ExpliCİt and implicit knowledge



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Zhala Azimlee2

EXPLİCİT AND İmplicit knowledge


By Zhala Azimlee

EXPLİCİT VS İMPLİCİT

  • • Explicit and implicit are antonyms to each other.
  • • Definitions :
  • Explicit: clearly and fully expressed
  • – Implicit: not expressed directly; not explicit

Explicit vs. İmplicit knowledge

  • • • The key distinction is whether or not we can clearly and accurately explain, express, or report the knowledge verbally.We can explain our explicit knowledge.
  • • We cannot explain our implicit knowledge even if we have it.

Explicit knowledge is declarative

Declare (verb): say something clearly

  • • Declarative knowledge refers to knowledge that can be declared.
  • Knowledge of facts and events
  • • Knowledge of «what»
  • We can explain what an apple is like.

Implicit knowledge is procedural

Implicit knowledge is not declarative; it is procedural. Procedure (noun) – A series of actions that are done in a certain way or order

  • Knowledge of skills
  • Knowledge of «how»

Is our language knowledge explicit or implicit?

  • •Language knowledge used to comprehend and produce language
  • The answer depends on whether it is our L1 and L2.
  • • The knowledge of our L1 is ımplicit

Implicit L1 knowledge

  • Also, the ability to use our L1 is largely implicit. • We can speak. We know how to speak our L1. However, we cannot explain how we actually do it. We cannot explain the steps involved in the use of the L1. Language use depends mainly on implicit knowledge.

What is explicit language knowledge?

  • Explicit language knowledge is meta-linguistic knowledge.
  • Meta-language is language about language. – Word, sentence, noun, verb, adjective, adverb, subject, object, and etc
  • Meta-linguistic knowledge We explicitly know that English is an SVO language.

Usefulness for speaking and writing

  • Explicit (meta-linguistic) knowledge is more useful for writing than for speaking.
  • During speaking, there is not enough time to use explicit knowledge.
  • – During writing, we have a lot more time and can use explicit knowledge more readily.
  • Implicit language knowledge is useful for both speaking and writing.

Explicit vs. Implicit L2 knowledge •

  • • L2 learners should acquire implicit L2 knowledge to speak the L2 .
  • • However , in some cases of instructed SLA or foreign – language learning , everything is taught explicitly , and learners learn explicitly .

Conclusions

  • • Study not perfect, but consistent with other studies
  • • Very tightly controlled experiment
  • Explicit instruction seems help early elementary students learn grammar

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