Dedication: 3/15/05

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Dedication: 3/15/05
I dedicate this collection to my friends Orville and Evelyn Brynelson and my parents George and Marion Greenwald. I especially thank James Steckel, Barbara Zbikowski, Gustavo Betancourt, and Joshua Ellis, colleagues and computer experts extraordinaire, for their invaluable assistance. Kathy Hart, MUHS librarian, was most helpful in suggesting sources. I further thank Gaylan DuBose, Ed Long, Hugh Himwich, Susan Schearer, Gardy Warren, and Kaye Warren for their encouragement and advice. My former students and now Classics professors Daniel Curley and Anthony Hollingsworth also deserve mention for their advice, assistance, and friendship. My student Michael Kocorowski encouraged and provoked me into beginning this dictionary. Certamen players Michael Fleisch, James Ruel, Jeff Tudor, and Ryan Thom were inspirations. Sue Smith provided advice. James Radtke, James Beaudoin, Richard Hallberg, Sylvester Kreilein, and James Wilkinson assisted with words from modern foreign languages. Without the advice of these and many others this dictionary could not have been compiled. Lastly I thank all my colleagues and students at Marquette University High School who have made my teaching career a joy.

Basic sources:

American College Dictionary (ACD)

American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD)

Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (ODEE)

Oxford English Dictionary (OCD)

Webster’s International Dictionary (eds. 2, 3) (W2, W3)

Liddell and Scott (LS)

Lewis and Short (LS)

Oxford Latin Dictionary (OLD)

Schaffer: Greek Derivative Dictionary, Latin Derivative Dictionary
In addition many other sources were consulted; numerous etymology texts and readers were helpful. Zeno’s Word Frequency guide assisted in determining the relative importance of words. However, all judgments (and errors) are finally mine. Many internet sites added variety. Vobis multas gratias.
James Greenwald
Copyright: 2002, 2005


ab: from

a-, ab-, abs-, advance, advanced, advancement, advantage, advantageous, advantageously, avant-garde, disadvantage, disadvantageous, disadvantageously, readvance, van, vanguard, vantage

Examples: avert, abduct, abstain (and numerous others).

Distinguish Greek prefix a- (the alpha privative meaning not or without);

e.g, amoral, atypical.

N.B. This prefix is NOT listed separately in the Reverse Index.
abbatia: abbey abbacy, abbatial, abbe, abbess, abbey, abbot

abdomen: belly

abdomen, abdominal, abdominally, abs, dorsabdominal, postabdomen, subabdominal

abies: fir

aboleo, abolitum: destroy

abolish, abolisher, abolition, abolitionary, abolitionism, abolitionist, abolitionistic
accipiter: hawk

accipiter, accipitrine

acer: sharp; aceo: be sour; acerbus: bitter; acies: battle-line; acuo: sharpen; acutus: sharp

acerb, acerbate, acerbic, acerbity, acescent, acetabulum, acetate, acetic, acetone, acetosalicylic, acetous, acetyl, acetylene, acicula, acicular, acid, acidic, acidification, acidify, acidity, acidly, acidosis, acidulate, acidulous, aciduously, aciform, acrid, acridine, acridity, acrimonious, acrimoniously, acrimony, acrylic, acuate, acuity, aculeate, acumen, acuminate, acumination, acuminiferous, acupressure, acupuncture, acute, acutely, acuteness, acutifoliate, aglet, ague, aguish, aiguille, aiguillette, alegar, amyl acetate, antacid, cute, cutely, cuteness, cutesy, cutesy-poo, cutie, deacidification, deacidify, diacetate, diacid, DNA, eager, eagerly, eagerness, eglantine, exacerbate, exacerbation, hyperacidity, hypoacidity, niacin, oxyacetylene, oxyacid, penacute, peracetate, peracid, peracute, subacid, subacute, triacetate, triacid, vinaigrette, vinegar, vinegarroon, vinegary

acervus: heaped up

acervation, coacervate, coacervation

acinus: cluster


-acius: tending to

perspicacious etc. (= Eng. -acious)
-acitas: quality of being inclined to

prespicacity etc. (= Eng. -acity)
-acia: quality of having

obstinacy etc. (= Eng. -acy)

ad: to

ad-, adapt, accept, addition, adept, affect, aggressive, adhere, adit, adjacent, allege, admit, ammunition, announce, adopt, apply, acquire, arrive, assume, attend, adumbrate, advent etc.

Note assimilation: ad + munio becomes ammuntion.

Despite their appearance advance and advantage are not compounds of ad, but rather are a combination of ab and ante (q.v.).

N.B. This prefix is NOT listed separately in the Reverse Index.

N.B. dos-a-dos from French.
adeps: fat

adipose, adiposity

adulescens (youth): see alo
adulor (1): fawn upon

adulate, adulation, adulatory

aedes (aedis): temple, building; aedificium: building

aedile, aedileship, edification, edificatory, edifice, edify, edifying, edifyingly, unedifying

aeger: sick

aeger, aegrotat

Aegyptus: Egypt: see AiguptoV
Aemilia: Aemilia

Emil, Emily

aemulus: rival

emulate, emulation, emulative, emulator, emulous, emulously

See also imitor, which may be related.
aequus: level, fair, just; aequo: equal; aequor: sea; iniquus: unjust

adequacy, adequate, adequately, adequation, autumnal equinox, coequal, coequality, coequally, disequilibrium, Ecuador, Equadorian, egalitarian, egalitarianism, egality, equability, equable, equably, equal, equalitarian, equality, equalization, equalize, equalizer, equally, equanimity, equanimous, equant, equatable, equate, equation, equational, equator, equatorial, equiangular, equidistant, equifinal, equilateral, equilibrated, equilibrator, equilibrist, equilibrium, equilize, equinoctial, equinomial, equinominal, equinox, equinumerous, equipartition, equipedal, equipede, equipluve, equipoise, equiponderate, equipotent, equipotential, equiprobable, equirotal, equisonant, equitable, equitably, equity, equivalence, equivalency, equivalent, equivalently, equivalve, equivocal, equivocally, equivocate, equivocation, equivocator, equivacatory, equivoluminal, inadequacy, inadequate, inadequately, inequality, inequitable, inequitably, inequity, iniquitous, iniquitously, iniquity, nanoequivalent, triequal, unequal, unequaled, unequally, unequivocal, unequivocally, vernal equinox

aer: air, atmosphere (ahr)

aerate, aeration, aerator, aerial, aeriferous, aerification, aeriform, aerify, air, airbag, airballon, air base, air bath, airboat, airborne, airbrake, airbrush, airbus, air-condition, aircraft, airfield, airfoil, airforce, airframe, airfreight, airhead, air-hole, airified, airify, airily, airiness, airlift, airline, airmail, airman, airplane, air pocket, airport, airproof, air pump, airseal, airship, airsick, airtight, airway, airworthy, airy, antiaircraft, aria, AWACS, Buenos Aires, deearate, deaeration, malaria, malarial, malariologist, malariology, malarious, midair, open-air, radio-aerial

OED does place aerial etc. under aer and aero- etc. under ahr.

For air OED mentions both ahr and aer.

aestimo (1): estimate; aes: bronze (LS; OLD doubts); aeneus: brazen; aerarium: treasury

aeneolithic, aeneous, aim, aimer, aimless, aimlessly, C.E., Common Era, disesteem, era, esteem, estimable, estimate, estimation, estimator, guesstimate, inestimable, misestmate, overesteem, overestimate, self-esteem, underestimate, underestimated, unestimated

Italicized words directly from aes.

aestas: summer; aestus: tide

estival, estivate, estivation, estuarine, estuary

aether: upper air: see aiqhr

aevum: age, generation; aetas: age; aeternus: everlasting

ab aeterno, age, aged, ageism, ageless, agelong, agene, coetaneity, coetaneous, coeternal, coeternally, coeternity, coeval, coevality, coevally, Dark Ages, eternal, eternalize, eternally, eternity, eviternity, in aeternum, longevity, medieval, medievalism, medievalist, medievalize, middle-age, nonage, old-age, over-aged, primeval, sempiternal, sempiternally, space age, steam age, stone age, teenage, teenager, underaged, world-age

ODEE adds tarnation (see damno).
Afer: African; Africa: Africa

Africa, African, Afrikaaner, Afrikaans, afro, Afro-, Afrocentric, Afrocentrism

ager: field; agrestis: rural (cf. agroV)

acre, acreage, agrarian, agrarianism, agrestic, agribusiness, agricultural, agriculturalist, agriculture, agriculturist, agrogorod, pelerine, peregrinate, peregrination, peregrinator, peregrine, pilgrim, pilgrimage, VoAg, wiseacre

See notes on aerie in OED and W3.
agger (rampart): see gero

agnus: lamb (amnoV)

Agnus Dei

ago, actus: do, drive (cf. Grk agw: lead, bring), adigo: throw; agito: drive; agmen: line of march; cogito: think; cogo: compel; exigo: drive out; exiguus: small; redigo: drive back

abactor, abreaction, act, actable, acting, action, actionable, activation, activate, activator, active, actively, active-matrix, activism, activist, activity, actor, actress, Acts, actual, actuality, actually, actuarily, actuary, actuate, actuator, agency, agenda, agent, agent provacateur (Fr), agile, agility, agitate, agitatedly, agitation, agitato (It), agitator, Agit-Prop, ambagious, ambiguity, ambiguous, ambiguously, anticoagulant, assay, astrogator, astronavigation, astronavigator, auto-de-fe (Pg), bioactive, bioreactor, cache, cachepot, cachet, castigate, castigation, castigator, chain reaction, CIA, circumnavigate, circumnavigation, circumnavigator, coact, coagulability, coagulant, coagulate, coagulation, coagulative, coagulator, coagulin, coagulometer, coagulum, cogency, cogent, cogently, cogitable, cogitabund, cogitate, cogitation, cogitative, cogitatively, cogitator, cogito ergo sum, counteract, counteractant, counteracter, counteraction, counteractive, counteragency, counteragent, counteragitation, crossexamine, crossexamination, deactivate, deactivation, diddlysquat, disambiguate, disambiguation, double agent, eco-activist, enact, enactable, enaction, enactive, enactment, enactor, enactory, EPA, essay, essayism, essayist, exact, exactable, exacter, exacting, exactingly, exaction, exactitude, exactly, exactness, exactor, exam, examen, examinable, examinant, examination, examine, examiner, excogitate, exigency, exigent, exiguous, expurgate, expurgation, expurgator, expurgatory, fumigate, fumigation, fumigator, fustigate, -gate (for some words), geonavigation, hyper, hyperactive, hyperactively, hyperactivity, immunoassay, inaction, inactivate, inactivator, inactive, inactively, inactivity, incogitable, incogitant, inexact, inexactitude, inexactly, innavigable, interact, interaction, interactionism, interactive, interactively, interactivity, interagency, intransigence, intransigent, intransigently, levigate, levigation, levigator, litigant, litigate, litigation, litigator, litigious, litigiously, litigiousness, medcical examination, mitigate, mitigating, mitigation, mitigative, mitigator, mitigatory, movie actor, movie actress, mucilage (OED), mucilaginous (OED), navigability, navigable, navigate, navigation, navigator, navvy, nonactivity, nonambiguous, nonambiguity, nonnavigable, nonradioactive, nonreactive, nuclear reactor, objurgate, objurgation, objurgative, objurgatory, one-act, overact, overaction, overactive, overactively, overactivity, overreact, overreaction, photoaction, photoactive, photocoagulation, photoreaction, press agency, press agent, proactivator, proactive, procoagulant, prodigal,,prodigality, prodigalize, prodigally, psychoactive, purgation, purgative, purgator, purgatorial, purgatory, purge, purger, quick-acting, radioactivation, radioactive, radioactivity, react, reactance, reactant, reaction, reactionary, reactionism, reaction time, reactivate, reactive, reactor, reagent, redact, redaction, redactor, reenact, reenactment, reenactor, reexamination, reexamine, retroact, retroaction, retroactive, retroactively, self-examination, sex act, social action, squat, squattage, squatter, stress reaction, tea act, Test Act, transact, transaction, transactional, transactor, travel agency, travel agent, ultrareactionary, unacted, unambiguous, unambiguously, unenacted, unexacting, unexamined, unexpurgated, unnavigated, unpurged, unreactive, varactor, variegate, variegation, viraginous, virago, wave action, wire act

ODEE adds cache, cachet. W3 accepts cache, hesitates on cachet. OLD says virago from vir + ago; LS says virgo. ODEE and OED derive virago from vir alone.

LS, OLD divide purgo into purus + ago. See purgo. Italicized words are from purgo.

For double underlined words see aio.

aio: say

adage, prodigal, prodigality, prodigalize, prodigally, prodigious, prodigiously, prodigiousness, prodigy

OLD says prodigalis, prodigium from either ago or aio. ODEE assigns prodigal to ago and prodigious to either ago or aio. OED assigns prodigal to ago and prodigious to aio.

W3 assigns prodigious and prodigy to aio, prodigal to ago.

ala: wing; ales: winged

aileron, aisle, alar, alary, alate, aliferous, aliform, aliped, axil, axillary, elevon

alacer: brisk

alacrity, allegretto (It), allegro (It)

Albis: Elbe

albus: white

alb, alba, Alba Longa, Alban, Albania, Albanian, albarium, albedo, albedometer, albescent, albifrons, albinism, albino, Albion, album, albumen, albumin, albuminous, alburnum, aubade, auburn, bedaub, daub, dauber, daubery, daubster, dauby, dealbation, ovalbumin

alea: dice: seehleoV
algeo: be cold

algae, algid, algometer, algor, macroalgae, microalgae

-alis: pertaining to

general, genial, manual etc. (= Eng. -al, -eal, -ial)

alius: another; alienus: foreign; aliquis: someone; aliter: elsewhere

abalienate, abalienation, alias, alibi, alien, alienable, alienage, alienate, alienation, alienator, alienee, alienism, alienist, aliquant, aliquot, et al., et alia, et alii, hidalgo, inalienability, inalienable, inalienably, per aliud

alo, al(i)tum: suckle, nourish; altus: high, deep; adulescens: youth; alma: nourishing

adolesce, adolescence, adolescent, adult, adulthood, aliment, alimentary, alimentation, alimentative, alimony, Alma, alma mater, altazimuth, altigraph, altimeter, altimetry, altiplanation, altiplano, altitude, alto, altocumulus, altostratus, altricial, alum (alumnus), alumna, alumnus, bio-enhanced, coalesce, coalescence, coalescent, coalition, coalitionism, coalitionist, contralto, enhance, enhancement, enhancive, exalt, exaltation, exalter, exaltingly, haughtily, haughtiness, haughty, haut (Fr), hauteur, hawser, maltitude, nonproliferation, oboe, oboist, overprolific, palimony, preadolescent, preadult, prole, proles, proletarian, proletarianism, proletatianization, proletariat, proletarization, prolicide, proliferate, proliferation, proliferative, proliferous, prolific, prolificacy, proligerous, proly, sine prole, superexalt, superexaltation, Terra Haute, unexalted

OED derives altar from alo; see note under oleo.
Alpes: Alps

Alpestrine, Alpine, Alps, cisalpine, subalpine, transalpine

altaria (altar): see oleo.
alter: one or the other of two; adulter: illicit lover; alternus: by turns

AC, adulter, adulterant, adulterate, adulteration, adulterer, adulteress, adulterine, adulterous, adultery, alter, alter ego, alterability, alterable, alteration, altercation, alternate, alternately, alternating, alternating current, alternation, alternative, alternatively, alternativity, alternator, altrigenderism, altruism, altruist, altruistic, altruistically, inalterable, inalterably, subaltern, subalternation, unadulterated, unalterable, unalterably, unaltered

altus (high, deep): see alo.
alumen: astringent substance

alum (substance), aluminate, aluminiferous, aluminotype, aluminous, aluminum, sial

alveus: bathtub

alveary, alveolar, alveolate, alveolus, interalveolar, postalveolar

amarus: bitter

dulcamara, maraschino

ambo: both (cf. amfi)

ambagious, ambi-, ambiance, ambidexter, ambidexterity, ambidextrous, ambience, ambient, ambiguity, ambiguous, ambiguously, ambilateral, ambisinister, ambisonic, ambit, ambition, ambitious, ambitiously, ambivalence, ambivalent, ambivalently, ambs-ace, anfractuosity, anfractuous, circumambience, circumambient, disambiguate, disambiguation, nonambiguity, nonambiguous, overambitious, unambiguous, unambiguously, unambitious, unambitiously

Note the changed spelling in anfractuous.
ambulo (1): walk

alley, alleyway, amble, ambulance, ambulant, ambulate, ambulation, ambulator, ambulatory, andante, circumambulate, circumambulation, deambulation, deambulatory, funambulism, funambulist, noctambulism, noctambulist, noctambulistic, noctambulous, perambulate, perambulation, perambulator, permabulatory, pram, preamble, solvitur ambulando, somnambulant, somnambulism, somnambulist

amictus: wrap

amita: (paternal) aunt

aunt, aunty, grandaunt, great-aunt
amnis: river


amo (1): love; amicus: friend(ly); amicitia: friendship; amoenus: pleasant; inimicus: enemy

Amanda, amateur, amateurish, amateurishly, amateurism, amative, amatory, amenity, amer (Fr), ami (Fr), amiability, amiable, amiably, amicable, amicably, amicus curiae, amiga (Sp), amigo (Sp), amity, amoretto (It), amorous, amorously, amour, amour-propre (Fr), Amy, archenemy, disamenity, enamor, enamorment, enemy, enmity, inamorata (It), inamorato (It), inimical, inimicality, inimically, Mabel, mon ami (Fr), odi et amo, omnia vincit amor, paramour, polyamor, polyamorous, pro-am, radio amateur, Somos Amigos

amplus: large

AM, ample, ampliate, amplification, amplified, amplifier, amplify, amplitude, amply, laser, laserprint

ampolla: bottle (ultimately Greek)

amuletum: charm

anas: duck


ancilla: maid

ancilla, ancillary

ancora: anchor, hook: see agkura
angaria: transport wagon


ango, anctum: choke; anxius: troubled; anxietas: anxiety; angina: throat infection

angina pectoris, angle, angler, anguish, angular, angularity, angulate, angulation, angustifolia, anxiety, anxious, anxiously, cubangle, decangular, equiangular, heptangular, octangular, overanxious, pentangle, pentangular, phase angle, point angle, quadrangle, quadrangular, quinquangular, rectangle, rectangular, right-angle, septangular, slip angle, triangle, triangular, triangularity, triangularly, triangulate, triangulation, triangulator, warning triangle, wide-angle

N.B. Anger and angry are not derived from ango.
anguis: snake; anguilla: eel

anguiform, anguilliform, anguine, anguis in herba

animus: spirit; anima: soul, breath; animadverto: notice; animal: animal; exanimo: kill anima, animadversion, animadvert, animal, animalcule, animalculum, animalish, animalism, animalistic, animality, animalize, anima mundi, animate, animated, animation, animator, anime, animism, animist, animistic, animosity, animus, de- animalize, disanimate, disanimation, equanimity, equanimous, exanimation, exanimate, inanimate, inanimately, longanimity, magnanimity, magnanimous, magnanimously, nonunanimous, parvanimity, pusillanimity, pusillanimous, pusillanimously, reanimate, reanimation, unanimism, unanimity, unanimous, unanimously, wheel animal

annus: year

annal, annalist, annalistic, anniversary, anno Domini (AD), annual, annually, annuitant, annuity, annular, biannual, biannually, bicentennial, biennial, biennially, biennium, centennial, decennary, decennial, decennially, decennium, duodecennial, duodecentennial, interannual, millennial, millenialism, millenialist, millenially, millenian, millennium, octennial, per annum, perennate, perennial, perennially, perennibranch, postmillenial, premillenial, quadrennial, quadrennium, quincentennial, quindecennial, quinqennial, quinquennially, quinqennium, semiannual, semiannually, septennial, septicentennial, sesquicentennial, sexennial, sexennium, superannuate, superannuation, tercentennial, triannular, tricentennial, triennial, triennially, triennium, vicennial

N.B. Centenary and millenary do not contain the root annus.

N.B. Distinguish decenary, decennary.

-ans: see -ant
ansa: handle

ansa, ansate

anser: goose

anserine, anserous, merganser

-ant-: -ing

important etc. (= Eng. -ant)

ante: before; antiquus: old

advance, advanced, advancement, advantage, advantageous, advantageously, a.m., ancestor, ancestorial, ancestral, ancestrally, ancestress, ancestry, ancien regime (Fr), ancient, anciently, ancientness, ante, ante bellum, antecede, antecedence, antecedent, antecessor, antechamber, antedate, antediluvial, antediluvian, antefebrile, antefix, anteflexion, antelabrum, antelocation, antemeridian, ante meridiem, antemortem, antenatal, antenate, antenuptial, antepartum, antepenult, antepenultimate, anteprandial, ante rem, anterior, anteroom, anteroposterior, anteversion, antic, anticipate, anticipation, anticipative, anticipatively, anticipatory, antics, antiquarian, antiquary, antiquated, antique, antiquity, avant-garde (Fr), disadvantage, disadvantageous, disadvantageously, penny ante, rampart, readvance, van, vanguard, vantage, verd antique (Fr)

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