Assoc. Professor Dale Bagshaw, Phd adjunct, School of Psychology, Social Work & Social Policy, University of South Australia



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  • Assoc. Professor Dale Bagshaw, PhD

  • Adjunct, School of Psychology, Social Work & Social Policy, University of South Australia


Conducted research and wrote the State Plan for the SA Government’s Office for the Ageing:

  • Conducted research and wrote the State Plan for the SA Government’s Office for the Ageing:

  • Our Actions for the Prevention of Abuse of Older South Australians

  • Associate Professor Dale Bagshaw: Manager

  • Dr Sarah Wendt

  • Dr Lana Zannettino

  • http://www.sapo.org.au/pub/pub11143.html



Preventing the financial abuse of older people by a family member: Designing and evaluating an older person-centred model of family mediation.

  • Preventing the financial abuse of older people by a family member: Designing and evaluating an older person-centred model of family mediation.



Associate Professor Dale Bagshaw (UniSA): Manager

  • Associate Professor Dale Bagshaw (UniSA): Manager

  • Dr Sarah Wendt (UniSA)

  • Dr Lana Zannettino (Flinders University)

  • Dr Valerie Adams (UniSA Research Associate)

  • in partnership with

  • SA Dept for Families & Communities (Disability, Ageing and Carers Branch),

  • Relationships Australia SA,

  • Office of the Public Advocate,

  • Alzheimer’s Australia SA

  • Guardianship Board and

  • supported by the Aged Rights Advocacy Service.



We used the phrase

  • We used the phrase

  • ‘abuse of older adults’ not

  • ‘elder abuse’

  • out of respect for our Indigenous Elders.



Images and concepts of ageing are changing.

  • Images and concepts of ageing are changing.

  • Some of my peers (war babies) say that 60 is now the new

  • ‘middle-age’

  • The baby boomers will

  • make a difference







Varies from 45-65 depending on the researcher, organisation or service

  • Varies from 45-65 depending on the researcher, organisation or service

  • Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) – starts at 45, which reflects the lower life expectancy of Indigenous adults.

  • Commonwealth Age pension – 65+ for males, 60-65 for females, depending on when they were born

  • World Health Organisation – 60+

  • For our research we used 65+



  • Social and cultural (rural, ethnic, professional) constructions of ‘ageing’, ‘gender’ and ‘abuse’ influence how the community, older people and service providers understand and respond to abuse and abusive relationships.



The most commonly used definition of abuse of older people in Australia is:

  • The most commonly used definition of abuse of older people in Australia is:

  • Any act occurring within a relationship where there is an implication of trust, which results in harm to the older person. Abuse can be physical, sexual, financial, psychological, social and/or neglect.



The vast majority supported the need for a broader understanding of abuse and for the definition to include:

  • The vast majority supported the need for a broader understanding of abuse and for the definition to include:

  • imbalance of power and control (80%) (central to definitions of domestic and family violence).

  • the gendered nature of abuse of older people (86%)

  • abuse of an older person’s rights (86%)

  • cultural abuse (86%)

  • spiritual abuse (85%)



abuse of an older person’s pets (85%)

  • abuse of an older person’s pets (85%)

  • and

  • abuse can also involve a negligent act or a failure to act, as in cases of neglect (73%).



It is likely that many members of the community may not have heard the term ‘elder abuse’ or may only believe that behaviour is abusive if it is physical.

  • It is likely that many members of the community may not have heard the term ‘elder abuse’ or may only believe that behaviour is abusive if it is physical.

  • Non-physical forms of abuse are often subtle and hard to detect.

  • The older person may be subjected to several different kinds of abuse at the same time, to a lesser or stronger degree.



  • It can involve an act of commission (abuse) or omission (neglect) which can be

    • intentional, wilful, deliberate or malicious, or
    • unintentional, benign, passive or reckless.


Physical abuse can include being pushed, hit, sexually assaulted, burned or physically restrained

  • Physical abuse can include being pushed, hit, sexually assaulted, burned or physically restrained

  • Psychological abuse can include humiliation, insults, threats or being treated like a child.



    • passive neglect: being left alone, isolated, or forgotten
    • active neglect: withholding of items that are necessary for daily living, such as food and medicine, or placing an older adult in isolated or sub-standard care.


Medical abuse can include the inappropriate use of restraints or the withholding or careless administration of drugs, failure to treat an illness, etc

  • Medical abuse can include the inappropriate use of restraints or the withholding or careless administration of drugs, failure to treat an illness, etc

  • Social and environmental abuse can include a failure to provide necessary human services and involuntary social isolation



making improper use of an older adult’s property or money without his or her knowledge or permission and can include

  • making improper use of an older adult’s property or money without his or her knowledge or permission and can include

  • forgery

  • stealing

  • forced changes to a will

  • involuntary transfer of money or property to another person

  • withholding funds from the older person and the

  • failure to repay loans.



  • Can also include the misappropriation of enduring powers when a trusted person (usually a family member) is legally appointed with enduring powers to manage the financial affairs of the older person.

  • With the ageing population and the increasing complexity associated with financial management, this type of abuse is likely to increase.



We found that the abuse of older people

  • We found that the abuse of older people

  • is an under-researched and hidden problem

  • occurs across the spectrum of our society and

  • is often unrecognised, unreported, and hard to detect.



Australian and overseas studies estimate that between 3 and 5% of older people aged 65 years and over and living at home suffer from various forms of abuse or neglect (Kurrle 2004, p.809).

  • Australian and overseas studies estimate that between 3 and 5% of older people aged 65 years and over and living at home suffer from various forms of abuse or neglect (Kurrle 2004, p.809).

  • These figures vary with the methods and definitions used.

  • Most victims are women

  • (Rabiner, O’Keefe & Brown, 2004).



The Australian Institute of Criminology - ‘4.6% of older people are victims of physical, sexual or financial abuse, perpetrated by family members and those in a duty of care relationship’

  • The Australian Institute of Criminology - ‘4.6% of older people are victims of physical, sexual or financial abuse, perpetrated by family members and those in a duty of care relationship’

  • (Kinnear & Graycar 1999, p.1).



There is a strong link between the abuse of older people and dementia.

  • There is a strong link between the abuse of older people and dementia.

  • Dementia is rapidly increasing in Australia, specifically in the older age groups.

  • A 2011 report estimated that the the number of Australians with dementia over 60 years of age will triple from 2011 to 2050 (from 266,574 to 942,624) (Deloitte Access Economics, 2011).



  • Financial abuse is emerging as a significant form of abuse

  • (Office of Seniors Victoria, 2005 & 2012)

  • Researchers have found that psychological and financial abuse—non-physical forms of abuse—are the most likely forms of abuse to be reported by people 65 and over

    • (Schofield et al 2002: 25).


Research indicates that the people most likely to commit financial abuse are the older person’s relatives, in particular their adult son or daughter

  • Research indicates that the people most likely to commit financial abuse are the older person’s relatives, in particular their adult son or daughter

  • (Brill, 1999; Cripps, 2001; Boldy, Webb, Horner, Davey, & Kingley, 2002; Faye & Sellick, 2003; Johnson 1997; Cavanagh 2003).

  • The Office of the Public Advocate in Western Australia found that, during 1995-1998, 10% of applications alleged financial abuse, with relatives most often the alleged perpetrators.



Another 2004 study – 80-90% of abusers of older people in Australia were close family members. (Kurrle 2004, p.809).

  • Another 2004 study – 80-90% of abusers of older people in Australia were close family members. (Kurrle 2004, p.809).

  • In addition, adult children or other family members are most likely to provide the assistance required by the disabled or dependent elderly person. (Kinstle, Hodell and Golding, 2008)



The 2001 SA Aged Rights Advocacy Service study found financial abuse in one third of 100 cases over a period of 2 years - the majority of victims were women aged over 75 years (James & Graycar, 2000; Cripps, 2001).

  • The 2001 SA Aged Rights Advocacy Service study found financial abuse in one third of 100 cases over a period of 2 years - the majority of victims were women aged over 75 years (James & Graycar, 2000; Cripps, 2001).

  • Other studies have found that abuse of older people within the family is still largely the abuse of older women by older and younger men

  • Older women are particularly at risk of financial abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse

  • (e.g. see Penhale 1999; Boldy et al. 2002; Faye & Selleck 2003; Nerenberg 2008).



The 2006 Australian Bureau of Statistics research - one in four women who have experienced an incident of physical violence is aged 45 years and older

  • The 2006 Australian Bureau of Statistics research - one in four women who have experienced an incident of physical violence is aged 45 years and older

  • Supported by other Australian research (e.g. Morgan Disney & Associates 2000).

  • However, the gendered nature of the abuse of older people is still relatively invisible in Australia



  • The domestic violence sector has tended to focus on younger women and their dependent children.

  • Abuse of older adults is highly likely to be ‘spouse abuse grown old’ or continuing domestic violence

  • (see Nerenberg 2008; Leisey, Kupstas & Cooper, 2009; Brandl, 2000).



Tend to live longer

  • Tend to live longer

  • More likely to be financially abused after their partner dies (Brozowski & Hall 2004)

  • More likely to be abused by a broader range of family members than men (Livermore, Bunt & Biscan 2001).

  • Less likely to have access to superannuation and, therefore, more likely to rely on the Aged Pension

  • (Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia 2011).



Financial abuse is the most common form of reported abuse experienced by older Australian Aboriginal people (Office of the Public Advocate, 2005).

  • Financial abuse is the most common form of reported abuse experienced by older Australian Aboriginal people (Office of the Public Advocate, 2005).

  • Partly due to colonisation, dispossession and oppression

  • Often called ‘humbugging’ in the NT



… says a culture of bullying among Indigenous communities is being fed by harsh Native Title laws and feelings of dispossession.

  • … says a culture of bullying among Indigenous communities is being fed by harsh Native Title laws and feelings of dispossession.

  • He describes lateral violence…..which occurs when people who are victims of a situation of dominance, turn on each other instead of confronting the system that oppresses them - a major problem in Indigenous communities.



poor English skills

  • poor English skills

  • social isolation

  • dependency on family members

  • cross-generational factors which result in differing expectations of care and support

  • fear of being shamed by and excluded from their communities

  • (Office of the Public Advocate in Western Australia, 2006)



face additional challenges in re-settlement

  • face additional challenges in re-settlement

  • For example:

  • family unemployment

  • poverty

  • the changed roles and rights of older people (particularly older women)

  • lack of family support and intervention

  • social isolation, and

  • inter-generational conflicts

  • (Bonar & Roberts 2006).



  • Research approved by UniSA’s Human Research Ethics Committee

  • Extensive review of the literature

  • National online survey of CEOs organisations servicing older people and of family mediation agencies

  • National online survey of service providers in those organisations

  • 2-day phone-in with older people and their relatives

  • National on-line survey of older people and their relatives



CEOs 228 responses

  • CEOs 228 responses

  • Service providers 214 responses

  • Relatives 69 responses

  • Older people 45 responses

  • TOTAL: 556 responses



CEOs and service providers were asked to check the factors which contributed to the financial abuse of older people (multiple responses were possible) and to add other factors if they wished.

  • CEOs and service providers were asked to check the factors which contributed to the financial abuse of older people (multiple responses were possible) and to add other factors if they wished.









Respondents were asked to rank 12 strategies that may enhance the prevention of financial abuse of older people by a family member, in order of importance

  • Respondents were asked to rank 12 strategies that may enhance the prevention of financial abuse of older people by a family member, in order of importance

  • Responses were received from 132 CEOs & 123 service providers = total 255 responses.





diminished cognitive capacity

  • diminished cognitive capacity

  • mental or physical disability

  • poor or restricted mobility

  • lack of awareness of what constitutes abuse

  • lack of knowledge of their rights or resources

  • social isolation or fear of alienation



need to preserve a family relationship

  • need to preserve a family relationship

  • dependency on others in the family

  • stigma and shame associated with abuse

  • literacy and language barriers

  • religious, generational and cultural barriers

  • fear of reprisal from the perpetrator and a

  • perceived or actual lack of options or access to services.



Negative, historical experiences of interventions which led to separation and loss for many people.

  • Negative, historical experiences of interventions which led to separation and loss for many people.

  • Older Indigenous people mostly want to stay in their families and communities and fear removal if they say anything about the abuse.



  • Lack of knowledge of the law and services

  • Reliance on family members and their communities for support

  • Communication and language difficulties

  • (Bagshaw, Wendt & Zannettino 2007; Bonar & Roberts 2006).



Domestic violence research has shown that all forms of abuse are often interconnected and are part of a complex, shifting kaleidoscope or mosaic of abuse, often with the misuse or abuse of power and control at the centre (Bagshaw 2003).

  • Domestic violence research has shown that all forms of abuse are often interconnected and are part of a complex, shifting kaleidoscope or mosaic of abuse, often with the misuse or abuse of power and control at the centre (Bagshaw 2003).



  • Abuse of older people is a public issue requiring a community response and in serious cases a criminal justice response.



Specific education and resources needed for legal, health care and social service providers (eg doctors, carers, household help, police, clergy) to assist them to

  • Specific education and resources needed for legal, health care and social service providers (eg doctors, carers, household help, police, clergy) to assist them to

    • identify abuse,
    • establish or adhere to appropriate protocols,
    • screen for abuse,
    • respond effectively, and
    • make appropriate referrals.


Raising awareness of the problem is the first step towards reducing it

  • Raising awareness of the problem is the first step towards reducing it

  • Public education will help combat ageist beliefs.

  • Need to establish or strengthen informal forms of social support for older people to maintain their independence and quality of life



Participatory models hold the most potential to address the ageist context in which abuse occurs - allow older people to own responses instead of relying on professional expertise.

  • Participatory models hold the most potential to address the ageist context in which abuse occurs - allow older people to own responses instead of relying on professional expertise.

  • Interagency collaboration is essential as the abuse of older people is a legal, medical, and mental health issue as well as a social phenomenon.



Relationships Australia (Adelaide and Berri offices),

  • Relationships Australia (Adelaide and Berri offices),

  • the SA Office of the Public Advocate and Mark Braes (Mt Gambier) offered a free service to older people and their families for this trial.



To design, pilot & evaluate a specialised older-person-centred model of family mediation which focuses on the best interests & safety of older adults, directly or indirectly includes their voices in decision-making and builds resilient, supportive and protective family relationships.

  • To design, pilot & evaluate a specialised older-person-centred model of family mediation which focuses on the best interests & safety of older adults, directly or indirectly includes their voices in decision-making and builds resilient, supportive and protective family relationships.



when an older person wishes to involve family members in decisions or plans about their finances and assets, and/or

  • when an older person wishes to involve family members in decisions or plans about their finances and assets, and/or

  • when family members believe that an older person is vulnerable to, or is experiencing neglect, exploitation or abuse, and/or

  • where family conflict involves an older person’s finances or assets.



  • Older people and their families were asked to identify the potential advantages and disadvantages of organising family mediation early in the ageing process to address an older adult’s concerns about the management of their finances, property or other assets now or in the future



61 responses were grouped under four main themes:

  • 61 responses were grouped under four main themes:

    • enhancing the rights and wishes of older people
    • opening and facilitating communication between family members and between family members and older people
    • enhancing the accountability and responsibility of family members &
    • reducing family conflict.


Of 57 respondents, 12 said there were no disadvantages. Three themes emerged from the other responses:

  • Of 57 respondents, 12 said there were no disadvantages. Three themes emerged from the other responses:

  • it may be hard to get families to commit to the process or to see the value in prevention

  • family members could misuse the financial and other information provided in the mediation

  • the older person may feel uncomfortable discussing financial matters with family members.



Any older person and family members who wished to have difficult conversations and/or make plans to protect the older person’s finances and assets.

  • Any older person and family members who wished to have difficult conversations and/or make plans to protect the older person’s finances and assets.

  • Primary prevention

  • We hypothesised that family mediation may be more useful where financial abuse had not yet occurred or where financial exploitation by a family member has been unintentional, benign, passive or reckless .



In some cases, where there has been intentional, wilful, deliberate or malicious financial exploitation or abuse or a family history of abuse, plans could be put in place by the older person and/or non-abusive family members to safeguard the older person and his/her assets in the future.

  • In some cases, where there has been intentional, wilful, deliberate or malicious financial exploitation or abuse or a family history of abuse, plans could be put in place by the older person and/or non-abusive family members to safeguard the older person and his/her assets in the future.



UniSA’s Human Research Ethics Committee.

  • UniSA’s Human Research Ethics Committee.

  • Participation voluntary and confidential

  • Support persons and advocates included if needed.

  • Potential participants first seen separately

  • Screening tool developed to identify violence or abuse

  • Mediator’s focus: ensuring that the voices of older people were heard, directly or indirectly, and their safety, rights and best interests were upheld.



  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of offering facilitated family meetings (family mediation) as a potential strategy for prevention or early intervention where older adults are being, or are at risk of being, financially exploited by a family member?



Opens communication

    • Opens communication
    • Brings the issues into focus
    • Can educate older people and their families about the nature of abuse
    • Can bring financial abuse into the open where it can be better understood - some people might be unaware they are abusing (unintentionally) and so will stop that behaviour.
    • Can strengthen supportive networks - including workers, families and others


Older people can become more aware of their rights and options

    • Older people can become more aware of their rights and options
    • Provides an access point for supportive family members to be involved
    • May be a catalyst to bring family members together – may encourage the involvement of estranged family members who could be very helpful to the older person
    • Can empower older people and redistribute power where there is a power imbalance


Can reduce destructive family conflict and assist families to problem-solve in a constructive way

    • Can reduce destructive family conflict and assist families to problem-solve in a constructive way
    • May create an improvement even if it doesn’t solve all the problems
    • Major decisions made in haste could be prevented
    • May avert a crisis
    • Protective mechanisms can be put in place where the older person is vulnerable or at risk
  •  



The abusers can learn about their behaviour and check their interpretations or ignorance.

    • The abusers can learn about their behaviour and check their interpretations or ignorance.
    • Meetings act as a warning light to the family – that abuse is serious and that society doesn’t tolerate it and is supporting the rights of the older person
    • Mediators are usually seen as independent and impartial
    • Early family mediation may circumvent the escalation of legal recourse and prevent the case appearing at the Guardianship Board


Having the whole family involved

    • Having the whole family involved
    • Increases the family’s awareness of available support services
    • Defuses domination by one family member
    • Provides a forum to discuss end-of-life decisions and other related matters
    • Untangles confusion and identifies the real issues of concern


Gives the older person a voice in an open forum

    • Gives the older person a voice in an open forum
    • Prevents future conflict
    • Clears the air on issues that may be impacting on people’s behaviour
    • Can organise the older adult’s and their family’s future
    • Can help to raise awareness of the particular needs of the older person


Families can develop a code of conduct that families can refer to e.g rules for communication, such as each person has a turn to speak, roles, respecting rights etc

    • Families can develop a code of conduct that families can refer to e.g rules for communication, such as each person has a turn to speak, roles, respecting rights etc
    • Families can learn how others handle matters or get an idea about what community expects older people to be treated.
    • Can be used as a way for families to talk confidentially - doesn’t go on a formal record.


The family meetings need to occur in a safe place suitable for the older person.

  • The family meetings need to occur in a safe place suitable for the older person.

  • Flexible processes need to be offered – eg shuttle mediation (older person seen separately and the mediator goes between, use of advocates etc).

  • Mediators should always assume the older person has capacity unless assessed by an expert as not having capacity.



Preferably occurs when the older person is independent and has full cognitive ability

    • Preferably occurs when the older person is independent and has full cognitive ability
    • Need more than one meeting to get results
    • Useful if it is a free service and well-advertised in different languages
    • If use mediation with patriarchal families, the mediator needs be in control and establish and enforce firm norms.


Language issues: SPs stated that the terms ‘abuse’ and ‘mediation’ may have turned people off or been misunderstood. May have been more useful to use the terms such as ‘exploitation’ and ‘facilitated meetings’ instead

  • Language issues: SPs stated that the terms ‘abuse’ and ‘mediation’ may have turned people off or been misunderstood. May have been more useful to use the terms such as ‘exploitation’ and ‘facilitated meetings’ instead

  • Other possible reasons were outlined in the following focus group comments about the potential disadvantages of mediation

  • .



May be difficult where the older adult has mental health issues, mild cognitive impairment or dementia

    • May be difficult where the older adult has mental health issues, mild cognitive impairment or dementia
    • Can escalate the abuse
    • May have negative repercussions and increase the older adult’s isolation if the perpetrator withdraws the client from the service. Really need safety measures and checks beyond the meeting.


May pressure family members to have a relationship with each other that they do not want, which may worsen the family dynamics and precipitate a crisis

    • May pressure family members to have a relationship with each other that they do not want, which may worsen the family dynamics and precipitate a crisis
    • May have an adverse impact on the older adult’s health if bringing the matter to mediation is too stressful
    • Difficult to organise if the older adult has impaired mobility – need to provide home-based service option
    • Everyone has to agree to come. Big families may be unable to get all members to agree


Inter-state and overseas family members may be left out or may disrupt proceedings unnecessarily - they may not have any insight into the thoughts, feelings and wishes of the older person

    • Inter-state and overseas family members may be left out or may disrupt proceedings unnecessarily - they may not have any insight into the thoughts, feelings and wishes of the older person
    • Someone with a Power of Attorney could complicate matters.
    • Need well educated, skilled and trained facilitators/mediators– these people are rare, in particular in rural/remote areas. Also may need two mediators in some situation.


Other necessary resources may not be available – e.g. a neutral and safe space, access to legal advice, financial advisors etc

    • Other necessary resources may not be available – e.g. a neutral and safe space, access to legal advice, financial advisors etc
    • May be difficult to substantiate allegations in some cases
    • Potential repercussions for the organisation if the alleged abuse is not substantiated
    • There may be different levels of cultural awareness, different cultural perceptions, different levels of education in relation to what constitutes financial abuse.
  •  



Where abuse already exists and there is significant power imbalance - mediation may not be appropriate, or may need special safeguards (e.g. two mediators, separate meetings, an advocate or support person, firm ground rules)

    • Where abuse already exists and there is significant power imbalance - mediation may not be appropriate, or may need special safeguards (e.g. two mediators, separate meetings, an advocate or support person, firm ground rules)
    • There may be ramifications for the older persons, especially if they are vulnerable – need to assist the victims first and ensure they are safe


An agreement may not be reached

    • An agreement may not be reached
    • Can escalate conflict
    • If the older person has been abused, s/he may not feel comfortable communicating with the abusers
    • The concept of mediation may be foreign or scary to some older people and may connote that a problem exists


Older people may be reluctant to have their personal and private business enter into ‘government’ arenas.

    • Older people may be reluctant to have their personal and private business enter into ‘government’ arenas.
    • Older people don’t necessarily want formality and things recorded, they may prefer informal and friendly meetings.
    • Getting an abuser to come to the meeting may be difficult
    • Family pressure not to meet, especially when the abusers have a lot of power – they won’t give up their power to create equality or admit wrong.


Families have long-standing norms, roles, beliefs that are hard to change e.g. son is the heir, sense of entitlement, rewarding those who are carers, parents right to decide – so interpretation of ‘best interests’ can be contested in families and amongst siblings.

    • Families have long-standing norms, roles, beliefs that are hard to change e.g. son is the heir, sense of entitlement, rewarding those who are carers, parents right to decide – so interpretation of ‘best interests’ can be contested in families and amongst siblings.
    • Difficult to get family together if there is physical distance.
    • Often children don’t know about parents’ finances fully – often something that is not spoken about.


For CaLD older people, the term ‘mediation’ implies that there are already issues – ‘family meetings’ may be a more appealing term

    • For CaLD older people, the term ‘mediation’ implies that there are already issues – ‘family meetings’ may be a more appealing term
    • A professional interpreter needs skills in mediation as the translation of cultural meanings are just as important as the translation of language.


Elder mediation can be a useful preventative approach in some cases, however

  • Elder mediation can be a useful preventative approach in some cases, however

  • there needs to be more information available to the community, service providers and older people about what it involves and its benefits, and

  • an increase in the number of professionals who are specially educated and trained in elder mediation.



Using a strengths-oriented perspective, mediators can promote positive, respectful language and communication, empower older people and emphasise older people’s contributions and worth to society

  • Using a strengths-oriented perspective, mediators can promote positive, respectful language and communication, empower older people and emphasise older people’s contributions and worth to society



No two cases of abuse of older people are alike

  • No two cases of abuse of older people are alike

  • A variety of assessment tools and preventative approaches are needed to meet the needs of each situation

  • The safety and empowerment of the older adult should be given the highest priority

  • Need to develop models of prevention that address the ageist and gendered contexts in which abuse occurs



Where there is abuse is also essential to

  • Where there is abuse is also essential to

  • provide a coordinated, multiple service system response to the victim, the perpetrator and the social network surrounding the victim.

  •  



Dale’s email address:

  • Dale’s email address:

  • Dale.Bagshaw@unisa.edu.au

  • Dale’s University Homepage: http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/staff/homepage.asp?name=dale.bagshaw

  • Elder Abuse and Family Mediation Project website:

  • http://w3.unisa.edu.au/hawkeinstitute/research/elder-mediation/default.asp



Access Economics 2005, Dementia estimates and projections: Australian states and territories, Alzheimer's Australia, Canberra.

  • Access Economics 2005, Dementia estimates and projections: Australian states and territories, Alzheimer's Australia, Canberra.

  • Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia 2011, Retirement balances on the increase - but more savings effort still required, viewed 15 February 2011, http://www.superannuation.asn.au/mr080211/default.aspx

  • Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006, Personal safety survey, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra. 

  • Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009, Future population growth and ageing, Cat. no. 4102.0 Canberra, viewed 23 February 2011, http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/4102.0Main+Features10March%202009 

  • Australian Network for the Prevention of Elder Abuse 2007, ANPEA Brochure, ANPEA, Hornsby NSW, viewed

  • 15 February 2011, http://www.agedrights.asn.au/pdf/ANPEA%20Brochure%20June%2007.pdf

  • Bagshaw, Dale, Wendt, Sarah & Zannettino, Lana 2009, Preventing the abuse of older people by their family members, Australian Domestic & Family Violence Clearinghouse: Stakeholder Paper 7, viewed 17 November 2010, .

  •  Bagshaw, Dale, Wendt, Sarah & Zannettino, Lana 2007, Our actions to prevent the abuse of older South Australians, Office for the Ageing, Department of Families and Communities, Government of South Australia, Adelaide, viewed 15 February 2011, http://www.sa.gov.au/upload/franchise/Seniors/Office%20for%20the%20Ageing%20-%20Publications/Publications/Our%20Actions%20to%20prevent%20the%20abuse%20of%20older%20South%20Australians.pdf

  • Bagshaw, Dale 2003, 'Contested truths: Family mediation, diversity and violence against women', in Handbook of Conflict Management, eds. WJ Pammer & J Killian, Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, pp. 49-84.

  • Biggs, Simon, Manthorpe, Jill, Tinker, Anthea, Doyle, Melanie & Erens, Bob 2009, 'Mistreatment of older people in the United Kingdom: Findings from the first National Prevalence Study', Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, vol. 21, pp. 1-14.

  • Boldy, Duncan, Webb, M, Horner, Barbara, Davey, Margaret & Kingley, B 2002, Elder abuse in Western Australia: Report of a survey conducted for The Department For Community Development, Seniors Interest, Freemasons Centre For Research Into Aged Care Services, Curtin University of Technology, Division of Health Sciences, Perth.



Bonar, Maria & Roberts, Debra 2006, A Review of Literature Relating to Family and Domestic Violence in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Communities in Australia Department for Community Development, Family Domestic Violence Unit, Government of Western Australia Perth.

  • Bonar, Maria & Roberts, Debra 2006, A Review of Literature Relating to Family and Domestic Violence in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Communities in Australia Department for Community Development, Family Domestic Violence Unit, Government of Western Australia Perth.

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