Research Report for 2016 and Plans for 2017 1. Institutional Framework
a) Changes in the staff establishment
In 2015 and 2016 four new members of staff have been appointed in the Department, namely Prof Sarojini Nadar (in the Desmond Tutu Chair of Ecumenical Theology and Social Transformation in Africa, Prof Ignatius Swart, Rev Teddy Sakupapa and Mr Demaine Solomons. During the course of 2017 two further appointments are envisaged in the fields of Old Testament Studies and New Testament studies, in order to replace Dr Miranda Pillay who retired in 2016 and Prof Douglas Lawrie who will retire during 2017.
In addition to these new staff members and the two remaining staff members in Prof Ernst Conradie and Dr John Klaasen, a number of extra-ordinary staff and emeritus professors are related to the Department and continue to contribute to its ongoing research. These include Prof Daan Cloete (emeritus professor), Prof Hans Engdahl (whose contract as emeritus professor expired in 2016), Prof Christo Lombard (whose appointment as emeritus professor is in process), Dr Yaw Adu-Gyamfi (research fellow) and Dr Robert Agyarko (research fellow). The Department will recommend the appointment of Dr Pillay as research fellow and Prof Lawrie as extraordinary professor.
b) Collaborative research frameworks
The Department of Religion and Theology registered the following three collaborative research frameworks in 2006:
Moral education and formation towards a human rights culture
Ecumenical theology and social transformation
Christian ecological theology
The department also has a long-standing research interest in the following field:
Biblical, theological and contextual hermeneutics and rhetorical theory
Given the changes in the staff and their expertise the ways in which these research frameworks were conceptualised had to be revisited. This was done through planning processes that also involve the relationship between the Department of Religion and Theology, the Desmond Tutu Chair, the Desmond Tutu Centre of Spirituality and Society (see below) and other research centres in the Faculty of Arts.
The document below reflects the ways in which the research focus areas in the Department of Religion and Theology have been reconceptualised, namely in terms of the following six research frameworks to some extent overlapping with each other, each with a number of core rubrics:
Biblical Hermeneutics and Rhetoric (to be developed in 2018)
c) Desmond Tutu Chair of Ecumenical Theology and Social Transformation in Africa
The vision for the establishment of an endowed Desmond Tutu Chair to support this project on “Ecumenical Studies and Social Ethics” was articulated when the original three projects were registered in May 2006. Given the availability of sufficient funds but an inability to make an appointment against this position since November 2009, the post was restructured as a rotating chair as an interim measure from 1 October 2012 to 30 November 2013. Christo Lombard occupied the chair in October and November 2012 and Charles Amjad-Ali in July and August 2013 in this capacity.
Christo Lombard was subsequently appointed in the chair for an initial period of 12 months as from 1 July 2013 until 30 June 2014 and again from 1 July 2014 to 30 June 2015, further extended to 31 December 2015.
Following fundraising efforts by Christo Lombard and Hans Engdahl, a visit by the full board of the Lund Mission Society (chaired by Prof Samuel Rubenson) was hosted in February 2015, together with a small delegation of EMW (headed by Dr Michael Biehl). Following this visit LMS indicated that they were willing to make a substantial amount available towards the chair. Only the interests of this investment may be used. After the necessary financial arrangements were made, the funds were eventually transferred in July 2015. On this basis the Chair was advertised in September 2015 as a renewable contract post for a period of five years at the level of Professor / Associate Professor. The process towards making an appointment in this Chair is still underway.
After interviews in November 2015 and January 2016, Prof Sarojini Nadar was appointed in the Chair as from 1 August 2016. She gave an inaugural lecture entitled “….” On ?? August 2016. …..
d) The Desmond Tutu Centre for Spirituality and Society
The Department of Religion and Theology has for some time envisaged a Desmond Tutu Centre for Spirituality and Society to provide an institutional context to implement the projects associated with the Desmond Tutu Chair. The establishment of the Centre was approved by Senate and Council in June 2014 and was formally launched on 2 December 2014. In 2015 and 2016 a constitution for the Centre was drafted and approved, a Board for the Centre was established, together with a smaller Board of Trustees that has to attend to the finances of the Centre and also the Desmond Tutu Chair.
In summary, as argued in the submissions that led to the establishment of the Desmond Tutu Centre, the interaction with the variety of civil society actors that will be the focus of the Centre involves two-way communication and invites theoretical reflection on such interaction. It is in this way that the Centre will help to clarify what an engaged university entails. Such a forum provides the space for inter-disciplinary dialogue on social transformation, intellectual inquiry in this regard, for attracting and hosting visitors, involving post-doctoral students, for receiving international postgraduate students and visitors for shorter periods of time.
Prof Christo Lombard as the incumbent in the Desmond Tutu Chair was asked by the steering committee to act as interim Director of the Centre until the formal structures are in place.
The Centre reports to the Faculty of Arts so that its activities are not reflected in this report. However, there is a need to clarify the relationship between the research frameworks indicated above and the more specific projects initiated by members of the Department of Religion and Theology on the one hand and the activities of the Desmond Tutu Centre on the other – as there is some obvious overlapping in this regard. This was discussed at a planning meeting on Friday 3 February 2017. Although this will be in constant need of clarification the following was agreed upon:
Individual members of the Department, including the Desmond Tutu Chair (who remains a member of the Department), will continue to register specific research projects and engage in ongoing research. They will see to publish such research and seek accreditation through the Department. Most, if not all such research will be related to one or more of the research frameworks as defined below. The Department will also initiate and host forms of research collaboration, for example in the forms of regular seminars, colloquia and conferences in the fields of religion, theology and ethics. It will continue to offer teaching programmes in related areas and will admit students for postgraduate studies upon application to the Department.
The Centre will identify and approve through its Board a number of research-related “activities” (to avoid confusion with registered research “projects” and teaching “programmes”). These research activities may or not be related to research projects of members of staff in the Department. Typically, research activities of the Centre will be characterised by a) the need for multi- and trans-disciplinary collaboration on social transformation also beyond the fields covered in religion and theology, b) formal or contractual collaboration with other institutions, including Faith-Based Organisations and Community-Based Organisations and funding agencies, c) external funding that is not tied only to the projects of individual members of staff, and d) the need to host visiting scholars and students working in a multi- and trans-disciplinary context. In short, the Centre will not recognise activities for which no budget is provided but will of course be involved in ongoing planning towards such activities.
The Department notes the following current activities of the Centre:
An annual Forum with Faith-Based Organisations and Community-Based Organisations (hosted by the Centre with funding provided by EMW at R50 000 for 2017);
Mpilo-project on the legacy of Archbishop emeritus Desmond Mpilo Tutu: The Theology and Ethical leadership of Desmond Tutu (a core research activity of the Centre’s Director and the Desmond Tutu Chair, funded through their salaries, publications in this regard to be funded through EMW)
Food, Values and Ethics programme (funded through the Mellon Foundation at R8.4 million for 2015-2017, shared with a project on Food Politics and Cultures: Humanities Approaches to Food and Food Systems);
Conferences on Gender-based violence with the South African Faith and Family Institute and the Western Cape Religious Leaders Forum (funded through EMW);
German/South African Study Project on Churches in the History of South Africa, Phase III: “The South Africa we pray for” (conference planned for September 2017 at UWC, to be hosted in collaboration with the South African Council of Churches, funded through German churches and EMW at R120 000);
Volmoed Youth Leadership Training Project (in collaboration with the AHA-movement on Authentic Hopeful Action to address Poverty, Unemployment and Inequality, to be funded through EMW, R50 000);
Emerging Voices colloquium (hosted in collaboration with the Department of Religion and Theology, funded through EMW);
Politics of Identity, Ethics, Reconciliation (PIER) (application for STINT funding submitted)
2. Religion, Ethics and Social Transformation
The following components were identified within the research framework entitled “Moral education towards a Human Rights Culture as established in 2006:
a) Ethical theory
b) Responsibility theory
c) Moral dimensions of worldview theory
d) Discourse on a human rights culture
e) The “global ethic” initiative and debate
f) Moral and religious education in Southern African schools
g) Violence against women and children; women's issues
h) HIV/AIDS education
i) Gender and Homosexuality
j) The role of religion in society to support moral cohesion
k) The role of the formation of personhood in community development
l) Ethical reflection on biotechnology
m) Poverty, Unemployment and Inequality: Christian authentic hopeful action
n) Food Contestation: The symbolic construction of food consumption in the context of food insecurity”
Under the research framework of Religion, Ethics and Social Transformation as reconceptualised here the following areas have been identified as core themes for current and envisaged research in the department:
b) The Role of Religion in Society to Support Moral Cohesion
c) Poverty, Unemployment and Inequality: Authentic Hopeful Action
d) Food, Ethics and Values
e) The Symbol of Reconciliation
Progress was made in 2016 on the following aspects while plans are also underway for 2017 in some of these areas. Significant achievements are highlighted in yellow. Where significant developments in conceptualising a collaborative project took place in 2016, this is included where appropriate.
a) Teaching on the Moral and Religious Foundations of Society In moral language a confusing set of concepts is typically used. In modules offered by the department a distinction is made between the role played by visions, virtues, values and obligations while related concepts such as goals, attitudes, principles, rules and moral codes also bear scrutiny. This invites ongoing reflection on basic moral concepts.
Develop first year text book on responsible decision making
C Lombard, et al
Develop first year textbook on world religions and their moral codes
b) The role of religion in society to support moral cohesion
There is, of course, a rich tradition of academic reflection on the role of religion in society and more specifically in moral formation. This role is typically explained in functional terms. However, this has become highly contested in the Western world and in Africa alike. What, then, is the role of religion (more specifically ecumenical engagement) in moral formation within the African context?
Local faith communities have traditionally played a crucial role in maintaining the moral fabric of society. This role is recognised in the so-called Böckenförde principle which holds that the moral fibre of modern (Western) societies rely on moral sources that such societies cannot themselves guarantee or sustain. The moral fibre may be explained in generic categories (values, virtues, visions, duties) but the sources of inspiration behind them are particular and cannot be captured through a generic sense of religiosity. They are typically embedded in the archetypes, symbols and belief systems of religious traditions. To sustain such moral sources, the particularity of such traditions therefore has to be taken seriously.
This role of religion in caring for the vulnerable and in dispensing aid is widely recognised as indispensable in Africa, also by international aid organizations. Churches in South Africa have a long and outstanding track record of providing social services around education, health, caring for the deaf, blind, elderly, orphans and the homeless.
This role of local faith communities in maintaining the moral fabric of society may be described in sociological terms (for example in an important study by Robert Putham and others on “American grace”) and is recognized in secular contexts, sometimes even with a sense of envy. Local faith communities rely on voluntary participation yet attract large numbers of very regular and highly committed adherents. Together, Christian churches form the largest and best supported organization on the African continent. Local faith communities typically (but not always) have trusted leaders who command considerable moral authority (which also leaves room for abusive charismatic leadership). Local faith communities draw on long-standing moral codes and traditions of wisdom that are widely accepted by their adherents. They are carriers of symbols and archetypes that people regard as persuasive and transformative. In contexts of rapid social change such moral communities help to maintain the “moral fabric of society”, that is, some stability in terms of family structures, the cultivation of virtues such as care, and an ethos of respect for others and commitment to distributive and contributive justice.
Local faith communities nevertheless seem ill-equipped to make much of a difference to issues at the local level that are regarded as national priorities and at times resist such agendas imposed from the outside. As a result the reception of ecumenical initiatives in local faith communities is widely regarded as an intractable problem. Moreover, through processes of rapid social change such moral communities become fragmented faster than they are replenished – which bodes ill for the moral fabric of society. Many religious communities in Africa have become trapped in a consumerist culture of greed and even promote such a culture, for example through the “prosperity gospel”. This may offer religious motivation for an upward social mobility but may also undermine the very sources of the moral fibre of society mentioned above. Moreover, trust in religious leadership is undermined by scandalous reports on abusive charismatic leadership, corruption, financial mismanagement and sexual misconduct by religious leaders.
This deep-seated tension between the possibilities of faith communities to maintain the moral fibre of society and their limitations to foster social transformation forms a core interest of the Desmond Tutu Centre for Spirituality and Society.
In February 2016 (Stellenbosch) and June 2016 (Berlin) Prof Conradie participated, on behalf of the Department in planning sessions with partners at Humboldt University, Stellenbosch University and the University of KwaZulu-Natal in order to prepare an application to establish an International Research Training Group, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) on the German and the National Research Foundation (NRF) on the South-African side. Such an application entitled “Religion, Situated Knowledge, and Social Transformation” was submitted in August 2016 to the DFG. In the application Proff Heike Becker, Ernst Conradie, Sarojini Nadar, and Ignatius Swart were listed as principal investigators.
The following specific research activities may be listed in this regard that are not addressed elsewhere:
“Partnerships between Faith-Based Organisations and government in Elsiesriver”; Ongoing PhD project (2014-); Supervisor: EM Conradie
South African newspaper reports on corruption: A rhetorical analysis of the media in moral formation; Ongoing PhD project (2014-); Supervisor: EM Conradie
A comparison of the views of Augustine Shutte and Thaddeus Metz on African philosophy and Ubuntu ethics; ongoing Master s project; supervisor C Lombard & T Oyowe
EM Conradie, S Nadar, I Swart
Continue with planning towards the International Research Training Group
c) Poverty, Unemployment and Inequality: Authentic Hopeful Action
Progress was made in the following areas in 2016:
“The Viability of the South African National Development Plan and Amartya Sen’s Theory of Ethical Development”; Ongoing PhD project (2014-); Supervisor: C Lombard; Submitted November 2016
Ecumenical perspectives towards a spirituality for the liberation of the poor in South Africa”; Ongoing PhD project (2015-); Supervisor: C Lombard
“Restitution in South African economic policy documents, 1994-2014”; MPhil thesis, Supervisor: EM Conradie, Graduated August 2016
Sustainable economic development; Ongoing Masters project; Supervisor R Gallant
d) Food, Ethics and Values
Progress was made in the following areas in 2016:
Exploring the influence of food symbolism on food insecurity in Roman Catholic communities in Eastern Cape and Western Cape Provinces – South Africa
“Fighting Finitude: The argument for GMO food in the light of Christian views of sin as sloth and as pride” Postdoctoral project that commenced in 2015
The Implementation of Islamic Perspectives on Nutrition in the Context of Muslim Faith-Based Organisations in Cape Town; Supervisors: M Saidi, EM Conradie;
M Phil project
Food relief or food security? A study of the policies and programmes of five Muslim social welfare organisations in South Africa; supervisors: EM Conradie, M Saidi
Taught a postgraduate module on “Religion and Food contestation” in the first semester of 2016.
Do “Climate Justice, Food Security … and God: Some Reflections from the Perspective of Ecotheology”: Keynote paper read at a consultation on “Ecotheology, Climate Change and Food Security”, hosted by the World Council of Churches, Globethics.net, Bread for the World and United Evangelical Mission in cooperation with the Volos Academy and the Orthodox Academy of Crete in Volos, Greece, 12-13 March 2016.
“Exploring the Influence of Food Symbolism on Food Insecurity in Roman Catholic Communities in the Eastern Cape and Western Cape Provinces”: Paper presented at the Joint Conference of Academic Societies in the field of Religion and Theology, i.e. at the Theological Society of South Africa’s sessions on “From Farm to Fork: Theological and Ethical reflection on the production, distribution and consumption of food.”
“What do we do when we eat? A theological investigation”: Paper presented at the Joint Conference of Academic Societies in the field of Religion and Theology, i.e. at the Theological Society of South Africa’s sessions on “From Farm to Fork: Theological and Ethical reflection on the production, distribution and consumption of food.”
“GM food and collective sin: A Christian theological ethical reflection”: Paper presented at the Joint Conference of Academic Societies in the field of Religion and Theology, i.e. at the Theological Society of South Africa’s sessions on “From Farm to Fork: Theological and Ethical reflection on the production, distribution and consumption of food.”
“Gender and Food in the Eucharistic Community: A Theological Reflection”: Paper read at the Annual Conference of the Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians (Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa), May 2016.
“Feasting on flesh: Vegetarianism, the Eucharist and Resisting Injustice”: Paper read at a conference of the Society for the Study of Christian Ethics (Cambridge University, Cambridge, United Kingdom), September 2016.
“Fighting Finitude: The Christian view of sin in relation to consumption of GM food and food contestation”:Paper read at a colloquium on Redeeming Sin at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Religion (San Antonio, United States of America), November 2016
Conradie, EM 2016. “What do we do when we eat? Part 1: An inconclusive inquiry.” Scriptura 115, 1-17. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.7833/115-0-1291.
Conradie, EM 2016. “What do we do when we eat? Part 2: A theological inquiry.” Scriptura 115, 1-19. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.7833/115-0-1293.
Conradie, EM 2016. Climate Justice, Food Security … and God: Some Reflections from the Perspective of Ecotheology”. In: Werner, D & Jeglitzka, E (eds): Climate Justice and Food Security: Theological Education and Christian leadership Development, 109-134. Geneva: Globethics.net.
Kotzé, M. 2016. “Human genetic engineering and social justice in South Africa: Jürgen Moltmann and human dignity”. Acta Theologica 36(1), 70-84.
Kotzé, M. 2016. “GM food and collective sin: A Christian theological ethical reflection.” Scriptura 115, 1-12.
In addition the possibility of a working arrangement between the Department of Religion and Theology at the University of the Western Cape (UWC) and the Food Basket for Africa (FBFA), was discussed at various meetings involving John Klaasen and Christo Lombard of UWC and Keith Johansson and R Barry of FBFA.