Chapter 5 Administrative Structure and Good Governance Subjective questions With Answers

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Chapter 5

Administrative Structure and Good Governance

Subjective questions With Answers
Q1- Discuss five functions of Majlis-e-Shura (Parliament)


Majlis-e-Shura consists of two houses, National Assembly and Senate. Both the houses have equal powers but the National Assembly has more power in financial matters. Budget is passed by the National Assembly only. The main function of the Majlis-e-Shura are given below:

1. Legislating

As the parliament is a legislative institution, its main and basic function is to make laws for the country or any part of the country. Both the houses have equal powers of legislation. If a bill is passed by one house it goes to the other for ratification. Majlis-e-Shura has complete powers to make new laws amend the existing law or enunciate any law. It can make laws on the affairs in the federal list and the concurrent list. ­

2. Amending the constitution

According to the constitution of 1973, Majlis-e-Shura can introduce an amendment in the constitution in a joint session or separate sessions With 2/3 majority of the total members of the National Assembly and the Senate. Then the amendment bill is sent of the president for signatures. He has to sign it within seven days. After seven days, the constitution gets amended even if the president does not sign it.

3. Supervision of the executive

Majlis-e-Shura supervisors and controls the government. This is parliamentary system of government in Pakistan. The prime Minister and the cabinet are answerable to the parliament for all their actions. The government can remain in power so long as it enjoys the confidence of parliament. If it loses the confidence of the legislature, it has to resign. During question hour, the ministers have to answer the questions of the members of the National Assembly individually or collectively if no-confidence motion is passed by the parliament against any minister, the Whole cabinet and the prime Minister have to resign.

4. Financial powers

The lower house of the Majlis-e-Shura has full monopoly over financial matters. Budget is passed by the National Assembly every year. The government can neither impose taxes nor spend even penny without the approval of the National Assembly.

5. Electoral Functions

Majlis-e-Shura Performs some electoral functions also. Both the houses of the parliament elect the president. The National Assembly elects the prime Minister speaker and the Deputy speaker. Similarly the Senate elects the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman Members of National and Provincial Assemblies and Senators collectively the President.

Q2. Explain the structure of the Federal Executive. ­

Answer ­

Federal Executive

  1. President's Secretariat:

President's Secretariat is situated in Islamabad and works under the control of the president of Pakistan. It has close cooperation with Prime Minister's Secretariat and center secretariat, and gets information from them, and gives direction to them.

  1. Prime Minister’s Secretariat

It is highest executive office of the federal Government, which supervises all others offices of the Government. It is working under the direct control of the Prime Minister, who is accountable to the Parliament for its working.

  1. Central Secretariat

Central Secretariat comprises Ministers and Divisions. Presently there are about 33 Ministries 42 Divisions in the central secretariat.

  1. Ministry

It comprises one or two Divisions. It formulate polices and implements them. The political head of the Ministry is Federal Minister while its administrative head is secretary, an officer of Bs 22. the Federal Minister works as liaison between the Prime Minister and the Ministry He keeps informed the Prime Minister about the working of the Ministry.

  1. Division

It is a complete administrative unit like ministry and functions on the same pattern. Its Political head is Minister for state, and administrative head is additional secretary, an officer of Bs-21. The Minister for state also works as a Liaison between the Prime Minister and the Division.

  1. Attached Department

Every Ministry or Division has one or more attached departments Attached departments helps the Ministry or Division in formulating the policies and are responsible for the implementation of those policies.

  1. Subordinate Offices

Every attached department has many Subordinate offices which performs spherical functions. The head of the subordinate office is known as Director or administrator.

  1. Autonomous or Semi Autonomous Bodies

Every Ministry controls numerous Autonomous or semi Autonomous bodies, These institutions decide the matter with out delay and performs their useful role in the national development. Nowadays the number of autonomous bodies is increasing day by day in Pakistan,
Important Officials
i. President of Pakistan

. The president is the head of the state, who is elected by the members of both houses and members of provincial assemblies for the term of five years. The President of Pakistan acts upon the advice of the Prime Minister; He ratifies the bills passed by the parliament or returns for reconsideration. He issues ordinance relating to certain matters about which there exist no law or code. These ordinances become laws when they are approved by the parliament. He appoints ambassadors in different countries and receives papers of the ambassadors of others countries. He can declare emergency in the country due to an internal or external crisis.

ii. Prime Minister

The Prime Minister is the head of the federal government. He is elected by the national Assembly for the term of five years. He has a cabinet for his assistance. The Prime Minister nominates the

members of Parliaments for his cabinet. The prime Minister and his cabinet are account, able before the Parliament before its working. The Prime Minister has all its executive powers including legislation budgeting and defense of the country.

iii. Federal Cabinet

It comprises Prime Minster and other Ministers, who run the affairs of the Federal government. There are two types of ministers in the federal government (cabinet) i.e. Federal Minister and Ministers for state, who remains in offices till the pleasure of the Prime Minister or the consent of the Parliament.

iv. Federal Minister.

The Federal Minister is the political head of the Ministry and works as liaison between the Prime Minister and the Ministry. He represents his Ministry in the Parliament and gives the answer to the questions regarding his ministry.

v. Minister for State

The Minister for state is the political head of the Division and works as a liaison between the Prime Minister and his Division. He represents his Division in the Parliament and answers the question related to his Division.

vi. Secretary

The Secretary is administrative head of the Ministry. He is a grade 22 officer of the federal government. He helps the federal Minister in formulating policies and in running administration. He submits his proposals to the Prime Minister through his Minister and notifies the same after approval. The secretary not only formulate the policy but also the implements it. He supervises the Division, The attached department, Subordinate offices and autonomous and semi autonomous institution.

vii. Additional Secretary

Additional Secretary is administrative head of the Division. He is grade 21 officer of Federal Government. He helps the Minister for state in policy formulation and decision making. He submits his proposal to the Prime Minister and, notifies the same after approval. He performs the duties which a secretary performs in his Ministry. When he works as a subordinate to secretary be follows his direction.

viii. Joint Secretary

Joint secretary is a grade 20 officer of Federal Government. He is junior to Additional secretary and conveys his orders to subordinates. He for works the reports of the subordinates. He is incharge of a wing and is responsible for its proper functioning.

ix. Deputy Secretary

Deputy secretary is a grade 19 of Federal government. He receives orders from above and sends to the section officers. He receives reports from section officer and sends it to the joint secretary. He neither decides nor helps in implementing the decisions. He only supervises the officials of his Branch,

x. Section Officer

The section officer is a grade .17 or grade 18 officer of Federal government. He is incharge of his section and supervises the daily routine of the section. He implements the orders of high ups and supervises his staff.

Q3. What is the back ground of local governments of 2001? How much authority is devolved at the lowest level under this system?


Local Government reference to Devolution Plan 2001.

Before the emergence of Pakistan, Lord Rppin, the Viceroy of India introduced the system of Local government through an act of 1884 and established local board at the level of district and tehsil, which used to solve the problems of local people. But these institutions fails to solve the problems of people due to-1ack of powers and resources.

After the establishment of Pakistan the system of Lord Rippen was adopt but it called not prove useful because it was used as a political weapon. Thus it was completely suspended in 1958 after the imposition of Martial law. It was abolished.

Ayub Khan issued an ordinance of Basic Democracies on October 27, 1959 and introduced the system of local government in Pakistan. It was aimed to devolve the problems of people through their own representatives. This system could not bring any viable change and nor could solve the problems of the people because it was made an electoral college for the election of president and the assemblies. It was abolished by the new government.

As a result of the elections of 1970 Z.A.Bhutto and Sheikh Mujeeb-ur-Rehman emerged as Majority leaders in West and East Pakistan respectively. East Pakistan separated due to non-transferring of power to the representatives of the government in West Pakistan. Bhutto failed to establish the system of local government through political process, but he introduced a system through an ordinance which could not succeed.

Zia-ul-Haq after coming in the power reviewed the system of local governments. He conducted the elections far local governments twice during his tenure and established the system on strong footings, which progressed step by step.

General Pervaiz Musharaf after taking over the government in October 1999 promised to bring drastic changes in the local system. So that the power could be transferred to the people at lowest level.

He held the election of local government in phases from December 2000 to 2001 and introduced the system on august 14, 200I. The system is of three tiers comprising District governments, Tehsil or town governments and union council governments. Detail is given below:

Devolution of Power Plan

The plain was, implemented on August 14, 2001 based upon the following points.

  1. Devolution of political power at the lowest level.

  2. Decentralization of administrate power.

  3. Distribution of resources at district level.

  4. De-concentration of management functions.

  5. Diffusion of the political authorities.

The local governments were divided into Government ordinance of 2001.

A. District Government

B. Tehsil /Town Government

C. Union Government

Detail is given blow:

a. District Government

District Government comprises Nazim, Naib Nazim, District council and district administration which is headed by Nazim. District coordination officer assists the Nazim. Nazim makes it sure that district administration is working properly. Naib Nazim is head of council and D.C.O is the head of the district administration.

District Nazim

All the councilors of the District elect the Nazim in panel for four years, who is, at least a matriculate and resident of the concerned district and gets more than 50 percent votes. Nazim is head of the district government and provides political leader ship. He gets implemented the development plans, which are approved by the district council. He maintains law and order in the district. He is responsible for the supervision of the Annual Development program (A.D.P). of the district. He presents the budget of district council and performs the other activities.

Naib Nazim

Naib Nazim is elected in panel along with Nazim by the councilors of the district for the period of four years. He is at least a matriculate and is the resident of the concerned district and must get more then 50% of votes in election Naib Nazim is the head of the district council and presides over its meetings and maintains discipline during the session.

Zila Council.

All Nazims of Union councils of the district are the ex-officio members of Zila council. Thirty three percent seats are reserved for women five percents for farmers or laborers and five percents for minorities. The Naib Nazim is ex officio head of the council.

District council performs the following functions.

  1. To legislate laws for the district.

  2. To approve the budget for the district government.

  3. To levy or with draw any tax in the district

  4. To supervise the affairs of the district government through different kinds of committees.

  5. To elect the members of the committees.

  6. To approval the proposals/ plans as submitted by District Government.

District Administration

The District Administration is run through District Coordination Officer (D.C.O), who is the government officer (Bs-20 or 21) and is posted by the provincial government. There are, Executive District Officers of the each department. Who assist the D.C.O to run the. Administration.

There are twelve departments in the District Administration,

for example,

  1. Human Resource Management

  2. Rural Development

  3. Agriculture & Forest implemented

  4. Rural Development

  5. Education

  6. Revenue affairs and planning

  7. Health

  8. Information Technology

  9. Law

  10. Literacy

  11. Law and order

  12. Revenue, works and services

Functions and Powers of DCO

He performs the following functions.

  1. To ensure that business of the District coordination group of offices, carried out in accordance with laws.

  2. To make effective and efficient District Administration through coherent planning

  3. To Prepare the plans and program and to get them passed by the District Council and to supervise them

  4. To assist the Zila Nazim in carrying out the administrative and financial function of the district.

  5. To prepare budget and to get it approved by the Zila council

At the top of the each department, there is Executive District: officer (E.D.O), who performs the following functions aries: under 'his administrative control.

  1. To enhance efficiency of his department.

  2. To ensure efficient service delivery by the function

  3. To provide the necessary information’s about his department to the monitoring committees of Zila council

  4. To enforce relevant federal and provincial laws and rules including tax laws

  5. To prepare development plans for his department.

B. Tehsil or Town government

The Tehsil or town government comprises. Nazim, Naib Nazim, Tehsil or Town council and Tehsil or town administration.

Nazim and Naib Nazim

Nazim and Naib Nazim are at least matriculate and are elected panel by the councilors of that Tehsil or town for the period of four year. Nazim is head of Tehsil or town government and Naib Nazim is head of Tehsil or Town council. The Nazim exercises all those powers in a Tehsil which are exercised by the Zila Nazim in the district. In others words he exercises al executive powers in his Tehsil.

Tehsil or Town Council

All the Naib Nazims of all Union Councils within the jurisdiction of that Tehsil or Town are the Ex-officio members of the Tehsil or Town councils and Naib Nazim is the head of this council. He presides over its meetings Tehsil council’s exercises all those powers. Which are exercised by the Zila council.

Tehsil or Town Administration

The Tehsil or Town administration comprises Tehsil Municipal Officer (T.M.O) and other four Tehsil Officers who are .performing the following functions:

a. To Mange the municipal land and property and to implement the Municipal laws.

b. To arrange water, sewerage, Sanitation, roads, streets lights etc.

c. To execute and manage the development plans in rural and urban areas and to get used the government lands and buildings.

d. To manage the budget, finance and accounts of Tehsil or Town government.

C. Union Government

The union government comprises Nazim, Naib Nazim, Union Council and union government. The distinction between the rural. and urban areas has been abolished and union government has been

established consisting of a certain population and area.

Nazim and Naib Nazim

Nazim and Naib Nazim are at least matriculate and are elected directly in a panel by the voters of the area. Nazim is head of Union government. He exercises all those powers in his union council which are exercised by Zila Nazim in his district. Naib Nazim is deputed by the union Nazim during his temporary absence.

Union Administration

The Union Administration Comprises three, secretary Union Committee, Secretary Municipal Services and secretary Rural development, who coordinate and facilitate the community the delivery of municipal Services and rural development. They work under the supervision of union Nazim.

Union Council

There are 21 members in the union council. Twelve out of them are reserved for general public (8 for male and 4 for female) four for of women two for labourers and farmers and one for minorities.

The members of Union Council are directly elected by the people in a multi-members constituency.

Functions of Union council

Every union council perform the following functions.

a. Union council performs its function through union Administration and monitoring committees.

b. It approves the annual development plans and sanctions budgets.

c. It constitutes the village councils in rural areas and community boards in urban area.

d. It protects the road, bridge, official buildings, canal etc. with in the jurisdiction of union council.

e. It assists the district and Tehsil or town government in providing economic and social service.

f. It impose taxes in certain case with in the jurisdiction of union council.

g. It constitutes the various committees.
4. Discuss ten characteristics of "good governance"


Good governance means the system of government in which all public decisions are made honestly and transparently. The govt; officials are held responsible and other government affairs and there is close cooperation between the people and the govt officials. Both: Public and private sectors work for the welfare of the people

Following are the characteristics of good governance

i. Equality

Equality among all the citizens is a basic feature of good governance, There should be no. distinction among the people on the basis of colour, creed, race or religion. All the people have equal chances to develop their personalities. Islam is the greatest harbinger of equality and justice

ii. Democracy .

The system of good governance is essentially democratic. Democracy has been recognized as the best form of government. Therefore, in good governance the ultimate power lies with the people only. The representatives elected by the people have a right to rule. There is no room for dictatorship in the system of good governance.

iii. Liberty and freedom

Good governance allows all types of liberties and rights to the citizens. The people enjoy social, civil, economic and politics liberties. The religious minorities are free to worship and propagate their religions. Good governance discourages theocracy.

iv. Responsible government.

In the system of good governance the government is answerable to system the representatives of the people. No government official can enjoy absolute power. He is always accountable to people and the concerned institution for all his actions. It is said that power corrupts man and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Therefore, in good governance no one enjoys absolute power. Accountability is the necessary factor in good governance.

v. Sound Planning

A good administration prepare productive plans for the development of the country.

vi. Peace and Security

The good administration establishes peaceful atmosphere in the society so that the country may make progress. Anti-social elements are crushed with full force. It defends the country from foreign aggression. For this purpose a comprehensive system of defense is built up.

vii. Elimination of Corruption

Good governance completely eliminates every type of corruption from the country. No person or group of persons is allowed to exploit other people. No group is allowed to dominate political power by unlawful means. Similarly economic resources are not allowed to be concentrated in a few hands. Efforts are made to establish a classless society.

viii. Relations between the people and government

A good administration bridges the gap between the rulers and the ruled. People are allowed to participate in the affairs of the state. The government tries to understand the problems of the people and take measures to solve them. The people are allowed to criticise the government and given suggestions for the solution of the problems.

ix. Eligibility

.A good administration always keep merit in view and every work is assigned to the most suitable and expert persons. This increases the efficiency of the government. Moreover it is the requirement of Justice to appoint the most suitable and expert person on the posts they are eligible for.

x. End of Poverty

A good administration aims at the welfare of people. It takes measures and prepares plans for the abolition of poverty form the county. It exploits the resources of the country for the benefit of the people. It t creates maximum opportunities of employment anti makes such policies as are conducive to the welfare of the people. It tries to eliminate economic inequality in the countries.

Q5. What are salient features of administration Hazrat Umar.


The Period of Khulfa-e-Rashideen was ideal one. But Hazrat Umar has been recognised as the real founder of Islamic state. He introduced many administrative reforms. His reign is the golden period of Islamic history. He democratised the government. He introduced a system of accountability and treated all the people equally.

Following are the characteristics of Administration of Hazrat Umer's Period.

i. Establish of Majlis-e-Shura

During his region, he established Majlis-e-Shura. It was further divided into Majlis-e-Shura Khas and Majlis-e-Shura Aam. The former comprised the member of his cabinet. It decided general matters. The latter consisted of tribal heads and the general people. It decided specific matters. Every matter was decided after consultation and open discussion.

ii. Division of State Administration

Hazrat Umar (R) divided the state into fourteen provinces. The provinces were sub-divided into districts. Thus the whole state was divided into many administrative units. Governor the head of the provinces and was assisted by many civil servants like Wali, Katab, Katab-ul-Kheraj, Sahab-ul-Hadis, Sahab-ul-Bait-ul-Mal, Qazis and judges. All were subjected to strict accountability for their actions.

iii. Central Government

During Hazrat Umar's ® period, the central govt. was very strong. It had many departments, for example, Dewan-ul-Jund; Dewan-ul-Insha, Dewan-ul-Kharaj, Waqf Department, complaint, cell etc. All the officials considered themselves the servants of the masses rather than their rulers.

iv. Administrative Policy

Hazrat Umar ® adopted many useful policies during his region. Some of them are mentioned below.

  1. Open the door Policy .

Hazrat Umar ® had directed the governors and other officials to keep their doors open and not to appoint any guards there so that people might come to them without any hindrance. The officials were directed to listen and address the grievances of the people immediately.

  1. Policy Of Accountability

There was a strict system of accountability. An Investigation Commission was formed for this purpose. The assets of the civil officials were recorded in official documents. If the assets increased, the official was dismissed and his assets were confiscated. Every official was. forbidden from riding the horse, wearing fine clothes and keeping guards at his door. The official or governor against whom complaints were received was removed from his post.

  1. Land Policy

Hazrat Umar ® abolished the feudal system and distributed the arid among the landless peasants. If a person could not cultivate his land, the concerned piece of land was taken back from him. He built canals throughout the country. He got the land of state surveyed and fixed taxes according to the survey record.

  1. Welfare Policy

Hazrat Umar ® took keen interest in the welfare of the people. He granted stipends to the poor and the needy. He held the government responsible for the fundamental needs of the people i.e. food, clothing and housing. Even the non-Muslims were granted special stipends from the Bait-ul-Mal.

  1. Merit Policy

He always kept merit of the candidates while making appointments. ­He appointed the most suitable and capable persons in the government offices. He appointed learned Ulemas as judges who were well-versed with Quran and sunnah. Hazrat Umar always remained impartial while making important appointment. He consulted Majlis-e-Shura in this respect.

  1. Revenue Policy

Hazrat Umer's ® revenue policy was excellent He based it on three principles i.e. collect rightly spend rightly and prevent wrong spending. He considered Bait-ul-Mal as scared trust of the people. There was strict watch on the Bait-ul-Mal. Nobody could dare misappropriate even a penny.

Hazrat Umer ® considered that provisory of basic necessities to the people was the responsibility of the state therefore he had fixed stipends for the deserving people. He also directed the people to invest their savings so that wealth may not be concentred in of few hands. He imposed some new taxes on the wealthy to minimise the gap between the Haves and the Have-nots.

Hazrat Umer (r) was the first administrator who founded the department of Accountability. That is why corruption and misapplication of funds was totally non-existent during his period.
Q6. What are the obstacles in the way to good governance?


i. Altitude of Bureaucracy

Since the establishment of Pakistan, bureaucracy has been the most powerful. The bureaucrats consider themselves to be the rulers rather than servants of the people. They have been exercising almost unlimited powers without being .responsible to anyone. This altitude is the greatest obstacle in the way to good governance.

ii. Feudal System

The feudal system in the country is another obstacle in the way of good governance. We inherited this system from British India,. Unfortunately it still exists. It is imperative to abolish this system and the land should be distributed among the, landless peasants. The feudal lords enjoy political power and naturally they cannot formulate such policies as are against their own interest. That is why feudalism has not so far been abolished. Despite many land reforms feudalism still exists and plays dominant role in politics.

iii. Partial Executive

The executive of Pakistan has never been impartial and neutral. Most of the bureaucrats have been partisans being favored one or the other political party. They have been wasting and exploiting resources for their personal ends. The bureaucracy should not involve itself in politics. Similarly the generals of the army should remain away from politics. The involvement of bureaucracy and army in politics has done much harm to the country

iv. Lack of Resources

We have acute lack of resources. The country can make progress only when we have abundant resources. Resources are necessary to equip the country with modern techniques which are essential for good governance. The resources should be increased and the existing ones should be properly exploited for the prosperity of the people.

v. No constitutional Safeguards

Unfortunately constitution in Pakistan has either been abrogated or suspended from time to time Moreover, there has been lack of constitutional safeguards. The constitutions of 1956, 1962 and 1973 have all been abrogated or suspended and the dictators made many amendments in the 1973 constitution for their selfish ends. Constitution, which is a very sacred document, has become a plaything in the hands of the rulers. Unless the sanctity of the constitution is recognised, good governance cannot be expected.

vi. Lack of Accountability

There is no effective system of accountability in Pakistan. If at all, any such system was adopted it remained partial and biased. Only the opponents of the government fell victim to while supporters of the Government escaped any accountability. Unless impartial and transparent system of accountability is established good governance will remain a dream only. In Pakistan whosever comes to power, becomes millionaire due to corruption and misappropriation of funds. Misuse of political power is a sad feature of our politics. The politicians and the bureaucrats commit corruption with impunity because there is no system of accountability.

vi. Less pay

The civil servants of Pakistan are getting meager salaries; Most of , the government officials are living from hand to mouth. On the other hand they are most powerful and can cause or deny profit of lacs by their one signature. Thus the profiteers make the civil servants their partners. That is why. nepotism, jobbery and bribery is in vogue in the country. The civil servant's pay must be increased so that they may not be induced to accept illegal gratification. This will help in promoting good governance.

Q7. What is the structure of the provincial Executive? How do the functionaries of the provincial government perform their functions?


The organisation and functioning of provincial governments are like those of the Federal government.

There are provincial secretariats attached departments subordinate offices and autonomous and semi-autonomous institutions at the provincial level. The provincial governments have the jurisdiction over Education and Health. Agriculture, provincial taxes, communication and many other departments.

The organization of the provincial government is as under:

i. Governor

Governor is the head of the province and is appointed by the president. He remains in power till the pleasure of the President. He can summon the session of the provincial Assembly or address it or dissolve on the advice of the Chief Minister. He runs the administration of the province with the consultation of chief Minister. He can issue ordinances if it is needed.

ii. The Chief Minister

The Chief Minister is the head of the government of the province. He is elected by the provincial Assembly for five years. He is executive head of the province and is assisted by the chief secretary. He forms his cabinet. He is responsible for law and order in the province. He is leader of the Provincial Assembly and controls it fully. He supervises legislation of the Assembly.

iii. The Cabinet

In each province there is a Provincial Cabinet whose members are nominated by Chief Minister. Each Minister is the head of his respective department and works as a liaison between the Chief Minister and department. He informed the Chief Minister about the policies and working of the department. Being a political head of the department he is accountable before the Chief Minister.

iv. Chief Secretary

The Chief secretary, an administrative head of the province, is the senior most members of bureaucracy. He is the secretary of the Provincial Cabinet and he is responsible for the implementation of its decision.

The chief Secretary is the Chairman of the committees of secretaries, and reviews their working and issues directions to them off and on.

The Chief secretary remains aware about the activities of all departments. The secretary of each department is the subordinate of the Chief secretary and accountable to him for his working.

v. Secretary

Secretary is an administrative head of the respective department. He is an officer of (Bs-20). He works as a special assistant to Minister of his department and advises him in policy making and provides information about the working of department. The Secretary supervises his department and makes sure that the programs and policies of the government are implemented. There are many assistants to secretary like additional secretary, Deputy Secretary and section officers who assist him in performing the duties. He supervises his subordinate staff, and gets advice from other departments in preparation of summaries for Chief Minister.

vi. Addition Secretary

Addition Secretary is an assistant of secretary and IS responsible for working of his wing. He is an officer of (Bs-19). He receives the orders from the secretary and sends downwards. Likewise he receives reports from the subordinate offices and summits them to the secretary. He supervises the subordinate staff of his wing. He performs all those duties, which are assigned by the secretary.

vii. Deputy Secretary

Deputy secretary is the head of the branch. He is an officer of Bs-18 of provincial or center government. He does not participate in the decision making but only receives orders form above and sends them to the section officers for implementation.

viii. Section Officer

Section officer is and officer of Bs-17 or Bs-18. He is head of his section. He implements the orders of secretary, or addition secretary, and reports the Deputy secretary in all matters of the section.

Objective Questions With Answers

Four probable answers are written below. One is correct. Tick (~) the right answer.

1. The number of members of National Assembly

a. 275 b. 342

c. 237 d. 100

2. The number of members of Senate of Pakistan

a. 100 b. 63

c. 87. d. 50

3. Tenure of member of National Assembly

a. 4 year b. 4year

c. 6 year d. 3 year

4. Number of houses of Majlis-e-Shura

a. One b. Two

c. Three d. Four

5. Head of State is

a. Commander in chief b. Prime Minister

c. President d. Governor

6. Headquarters of Supreme Court is situated in

a. Islamabad b. Lahore

c. Karachi d. Peshawar

7. Who implemented they System of Basic Democracies

a. Yahya Khan b. Ayub Khan.

c. Zia-ul-Haq d. Parvaiz Musharaf

8. Who is the head of District Government?

a. Nazim' b. Naib Nazim

c. ' D.C.O d. Tehsil Nazim

9. NUl1lber of l1lember of Union Council

a. 12 b. 18

c. 21 d. 24

10. Number of department at District under new Local Government system

a. 10 c. 14

b. 12. d. 16


1-b, 2-b, 3-b, 4-b, 5-c, 6-a, -7-b, 8-c, 9-c, 10-b

Fill in the blanks.

1. The important role was assigned to district government on august 14,­ ____________.

2. Lord Rippin introduced the system of local governments in south Asia through an act in the year.__________

3. Ayub Khan promulgated the Ordinance of Basic Democracies on Oct6ber 27,_________

4. Gen. Perviaz Mushaaraf took over the reign of government on October 12____________

5. The lower house of Parliament of Pakistan is known as _____________

6. The upper house of Parliament of Pakistan is known as __________

7. The coordinating officer of District Government is known is _________

8. The total number of members of Punjab Provincial Assembly is _____________.

9. The total number of members of Balochistan Assembly is ___________

10. The total number of member of NWFP Provincial Assembly is ________

11. In the Punjab Provincial Assembly ______________ seats are reserved for women.

12, In the Sindh Provincial Assembly _________ seats are reserved for women.

13. In the NWFP Provincial Assembly __________ seats are reserved for women.

14. In the Balochistan Provincial Assembly _________ seats are reserved for women.

15. In the National Assembly ________seats are reserved for women

16. In the National Assembly ______________ seats are reserved for minorities.

1-2001, 2- 1884, 3-1959, 4- 1999, 5. Senate,

6- National Assembly, 7- D.c.a, 8- 371, 9- 65, 10- 124,

11- 66, 12- 29, 13- 22, 14- 11, 15- 60, 16- 10

Match column' A' with column B and write down the answer in column 'C'.



Column A

Column B

Column C



Lower House

Two houses





National Assembly

22 Grade


President's Secretariat

Supreme court








Chief Justice

Two houses



Upper House






Provincial Government







Two houses


Upper House


Lower House.


Chief Justice




22 Grade




Provincial Government





Q- Write down brief answers

    1. What does legislature do?


The legislature of Pakistan is known as Majlis-e-Shura. It comprises two houses i.e. the lower house or National assembly or the upper house or senate. The legislatures do the following things.

  • .Legislation

  • Supervision of the executives

  • Financial functions

  • Judicial functions

2. Write three functions of the Executive.


The federal executive (president)

1. Ratifies the bills passed by the parliament.

2. Issues ordinances relating to certain matters about which there exists no law or code.

3. Appoints ambassadors in different countries.

4. Receives nomination papers of the ambassadors of other countries.

5. Can declare emergency in the country due to an internal or external crisis.
3. Write five functions of Majlis-e-Shura.


The legislature of Pakistan is known as Majlis-e-Shura. It comprises two houses i.e. the lower house or national Assembly and the upper house or the senate. The functions of Majlis-e-Shura legislator for the country include

I. Legislation

Majlis-e-Shura legislator for the country.

2. Supervision of the executive ,

Majlis-e-Shura controls the executive.

3. Financial functions .

The Majlis-e-Shura controls financial matters.

4. Judicial functions

Majlis-e-Shura performs judicial functions.

Q- 4. Write the names of five important organizations of Federal Government.


Following are the important organizations of federal government.

  • President's secretariat

  • Prime Minister's secretariat

  • Central secretariat

  • Ministry

  • Division

  • Attached departments

  • Subordinate office

  • Autonomous or semi-autonomous bodies.

Q- 5. What is Division?


Division is a complete administrative unit like ministry and functions on the same pattern. The political head of the division is minister for state the administrative head of the state is Additional secretary. He is an officer of BPS-21. The minister for the state works as a liaison between the Prime Minister and the division.

Q-6. What is the difference between Federal Minister and Minister for State?


The federal minister is the political head of the ministry and works as a liaison between the Prime Minister and the ministry. The minister of the state is the political head of the division and works as a liaison between the prime minister and his division. The federal minister is the representative of his ministry while minister of the state represent his division.

Q- 7. Write three functiol1s of Section Officer.


The section officer is an officer of BPS-17 or 18. He works under the federal government. He is an incharge of his section and supervises the daily routine of the section. He implements the orders of the high ups and supervises his staff.

Q- 8. Write two powers of Supreme Court.


The apex court of the federation is Supreme Court. Its headquarters is in Lahore and it has its branches in Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta and Karachi. The powers of the Supreme Court include.

  • Original

  • Appellant Jurisdiction

  • Advisory status

  • Supervisory authority

Q- 9. On whom, District Government is comprised?


District government comprises Nazims, Naib Nazim, District Council and District administration. Nazim is the head of the district government. District co-ordination officer assists the Nazim. The Nazim makes it sure that district administration is working properly, Naib Nazim is the head of the council. DEO is the head of District Administration.

Q- 10. Wr~te three functions of Zila Nazim.

The Zila Nazim is the head of the district government. His functions include

  • Implementation of the developmental plans.

  • Maintaining law and order in the district.

  • Supervising the Annual Development plans of the district.

  • Pressing the budget in the ,district council.

Q-11. Write three functions of D.C.O.


The District co-ordination officer is the government officer BPS-20 or 21. He is appointed by the Provincial government. His powers include:

  • To ensure that the business of District co-ordination group of offices, carried out in accordance with law.

  • To prepare budget to get it approved by Zila Council.

  • To prepare developmental plans for district.

  • To make effective efficient District Administration through coherent planning.

Q-12. Write two functions of Union Council.


There are 21 members in Union Council. 12 out of them are reserved for general public. Every Union Council performs following functions.

  • Approval of Annual developmental plans and sanction budgets.

  • Constitution of the village council in rural areas and community board in urban areas.

  • Protection of roads, bridges, official buildings, canals etc. under the jurisdiction of union council.

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