Department/Program: history

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Course Outline HISTORY 441

Department/Program: HISTORY

Course begins: September

Course Title: A History of the Holocaust

Course Schedule: Monday 5-8, with occasional tutorials, 7-8

Instructor: Richard Menkis

Office location: Buchanan C223

Office phone: (604) 822-1374

Office hours: Monday: 11-12; Tuesday and Thursday. 11:15-noon, or by appointment.

Teaching Assistant: Mr Rafael Weiner

TA Office hours: Monday 3-4, or by appointment.

TA Office: Brock Hall annex, Rm. 2355

E-mail addresses: < >;

NOTE ABOUT EMAIL: In your correspondence with me, please include in the subject line HIST 441. I will try to answer your email within 24 hours (except weekends), but if I do not, please resend it.

Course Description

In this course we examine the attempt to destroy European Jewry during the Nazi regime. We survey the major steps in the emergence of the "Final Solution," and examine the reactions of the victims as well as the role of the bystanders. We will emphasize the historiographic issues related to research in the Holocaust. These issues include: the changing interpretations of the motivations of the perpetrators; the behaviours of the victims, both in the camps and outside; the use of evidence, including the testimonies of survivors; the cultural contexts of changing interpretations of the Holocaust. The questions that accompany each week of readings suggest some of the major themes for that week, but students are encouraged to raise other questions.

Prerequisites There are no prerequisites, although some background in European and/or Jewish history would certainly be helpful.

Required Reading:

Dwork, Deborah and Robert Jan van Pelt. Holocaust: A History (D&vP)

Course booklet (CB) at bookstore for HIST 441. All readings which are not in D&vP, or listed as ejournals, can be found in the course booklet.

Journal articles not in CB, or with URL provided, are online at the UBC library. For access, see, if you are still having difficulty, please contact the library.

Learning Goals:

*Sharpen critical thinking by the study of

-debates among historians on perpetrators, victims and bystanders;

-the strengths and weaknesses of various primary sources (including photographs and


-debates on how to write the history of the Holocaust, and how to represent it in museums, memorials, etc. *Improve written and oral skills, by reviews and group discussions.

Course requirements (see outline for exact dates)
TWO reviews, app. 1500 words each 60%

1 final exam 30%

Participation 10%
For the reviews, including information on submitting a draft, see the details with the list of books, p. 7.
The exam will consist of three sections. The first will include identifications of some of the crucial individuals/events examined in the class. In the second last week of class, I will hand out a list of about forty notable terms and individuals. The identifications will be drawn from this list. The second part of the examination will be short answers. These will focus on smaller issues, such as those discussed in an individual week, or in one of the articles assigned. These first two sections will represent 50 percent of the final grade. The final question (value: 50 percent) will address some of the larger themes in the course, and you will be expected to draw on the lectures, readings and discussions of many weeks.
The participation mark will be based on participation informed by the readings.
I expect the reading to be completed for each class. I am providing questions with the weekly assignments. Consider these as you do the readings, and be prepared to discuss your answers in class. Any additional questions are most welcome!
From the Calendar: Grades are not official until they appear on a student's academic record.

Course Policies:

From the calendar: Regular attendance is expected of students in all their classes (including lectures, laboratories, tutorials, seminars, etc.). Students who neglect their academic work and assignments may be excluded from the final examinations. Students who are unavoidably absent because of illness or disability should report to their instructors on return to classes.
The University accommodates students with disabilities who have registered with the Disability Resource Centre. The University also accommodates students whose religious obligations conflict with attendance, submitting assignments, or completing scheduled tests and examinations. Please let me know in advance, preferably in the first week of class, if you will require any accommodation on these grounds. Students who plan to be absent for varsity athletics, family obligations, or other similar commitments, cannot assume that they will be accommodated, and should discuss their commitments with me before the drop date.

Late assignments: Any student who submits late work, or who misses examinations, must have a medical reason, and provide of documentation from a health professional. The penalty for late assignments is 5% per day.

Academic Dishonesty: Please review the UBC Calendar "Academic regulations",54,111,959
for the university policy on cheating, plagiarism, and other forms of academic dishonesty..

Students should retain a copy of all submitted assignments and should retain all their marked assignments in case they wish to apply for a Review of Assigned Standing.

Course schedule:


1 09 Sept. Background: Jewish Life in Europe

2 16 Sept Modern Antisemitism; Fascism

3 23 Sept. Nazi Policies & Jewish Lives, 1933-36 TUTORIAL/27 SEPT-OPTIONAL DRAFT DUE

4 30 Sept. Nazi Policies & Jewish Lives, 1936-39/Bystanders TUTORIAL

5 07 Oct. Nazi Policies, 1939-1941 & Jewish Life in Ghettos 1ST REVIEW DUE


6 21 Oct. “Final solution”, 1941-1945 TUTORIAL

7 28 Oct. “Final solution,” and Jewish responses TUTORIAL

8 04 Nov. Survivors & Testimony (with guest) No visitors, please


9 18 Nov. Guest lecture: Prof. Margarete Myers Feinstein (UCLA) Visitors welcome

10 25 Nov. Bystanders/Reflections 2ND REVIEW DUE




Exhibit at Vancouver Holocaust Education Centre, 950 West 41st Ave. “Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals, 1933-1945,” October 29-December 4, 2013. As a “make-up” for classes missed because of holidays on Mondays, I have arranged for a viewings of the exhibition, on Sunday November 17, in two “shifts”, either from 11:00-12:30, or 12:30 to 2:00. For information on the Centre, see

Annual Kristallnacht Lecture, “Traumatized Generations? A Historian’s Perspective on the Children and Grandchildren of Survivors.” Temple Sholom, 7190 Oak Street, 3 November 2013, 7pm.

1 09 Sept.-Background: Jewish Life in Eastern Europe

Discussion of course syllabus and course requirements.

Background on Jewish life in Eastern Europe.
Questions/Topics for review

Was Polish Jewry a "unified" Jewish community in the interwar period? What were the sources of unity and disunity in the Jewish community?

2 16 Sept.-Modern Antisemitism/Fascism

D&vP, caps. 1-2.
Questions/Topics for review

What were the meanings of emancipation for the Jews of western Europe, and what were the political, social and cultural implications for relations between Jews and non-Jews? Contrast anti-Jewish attitudes of the late 19th century with the hostility towards Jews and Judaism before that time.

What successes did Fascism achieve in the 1920s? Why did many Europeans support fascism?
3 23 Sept.-Nazi Policies and Jewish Lives, 1933-5

D&vP, caps. 3-4.

Friedländer, Saul. "The Spirit of the Laws." Nazi Germany and the Jews. New York, 1997. Pp. 147-173. (CB)

Holocaust Encyclopedia s.v. "Persecution of Homosexuals in the Third Reich."

Klemperer, Victor. I Will Bear Witness: A Diary of the Nazi Years, 1933-1941. New York, 1999. Pp. 133-137. (CB)

Young, James. "Towards a Received History of the Holocaust." History and Theory 36,4 (Dec., 1997).
Questions/Topics for review

What were the major purposes of the Nuremberg legislation?

What were the effects of the Nuremberg Laws on the lives of the Jews? On the basis of your reading of Klemperer, would you emphasize some issues not discussed in D&vP or in Friedländer?

What issues does Young raise about writing Holocaust history, and what strengths and weaknesses does he see in the work by Friedländer? On the basis of your reading, do you agree with Young’s evaluation?

4 30 Sept.-Nazi Policies and Jewish lives, 1936-1939/Bystanders

Weitzman, Lenore J. and Dalia Ofer. "Introduction." Women in the Holocaust. Ed. Dalia Ofer and Lenore J. Weitzman. New Haven, 1998. Pp. 1-16.(CB)

Kaplan, Marion A. "The November Pogrom and its Aftermath" Between Dignity and Despair: Jewish Life in Nazi Germany. New York and Oxford, 1998. Pp. 119-144. (CB)

Holocaust Encyclopedia, s.v. "Roma (Gypsies) in Pre-war Europe."

D&vP, cap. 5.

Abella, Irving and Harold M. Troper. "The Line Must be Drawn Somewhere." Canadian Historical Review 60, 2 (1979).

Questions/Topics for review

In the view of Weitzman and Ofer, what have been the issues in researching the issue of gender and the Holocaust?

What, in your view, has Kaplan contributed to the study of the Holocaust by focusing explicitly on gender? Is there a marked difference in approach between Kaplan and Friedländer?

What were the pressures for and against a pro-Refugee stance in Canada?

5 07 October: Nazi Policies & Jewish Life in the Ghettos, 1939-41

D&vP, caps. 6,7.

Trunk, Isaiah. "The Emergence of the Jewish Councils and Their Composition." Judenrat: The Jewish Councils in Eastern Europe under Nazi Occupation. New York, 1972. Pp. 14-35. (CB)

Hilberg, Raul et al., eds. The Warsaw Diary of Adam Czerniakow. New York, 1979. Pp. 284-303. (CB)

Katsh, Abraham I., ed. The Warsaw Diary of Chaim A. Kaplan. New York, 1965. Pp. 265-280. (CB)

Dawidowicz, Lucy S., ed. [Sources from the Warsaw Ghetto.] A Holocaust, Reader. New York, 1976. Pp.193-208. (CB)

Questions/Topics for review

Analyze the regional variations in treatment of the Jews, paying attention to local attitudes towards the Jews and to the geo-racial politics of the Nazis towards Europe and Europeans.

What were the tasks of the Judenrat?

What changes took place in Warsaw in late 1941, and how did the two diarists experience them?

6 21 October “Final Solution”, 1941-5

D&vP, caps. 10-11.

Holocaust Encyclopedia, s.v."Genocide of European Roma (Gypsies) 1939-1945."

Panayi, Panikos. "The Case of German Romanies: The Case of Osnabrück." Patterns of Prejudice 37,4 (Dec. 2003): 377-399.

Lautmann, Ruediger. "Gay Prisoners in Concentration Camps, as Compared with Jehovah’s Witnesses and Political Prisoners." A Mosaic of Victims: Non-Jews Persecuted and Murdered by Nazis. Ed. Michael Berenbaum. New York and London, 1990. Pp. 200-206. (CB)

Questions/Topics for review

What is the value of comparative studies for the study of the Holocaust?

7 28 October-The ‘Final Solution,’ and Jewish Responses1941-1945

D&vP, cap. 14.

Des Pres, Terrence. "Excremental Assault." The Survivor: An Anatomy of Life in the Death Camps. Oxford, 1976. Pp. 53-71. (CB)

Levi, Primo. "The Grey Zone." The Drowned and the Saved. (CB)

Marrus, Michael R. "Jewish Resistance to the Holocaust." Journal of Contemporary History 30,1 (Jan. 1995): 83-110.

Questions/Topics for review

Can there be an historical analysis of Jewish behaviour in extremis, i.e. one which places the behaviours in context? Which context(s) would you suggest?

What, if any, were the factors that distinguished Jewish resistance from other forms of resistance during the Second World War?
8 04 November- Survivors &Testimony

Draper, Paula J. "Canadian Holocaust Survivors: From Liberation to Rebirth," Canadian Jewish Studies/Études juives canadiennes 4-5 (1996-1997): 39-62.

Waisman, Robbie. "A Child Survivor in Western Canada," Canadian Jewish Studies Études juives canadiennes 4-5 (1996-1997): 125-134.

Novick, Peter. "We are not Equipped to Answer." From his The Holocaust in American Life. Boston, New York, 1999. Pp. 267-281, 349-352. (Read notes carefully!) (CB)

Questions/Topics for review

What does survivor testimony contribute to our understanding of the Holocaust? What are the forces behind the "creation" of survivor testimony? What is the proper way to use survivor testimony?

What are the concerns addressed by Novick on survivor testimony in specific (and Holocaust commemoration in general), and do you consider them legitimate?
9 18 November-Guest lecture

Prof. Margarete Myers Feinstein (UCLA), on Holocaust Survivors in postwar Germany

D&vP, 12 and 13 (in preparation for week 10-get a headstart this week)
10 25 November-Bystanders/Reflections

D&vP, 12 and 13, epilogue.

Marrus, Michael R. "Getting it Right: A Historian Thinking of the Holocaust." From Beyond Imagination: Canadians Write about the Holocaust. Ed. Jerry S. Grafstein. Toronto, 1995. Pp. 20-33. (CB)

LaCapra, Dominick. "Conclusion: Acting-Out and Working-Through." In his Representing the Holocaust: History, Theory, Trauma (Ithaca and London, 1994.) Pp. 205-223. (CB)
Questions/Topics for review

For Marrus and LaCapra, what are the responsibilities of scholars in studying the Holocaust? Do you see points of reconciliation between the two?

From your reading: In your opinion which historians have been most successful in their study of the historical events of the Holocaust? How have they addressed, either implicitly or explicitly, the concerns of Marrus and LaCapra?

You have been assigned two book reviews. (See schedule). You must choose one from list A, and the other from list B, but it does NOT matter in what order. IF YOU WISH TO REVIEW A BOOK NOT ON THIS LIST, YOU MUST GET MY APPROVAL IN WRITING (i.e. send an email with your request, and append my email approval to your paper).

You can submit a draft by the draft due dates on the course schedule, page 2. We will return your draft one week before the due date for the final version. You can raise your grade a maximum of TEN PERCENT from the grade you received on the draft.
The website of the University of Toronto’s History Department has an excellent set of guidelines for writing a review. See
At the end of those guidelines (paragraph beginning "Some reviews summarize ….") you will see brief mention of options for writing a review. I prefer the method of summarizing the book and then evaluating it. At the risk of repetition, I re-emphasize the point that this is NOT a summary, but a critical evaluation. Here is the template I will use for grading:
/10-Clear identification of the thesis of the book?
/20-Clear demonstration of how the author develops the argument in the book?
/60-Clear discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the book? (Was the book well researched? Adequate sources, and good use of sources? Consistent and convincing argument? Well expressed?)
/10-Quality of your writing: Cleary expressed? Proofread?
All of the following books are in the UBC Library system. Some are also at the Vancouver Holocaust Education Centre, (at the Jewish Community Centre) and at the Vancouver Public Library (especially the Central Branch). Please note: You cannot expect to renew your book, as another may have placed a hold on it.

Allen, Michael Thad. The Business of Genocide: The SS, slave labor, and the concentration camps. Chapel Hill, 2002.

Aly, Götz. Final Solution: Nazi Population Policy and the Murder of European Jews. New York, 1999.

Aly, Götz. Hitler’s Beneficiaries: Plunder, Racial War and the Nazi Welfare State. New York, 2006.

Bankier, David. The Germans and the Final Solution: Public Opinion under Nazism. Oxford, 1992.

Bartov, Omer. Hitler’s Army: Soldiers, Nazis and War in the Third Reich. New York, 1991.

Bartrop, Paul R. Australia and the Holocaust, 1933-1945. Melbourne, 1994.

Bauer, Yehuda. Jews For Sale? Nazi-Jewish Negotiations, 1933-1945. New Haven, 1994.

Baumel, Judith Tydor. Double Jeopardy: Gender and the Holocaust. London, 1998.

Berkhoff, Karel C. Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in the Ukraine under Nazi Rule. Cambridge MA, 2004.

Blatman, Daniel. The Death Marches: The Final Phase of Nazi Genocide. Cambridge MA, 2011.

Blatman, Daniel. For our Freedom and Yours: The Jewish Labour Bund in Poland, 1939-1949. London, 2003.

Bolchover, Richard. British Jewry and the Holocaust. Cambridge, 1993.

Breitman, Richard. Official Secrets: What the Nazis Planned, What the British and Americans Knew. New York, 1998.

Breitman, Richard. The Architect of Genocide: Himmler and the Final Solution. Hanover, N.H., 1991.
Breitman, Richard and Allan J. Lichtman. FDR and the Jews. Cambridge, MA., 2013.

Browning, Christopher. Remembering Survival: Inside a nazi slave-labor camp. New York, 2011.

Brustein, William. The Logic of Evil: The Social Origins of the Nazi Party, 1925-1933. New Haven, 1996.

Burrin, Philippe. Hitler and the Jews: The Genesis of the Holocaust. London, 1994.

Carpi, Daniel. Between Mussolini and Hitler: The Jews and the Italian Authorities in France and Tunisia. Hanover, N.H., 1994.

Davies, Alan T. and Marilyn F. Nefsky. How Silent were the Churches? Canadian Protestantism and the Jewish Plight during the Nazi Era. Waterloo, 1997

Dean, Martin. Collaboration in the Holocaust: Crimes of the Local Police in Belorussia and Ukraine, 1941-1944. New York, 1999.

Dwork, Debórah. Children with a Star: Jewish Youth in Nazi Europe. New Haven and London, 1991.

Engel, David. Facing a Holocaust: The Polish Government-in-Exile and the Jews, 1943-1945. Chapel Hill, 1993.

Ericksen, Robert P. Complicity in the Holocaust: Churches and Universities in Nazi Germany. New York, 2012.

Favez, Jean-Claude. The Red Cross and the Holocaust. Cambridge, UK, 1999.

Feingold, Henry L. Bearing Witness: How America and its Jews Responded to the Holocaust. Syracuse, 1995.

Friedlander, Henry. The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Chapel Hill, 1995.

Friedman, Jonathan C. The Lion and the Star: Gentile-Jewish Relations in three Hessian Communities, 1941-1945. Lexington, 1998.

Fulbrook, Mary. A Small Town Near Auschwitz: Ordinary Nazis and the Holocaust. Oxford, 2012.

Gilman, Sander. The Jew’s Body. New York and London, 1991.

Gorny, Yosef. The Jewish Press and the Holocaust, 1939-1945: Palestine, Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union. New York, 2012.

Gottlieb, Amy Zahl. Men of Vision: Anglo-Jewry’s Aid to Victims of the Nazi Regime, 1933-1945. London, 1998.

Gruner, Wolf. Jewish Forced Labor under the Nazis: Economic Needs and Racial Aims, 1938-1944. New York, 2006.

Herczl, Moshe Y. Christianity and the Holocaust of Hungarian Jewry. New York, 1993.

Herf, Jeffrey. The Jewish Enemy: Nazi Propaganda during World War II and the Holocaust. Cambridge, Mass., 2006.

Heschel, Susannah. Aryan Jesus: Christian Theologians and the Bible in Nazi Germany Princeton, 2008.

Ionaid, Radu. The Holocaust in Romania: The Destruction of Jews and Gypsies under the Antonescu Regime, 1940-1944. Chicago, 2000.

Kaplan, Marion A. Between Dignity and Despair: Jewish Life in Nazi Germany. New York, 1998.

Kassow, Samuel Who will write our history? Emanuel Ringelblum, the Warsaw Ghetto and the Oyneg Shabes Archive. Bloomington, 2007.

Kochler, Joachim. Wagner’s Hitler: The Prophet and his Disciple. Cambridge, UK, 2000.

Leff, Laurel. Buried by the Times: The Holocaust and America’s Most Important Newspaper. Cambridge, 2005.

Levine, Paul A. From Indifference to Activism: Swedish Diplomacy and the Holocaust, 1938-1944. Uppsala, 1998.

Evans, Suzanne E. Forgotten Crimes: The Holocaust and People with Disabilities. Chicago, 2004.

London, Louise. Whitehall and the Jews: British Immigration Policy, Jewish Refugees and the Holocaust. Oxford and New York, 2000.

Miller, Richard Lawrence. Nazi Justiz: Law of the Holocaust. Westport, 1995.

Ofer, Dalia. Escaping the Holocaust: Illegal Immigration to the Land of Israel, 1939-1944. New York, 1990.

Pauley, Bruce F. From Prejudice to Persecution: A History of Austrian Antisemitism. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1992.

Porat, Dina. The Blue and Yellow Stars of David: The Zionist Leadership in Palestine and the Holocaust. Cambridge, MA., 1990.

Ryan, Donna F. The Holocaust and the Jews of Marseilles: The Enforcement of anti-Semitic Policies in Vichy. Urbana, 1996.

Safrian, Hans. Eichmann's Men. Cambridge, New York, 2010.

Schleunes, Karl A. The Twisted Road to Auschwitz: Nazi Policies towards German Jews, 1933-1939. Urbana, 1990.

Schneider, Gertrude. Exile and Destruction: The Fate of Austrian Jews, 1938-1945. Westport, 1995.

Shaw, Stanford J. Turkey and the Holocaust: Turkey’s Role in Rescuing Turkish and European Jewry from Nazi Persecution. Houndmills, 1993.

Sompolinsky, Meier. Britain and the Holocaust: The Failure of Anglo-Jewish Leadership. Portland, 1999.

Steinberg, Jonathan. All or Nothing: The Axis and the Holocaust, 1941-1943. London, 1990.

Steinweis, Alan E. Studying the Jew: Scholarly Antisemitism in Nazi Germany. Cambridge, MA., 2006.

Tec, Nechama. Defiance: The Bielski Partisans. New York, 1993.

Thurner, Erika. National Socialism and Gypsies in Austria. Tuscaloosa, 1998.

Warren, Donald. Charles Coughlin: The Father of Hate Radio. New York, 1996.

Wasserstein, Bernard. Britain and the Jews of Europe, 1939-1945. New York, 1979.

Weiner, Marc A. Richard Wagner and the Anti-Semitic Imagination. Lincoln and London, 1995

Weisberg, Richard H. Vichy Law and the Holocaust in France. New York, 1996.

Zuccotti, Susan. The Holocaust, the French, and the Jews. New York, 1993.

Bar-On, Dan. The Indescribable and the Undiscussable: Reconstructing Human Discourse after Trauma. Budapest, 1999.

Bartov, Omer. Murder in our Midst: The Holocaust, Industrial Killing and Representation. New York, 1996.

Baumel, Judith Tydor. Kibbutz Buchenwald: Survivors and Pioneers. New Brunswick, N.J., 1997.

Bergen, Bernard J. The Banality of Evil: Hannah Arendt and the "Final Solution." Latham, 1998.

Bernstein, Richard J. Hannah Arendt and the Jewish Question. Cambridge, 1996.

Bialystok, Franklin. Delayed Impact: The Holocaust and the Canadian Jewish Community. Montreal, 2000.

Bloxham, Donald. Genocide on Trial: War Crimes Trials and the Formation of Holocaust History and Memory. Oxford, 2001.

Carrier, Peter. Holocaust Monuments and National Memory Cultures in France and German since 1989: The Origins and Political Function of the Vél d’Hiv’ in Paris and the Holocaust Monument in Berlin. New York, 2005.

Cesarani, David. Justice Delayed: How Britain became a Refuge for Nazi War Criminals. London, 1992.

Clenninden, Inga. Reading the Holocaust. New York, 1999.

Cohen, Beth. Case Closed: Holocaust Survivors in postwar America. New Brunswick, NJ, 2007.

Cohen, Boaz. Israeli Holocaust Research: Birth and Evolution. Abingdon, 2013.

Confino, Alon. Foundational Pasts: The Holocaust and Historical Understanding. Cambridge, UK, 2012.

Dean, Carolyn. Aversion and erasure: the fate of the victim after the Holocaust. Ithaca, 2010.

Diner, Hasia R. We remember with reverence and love: American Jews and the Myth of Silence after the Holocaust, 1945-1962. New York, 2009.

Engel, David. Historians of the Jews and the Holocaust. Stanford, 2010.

Feinstein, Margarete Myers. Holocaust Survivors in postwar Germany. Cambridge, MA., 2010.

Feldman, Jackie. Above the Death Pits, Beneath the Flag: Youth Voyages to Poland and the Performance of Israeli National Identity. New York 2008.

Fermaglich, Kirsten. American Dreams and Nazi Nightmares: Early Holocaust Consciousness and Liberal America. Waltham, 2006.

Geller, Jay H. Jews in post-Holocaust Germany. Cambridge, 2005.

Genizi, Haim. America's Fair share: The Admission and Resettlement of displaced persons, 1945-1952. Detroit, 1993.

Ginsburg, George. Moscow’s Road to Nuremberg: The Soviet Background to the Trial. Hague, 1996.

Gordon, Robert S.C. The Holocaust in Italian Culture, 1944-2010. Stanford, 2012.

Halamish, Aviva. The Exodus Affair: Holocaust Survivors and the Struggle for Palestine. Trans. by Ora Cummings. Syracuse, 1998.

Helmreich, William B. Against all Odds: Holocaust Survivors and the Successful Lives they Made in America. New York, 1992.

Huener, Jonathan. Auschwitz, Poland and the Politics of Commemoration, 1945-1979. Athens, Ohio, 2003.

Jockush, Laura. Collect and Record! Jewish Holocaust documentation in early postwar Europe. Oxford, 2012.

Kochavi, Arieh J. Prelude to Nuremberg: Allied War Crimes Policy and the Question of Punishment. Chapel Hill and London, 1998.

LaCapra, Dominick. History and Memory after Auschwitz. Ithaca, 1998.

LaCapra, Dominick. Representing the Holocaust: History, Theory, Memory. Ithaca, 1994.

Langer, Lawrence L. Holocaust Testimonies: The Ruins of Memory. New Haven and London, 1992.

Levine, Michael G. The Belated Witness: Literature, Testimony and the Question of Holocaust Survival. Stanford, 2006.

Levy, Daniel and Natan Sznaider. The Holocaust and Memory in the Global Age. Trans. by Assenka Oksiloff. Philadelphia, 2006.

Linenthal, Edward Tabor. Preserving Memory: The Struggle to Create America’s Holocaust Museum. New York, 1995.

Linn, Ruth. Escaping Auschwitz: A Culture of Forgetting. Ithaca, 2004.

Lipstadt, Deborah. The Eichmann Trial. New York, 2011.

Liss, Andrea. Trespassing through Shadows: Memory, Photography and the Holocaust. Minneapolis, 1998.

Low, Alfred D. The Third Reich and the Holocaust in German Historiography. New York, 1994.

Maier, Charles S. The Unmasterable Past: History, Holocaust and German National Identity. Cambridge, MA., 1997.

Mankowitz, Zeev W. Life Between Memory and Hope: The Survivors of the Holocaust in Occupied Germany. Cambridge, UK, 2002.

Marrus, Michael R. Some Measure of Justice: the Holocaust Restitution Campaign of the 1990s. Madison, 2009.

Meng, Michael. Shattered Spaces: Encountering Jewish Ruins in Postwar Germany and Poland. Cambridge, MA., 2011.

Milton, Sybil. In Fitting Memory: The Art and Politics of Holocaust Memorials. Detroit, 1991.

Moyn, Samuel. Holocaust Controversy: The Treblinka Affair in postwar France. Waltham, 2005.

Patterson, David. Along the Edge of Annihilation: The Collapse and Recovery of Life in the Holocaust Diary. Seattle and London, 1999.

Patterson, David. Emil L. Fackenheim: A Jewish Philosopher’s Response to the Holocaust. Syracuse, 2008.

Patterson, David. Sun Turned to Darkness: Memory and Recovery in the Holocaust Memoir. Syracuse, 1998.

Pross, Christian. Paying for the Past: The Struggle over Reparations for the Surviving Victims of Nazi Terror. Baltimore, 1998.

Seidel, Rochelle G. Never too Late to Remember: The Politics behind New York City’s Holocaust Museum. New York, 1996.

Shandling, Jeffrey. While America Watches: Televising the Holocaust. New York, 1999.

Shiff, Ofer. Survival through Integration: American Reform Universalism and the Holocaust. Leiden, 2005.

Stauber, Roni. The Holocaust in Israeli Public Debate in the 1950s: Ideology and Memory, London, 2007.

Steinlauf, Michael. Bondage to the Dead: Poland and the Memory of the Holocaust. Syracuse, 1997.

Struk, Janina. Photographing the Holocaust: Interpretations of the Evidence. London, 2004.

Timm, Angelika. Jewish Claims against East Germany: Moral Obligations and Pragmatic Policy. Budapest, 1997.

Troper, Harold and Morton Weinfeld. Old Wounds: Jews, Ukrainians and the Hunt for Nazi War Criminals in Canada. Toronto, 1989.

Wiedmer, Caroline Alice. The Claims of Memory: Representations of the Holocaust in Contemporary Germany and France. Ithaca, 1999.

Wolf, Joan B. Harnessing the Holocaust: The Politics of Memory in France. Stanford, 2004.

Utgaard, Peter. Remembering and Forgetting Nazism: Education, National Identity and Victim Myth in postwar Austria. New York, 2003.

Wieviorka, Annette. The Era of the Witness. Ithaca, 2006.

Wieviorka, Olivier. Divided Memory: French Recollections of World War II from the Liberation to the Present. Stanford, 2012.

Wolf, René. The Undivided Sky: The Holocaust on East and West German radio in the 1960s. Houndmills, 2010.

Yablonka, Hanna. Survivors of the Holocaust: Israel after the War. Houndmills, 1999.

Young, James E. Texture of Memory: Holocaust Memorials and Meaning. New Haven, 1993.

Young, James E. Writing and Rewriting the Holocaust: Narrative and Consequences of Interpretation. Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1988

Zahra, Tara. The Lost Children: Reconstructing Europe’s Families after World War 11. Cambridge, MA, 2011.

Zelizer, Barbie. Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory through the Camera’s Eye. Chicago, 1998.

Zertal, Idith. From Catastrophe to Power: Holocaust Survivors and the Emergence of Israel. Berkeley, 1998.


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