention and Monitoring. Budget lines 2224, 2225 & 3201 have been calculated based on initial costs for gender manstreaming.
Table . Elements of gender mainstreaming to be incorporated into CAMPAS implementation
CAMPAS planned aspects during implementation
Steps will be put into place to increase the awareness of gender mainstreaming issues and benefits in all project measures, and in particular those entailing action planning and implementation and policy strategies.
Processes will be put into place to encourage and ensure meaningful participation of women in decision-making processes and policy development, at both national level and the project demonstration levels.
During the project inception period, initial assessments will be conducted to identify gender mainstreaming needs and opportunities, and to establish a baseline with regards to gender issues and initial conditions, particularly for implementation and action planning
In line with the initial assessments, the project will develop strategies and ensure that its action plans are gender-sensitive, promote gender equality, and engage both women and men in interventions and the necessary decision-making processes
CAMPAS will follow guidelines and checklists by UNEP to ensure effective engagement of women, and the project will develop a CAMPAS Gender Guidebook, to be adopted and adhered to in all its operations, from contracting, terms of reference, budgeting, and reporting. Further, the project will address within its implementation strategy the following actions to ensure gender considerations:
Conduct a gender analysis to identify issues, targets based on sex-disaggregated data
Provide tailored gender training to relevant staff and ensure support by gender specialists
Provide capacity-building for women and women’s organizations to enhance participation effectiveness