Ethnic Minority Development Plan



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E
IPP240
thnic Minority Development Plan


for the WUAGEF adaptation to climate change Pilot Program under IAIL-3 Project in Hui Nationality Autonomous Region, Ningxia

1.Review on the legal and institutional framework applicable to the ethnic minority groups, and the summary of their baseline data


    1. Review on the legal and institutional framework applicable to the ethnic minority groups

Ningxia Autonomous Region has 5, 880,000 population and 34.9% of the total population is Hui nationality, which is called “Muslim province”. Hui nationality believes in the Muslim religion, there are more than 3000 mosques. Usually Hui nationality lived collectively, Yinchuan prefecture and Qing Tongxia prefecture have more Hui nationality relatively.

Based on the documentations provided by Ethnic Group and Religion Affairs Administration Committee in province, municipality and county level, legal and institutional framework applicable to the ethnic minority groups in Ningxia is summarized as follows:
1.1.1 Propagandize and carry out the legal and institutional framework applicable to the ethnic minority groups. In July, 2000, Ethnic Affairs Committee of Ningxia Autonomous Region and Bureau of Religious Affairs of Ningxia Autonomous Region compiled the “Selected articles on legal and institutional framework applicable to the ethnic minority groups” in order to facilitate all levels of leaders, cadres and common people to learn and master the related theories, laws and regulations.

In 2003, five prefectures and most counties of Ningxia Autonomous Region made decision on “strengthening ethnic work and stepping out the economic and social development of the ethnic minority regions”. Which aim to promoting the economic and social development of the ethnic minority regions and improve the level of living for ethnic minority group. In May of 2005, the province government release “Suggestions on implementing the ‘Decision on strengthening ethnic work and stepping out the economic and social development of the ethnic minority regions of State Council ’”, which required local government in different level to make more efforts to do better job on ethnic minority group development.

In the March of 2005, Bureau of Religious Affairs of Ningxia Autonomous Region compiled “Rules on Religion Affairs”.
1.1.2 Propagandize and make educational and cultural policy applicable to the ethnic minority groups to improve local ethnic group development.
In Sept.2001, on the 21st conference of the 8th national people's congress of Ningxia Autonomous Region, Ethnic education Statutes of Ningxia Autonomous Region was passed. Since then, many projects implemented to improve school condition such as “Word bank poverty alleviation project II and project IV”. Education conditions of Primary schools and high schools in Ningxia have been improved a lot.

In 2005, local government started Standardization of 100 Hui nationality high and primary schools project. Until the end of 2005, 60 school had reached the standard.


1.2 The summary of the baseline data on the ethnic minority groups in the project areas

In the project areas in Ningxia Autonomous region, there are 3 project prefectures – Yingchuan, Nongken and Wuzhong city, 20 project townships and 109 project villages. Among them, there are 18 project townships and 82 project villages having the Ethnic Minority Groups (EMG). There are 39752 project households and159081 project population totally, and 27911 project households and 110157project population in the project townships having EMG. Among them, there are 11269 EMG households and 39937 EMG population, accounting respectively to 28.3% and 25.1% of total project areas’ households and population, and 40.4% and 36.25% of the households and population of the project villages having EMG. The EMG is Hui. Among the project households, 26.3% have migrated labors, and among the labors, 42.9% are permanent migrants. While these two figures account to 25.1 and 34.3% for the project EMG households and their labors (see Table 1.1)



Table 1.1 Administration and households of the project areas in terms of total and Ethnic Minority Groups (EMG)

Prefecture

Project towns.

PT with EMG

Project villages

PV with EMG

Project HHs

Project popul.

HHs in PV/ EMG

Popul. in PV/ EMG

EMG HHs

EMG popul.

Yinchuan

9

7

38

26

20234

84238

13368

56916

9261

31649

Wuzhong

5

5

27

18

11181

45797

7080

27133

1148

4934

Nongken

6

6

44

38

8337

28956

7463

26108

860

3354

Total

20

18

109

82

39752

159081

27911

110157

11269

39937

In the project areas, there are 26.3% of households having wage labors migrated, this figure accounts 25.1% for the EMG households – without significant difference with the non EMG households. However, there are differences among the counties. For example, the figures are 4.8 % in Nongken, much lower than the ones 35.3% and 32.2% in Yinchuan and Wuzhong city. Farms in Nonken are state-owned. Farmers there are agriculture workers. This may be attributed for the difference. In the project areas, there are 28.3% of labors migrated for wage income, among them 42.9% are permanent ones with more than 6 months a year not coming back during the peak season of farming. These figures account 25.7% and 34.3% for the EMG labors. (See Table 1.2)

Table 1.2 Labors, migrants and the permanent ones of the project villages having EMGs in terms of total and EMG HHs

Prefecture

HHs with migrants in PV/ EMG

EMG HHs with migrants in PV/ EMG

Labors in PV/ EMG

Migrated labors in PV/ EMG

Permanent ones among them

EMG labors in PV/ EMG

EMG migrants in PV/ EMG

EMG Permanent migr. in PV/ EMG

Yinchuan

35.3%

24.1%

29528

29.4%

38.4%

21348

26.0%

31.2%

Wuzhong

32.2%

50.9%

18925

40.5%

43.3%

2801

37.7%

48.3%

Nongken

4.8%

2.4%

12926

7.7%

81.1%

1921

4.8%

58.1%

Total

26.3%

25.1%

61379

28.3%

42.9%

26070

25.7%

34.3%

In the project areas, there are 516385 mu of arable land, ranging from 8.46 (in Nongken) to 2.03(in Yinchuan) mu per capita, for Wuzhong is 2.19. Because farms in Nongken are state-owned, so the figure is different from the ones in other two places. Among the land, 73.3-80.1% are irrigated, 71.0-90.8% for crop production and 14.0%-16.9% for cash crops. The food crop production accounts 476.8 -703.1kg/mu a year. Because Wuzhong located in the upward of Huang River, where there has good irrigation and rich soil, the food crop production is relatively high.

Table 1.3 Land use composition, food and cash crops and incomes of the project villages with EMG

Prefecture

Arab. Land(mu)

Irrigated

Food crops

Yield (kg/mu)

Main cash crops

Yuan/ capita

Remittance Y/ca

Cash income Y/ca

Yinchuan

171028

80.1%

90.8%

476.8

16.9%

1202.5

1170.9

2770.26

Wuzhong

100282.4

77.0%

90.0%

703.1

17.8%

1074.7

408.9

3718.1

Nongken

208983.5

71.0%

71.2%

515.0

13.4%

778.3

3743.8

5015.1

Total

516385

76.3%

81.2%

-

-

-

-

-

There are 15 poverty villages among the project villages. And there are 4014 poor households in the project villages with EMG, which accounts 14.4% of the total households. These two figures are 2812 and 10.1% for the EMG poor households. Within these project villages, the female-headed households, the households with the disabled, the lonely elders’ households and the households with drop-outs pupils account 1.2%,1.8%, 0.5%and 0.4 % of the total households. While the figures for the EMG account0.7%, 1.0%, 0.3%and0.4%.

Table 1.4 Poverty situations in the project villages with EMG

Prefecture

Poor HH

Female headed

HH with disable

The lonely elders

HH with dropout

EMG Poor HH

EMG Female headed

EMG HH with disable

The EMG lonely elders

EMG HH with dropout

Yinchuan

25.2%

1.7%

2.3%

0.7%

0.4%

20%

1.4%

2.1%

0.6%

0.4%

Wuzhong

3.1%

0.7%

3.0%

0.5%

1.0%

1.2%

0.08%

0.85%

0.03%

0.7%

Nongken

13.7%

1.8%

2.9%

0.4%

0.0%

1.8%

0.2%

0.3%

0.01%

0

Total

14.4%

1.2%

1.8%

0.5%

0.4%

10.1%

0.7%

1.0%

0.3%

0.4%

In the project areas, the females and EMG account 46.0 %and 36.3% of total population respectively. While within the village leadership (the party branch and villagers committee), the females account 13.1% of total members, much lower than the proportion within the population. The EMG accounts 21.7% of the total member, also lower then their proportion within the population, and among them the females account 3.9%, quite low. Within the leadership of Women Federation (WF), the EMG take up 23.9%, and Youth League (YL), the females increased the proportion to 28.9% , EMG to 37.5% and EMG female to 12.5%.

Table 1.5 Percentage of females and EMG within the village leadership

Prefecture

% of female popul.

% of EMG popul.

% of female leaders

% of EMG leaders

% of EMG female leaders

% of EMG WF leaders

% of female YL leaders

% of EMG YL leaders

% of EMG F. YL leaders

Yinchuan

46.0%

55.6%

20.3%

62.3%

13.6%

55.1%

25.7%

56.8%

20.3%

Wuzhong

50.9%

18.2%

15.3%

1.1%

0

12.1%

33.3%

11.1%

1.9%

Nongken

40.9%

12.8%

8.3%

8.0%

0.2%

5.3%

0

0

0

Total

46.0%

36.3%

13.1%

21.7%

3.9%

23.9%

28.9%

37.5%

12.5%

Table 1.6 is about the self-help organizations in the project areas, and EMG participation in the organizations. There are totally 28 self-help organizations in Yinchuan and Wuzhong, amongst them 16 are economic cooperation, and 12 are service organizations. These organizations have absorbed 6051 households, including 99 EMG HH. The number of the organization leaders is 106, among them, there are 12 female leaders, 14 EMG leaders and 1 female EMG leader.

Table 1.6The self-help organizations in the project townships with EMG

Prefecture

No. of organization

Econo. Cooperation

Service

Participating HH

Particip EMG HH

No. of leaders

No. of F leaders

No. of EMG leaders

No. of F EMG leaders

Yinchuan

8

5

3

2329

51

30

2

13

1

Wuzhong

20

11

9

3722

48

76

10

1

0

Nongken

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Total

28

16

12

6051

99

106

12

14

1

Note: Farms in Nongken are state-owned, so there is no self-help organization.

There are totally109 project villages and 498 sub-villages in the project townships with EMG. Among them, 52 project villages have no primary schools, 42 no clinic and 10 no access to road. 10 project sub-villages have no feeder road. 20 project villages and 86 sub-villages have no safe water for drink. Because these villages have no tap water, they have to fetch water from wells. And the water from wells is not safe.



Table 1.7 The public infrastructures in the project townships with EMG

Prefecture

Project villages

Project sub- villages

PV w/t primary school

PV w/t clinic

PV w/t road access

PSV w/t feeder road

PV w/t safe water

PSV w/t safe water

Yinchuan

38

311

1

5

0

0

10

76

Wuzhong

27

143

11

2

0

0

0

0

Nongken

44

44

40

35

10

10

10

10

Total

109

498

52

42

10

10

20

86

The GEF project sits in Xiamaguan township, Tongxin county of Wuzhong city. It covers 10 natural villages with a total population of 19,042 wherein ethnic minority accounts for 47%, or 9035 people.

Table 1.8 Basic outline of GEF project area in Tongxin county




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