Guomintang ccp (lessons) Nationalist revolution -import of military power alliance between $ and military -“Pol, power grows out of barrel of a gun”



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Guomintang - CCP (lessons) Nationalist revolution -import of military power alliance between $ and military -“Pol, power grows out of barrel of a gun”

  • Guomintang - CCP (lessons) Nationalist revolution -import of military power alliance between $ and military -“Pol, power grows out of barrel of a gun”

  • corruption, elitism, preservation -Moscow can be wrong:

  • on local warlord power -Revolutionary potential of

  • accommodate imperialist parties Peasants

  • Communists “run away” to the South where they initiate land reform, social justice recruits peasants

  • 1931-creates “Chinese Soviet Republic

  • =15000 sq mi and 3 to5 mill people army grows to 300,000



Mao escapes to South China and

  • Mao escapes to South China and

  • establishes base of power. Lessons in the South:

  • 1. Civilian government

  • 2. guerrilla war

  • 3. peasant alliance from 30-33

  • 4. land distribution and not alienate

  • the middle class farmer

  • 5. independence from USSR



80,000 leave

  • 80,000 leave

  • MARCH...one year

  • Mao loses 2 children, bro, already lost wife

  • 10,000 make it

  • “Odyssey unequalled in modern times”

  • psychological impact of March:

  • mission, hope, destiny, Mao as prophet dedication, sacrifice, ideals, people prevail

  • Others unite w. him = 30,000 in Yan’nan ... very poor remote Mao becomes leader of CCP in defiance of Stalin



How did Mao in so obscure a place achieve success???

  • How did Mao in so obscure a place achieve success???

  • 1. Japanese Invasion: 1937

  • Nationalist lose their base., cities, -this in turn leads to corruption, de-moralizatin, exploitation of the countryside upsurgance in Nationalism that Mao capitalizes on -Mao and CPP symbol of resistance to foreign invasion and students migrate to Yan’an

  • 2. Communist guerilla bases replace Chiang...

  • ”fight Japanese behind the lines”

  • 3. Land reform –

  • rent reductions, distribution of absentee and collaborationists already the greatest social revolution in China’s history War intensifies crisis of peasants …, nationalist, and survivalist = CCP support



1949 – Mao and CCP win the Civil War

  • 1949 – Mao and CCP win the Civil War

  • Why did Chiang lose?

  • Better weapons, more men, international support, best territory, still lost

  • Chiang and the Nationalists escape to Taiwan



How did China differ from the USSR’s development?

  • How did China differ from the USSR’s development?

  • Leaders

  • Mao Zedong (Communist Party) and

  • Chou Enlai (bureaucracy and gov’t)

  • China’s priorities

  • 1. National unification: extending Communist and Government control over the whole nation, including Tibet and Taiwan and Manchuria

  • 2. Agrarian reform

  • 3. modern economic development

  • “China’s terrible backwardness”

  • 4. Urban malfunction Malnutrition, food shortages, famine, rioting, crime, inflation 25% weekly, transport. failures, drug abuse, and corruption, executions, intellectuals and labor movement crushed,

  • 5. Terror and Counter-revolution and the Korean War...

  • Ideological unified the nation against imperialist Aggressor(USA) Korean War also unleashes fear of Counter-Revolution ...external threat -Reign of terror, purges, lists, repress dissent...approx 2 million killed, some re-educated. Including rural “struggle meetings”



Establishment of effective government:

  • Establishment of effective government:

  • Mao can rely on Experienced Revolutionaries ... policies incl:

  • -census,

  • -stable currency,

  • -services/relief/food distribution

  • -end crime and opium prostitution,

  • -centralized control and organizations

  • -”urban residents committees” intrude into personal lives),

  • -confiscate foreign business,

  • -nationalization of Kumantang assets,

  • -wage and price controls,

  • -central planning Organization and stability leads to economic growth.

  • Land Distribution, why?

  • Peasant given =70% of land.,

  • Middle farmers keep land to maintain agric. production ( 4% owns 30% of land),

  • distribution leads to 15% growth in production (… tribunals)



1. Ideas and will of the people

  • 1. Ideas and will of the people

  • (Human determinism v economic etc)

  • 2. ideological remolding

  • ... thought control and people power

  • 3. nationalism

  • ... revolutionary, anti-imperialist

  • 4. Populist

  • 5. rural agrarian base

  • “unity of working, living, and land” “sending down” local initiative “innate wisdom of the peasant”

  • anti-urban – specialist - bureaucrat

  • 7. communism without proletariat



1952: Five Year Plan

  • 1952: Five Year Plan

  • 1. Heavy industry (88% of investment) coal, steel, and oil. 2.Russian technology, educ, and advisors (Sino Soviet Pact) 12,000 advisors and Education in Europe for Chinese

  • Results: -18% growth a yr, produced trucks, tanks, planes, tractors

  • Urban population nearly doubled

  • -financed by forced quota’s of low grain prices.

  • 4. Bureaucracy and greater discipline and social inequalities**

  • 5. Specialists, managers v. revolution and idealogy

  • 6. Literacy: twice the schools, 4x number of University students

  • *Accomplished without slave labor, purges, Kulaks, army, etc*





Collectivization 1955-56

  • Collectivization 1955-56

  • Land distribution created small land holders. For efficiency and ideology China Mao wanted “collectivization”

  • Voluntary ... (“Mass line”)

  • -motivated by poor peasants seeking equality

  • -Promise of government investment

  • -within 2 years 500,000 co-ops w. 100 million households =90%

  • Why is Collectivization so much more successful in China than USSR?



100 flower campaign 1957-

  • 100 flower campaign 1957-

  • -Constitution guaranteed free speech, BUT …

  • -encourage intellectuals and scientists to accept communism, so gave

  • -opportunity to criticize communists policies.

  • “let a 100 flowers bloom and a 100 schools of thought compete”

  • Mao wants to see Bureaucracy attacked. Party criticized for elitism and failure to achieve Marxism

  • Criticism blossomed until the campaign was hastily terminated

  • -Hungary frightens China -The program did increase intellectuals participation in the party and membership increased 30% from 57-61

  • Process allows Mao to purge and control CCP Party split between Mao and Lui Shaoqui and Deng



The Great Leap Forward ( 1957-1960 )

  • The Great Leap Forward ( 1957-1960 )

  • -To create autonomous self sufficient communes. -decentralization ... industry to countryside -Bigger communes replacing smaller collectives -Communes also took the responsibility of local government building roads, collecting taxes, building hospitals and roads...labour intensive projects -ideological, no experts, equality, creating communist utopia -rejection of USSR model for made in China model

  • How?

  • -bureaucracy sent down

  • -Propaganda and slogans:

  • “faster, better, cheaper”

  • -work longer hours and work militias

  • -backyard iron and steel industry

  • -25,000 communes created from 750,000 collectives

  • -work and study education programmes of people die -GLF to fast and as Russians withdraw. -mis-reported distorted and inflated figures complicate the crisis



Failed

  • Failed

  • food shortages...from chaos…

  • transportation problems,

  • animals slaughtered

  • -Communes unit too large...family life is disrupted

  • -Natural disaster, floods and droughts cause drop in agricul. production.

  • -famine millions die

  • As a result of the GLF failure Mao loses prestige in the communist party “dead ancestor” replaced by Deng and Lui



Cultural Revolution ( 1966-76 ) (little red book)

  • Cultural Revolution ( 1966-76 ) (little red book)

  • Mao unleashes forces he will not be able to control, as a result a human catastrophe

  • -To end ascendancy of bureaucratic elite and “modified capitalism” ie Deng Xiao Ping. Mao regains control.

  • rid communism of western influences. teachers, arts, bureaucracy

  • New revolutionary fire in the people by using the red guards and the young in a popular revolution.

  • -At times the Cult. Revolution seemed like a civil war

  • -The Red Guard university students and workers take to the street. gain control of several cities (Shanghai Commune). They direct power against elite’s.

  • -Universities and schools closed. Arts, libraries shut down, intellectuals attacked. “books burnt”



  • But

  • Chaos ensues, production plummets, disorders frighten communist party. Chou Enlai calls out the army and Mao agrees … betrays the revolution he instigated

  • -Army (PLA) destroy the power of the Red Guard = Civil war

  • -The bureaucracy re-asserts its ascendency

  • -”the lost generation” students, intellects, fall victim to the C.Rev 35,000 - 400,000+ deaths. re-education and being sent down... -Lin Biao (army chief) and pro C.Rev dies in plane crash ... Coup

  • As a result of the Cultural Rev. failure Mao loses prestige in the communist party in China



Mao dies in 1976

  • Mao dies in 1976

  • -survived the purge

  • -aligned himself to peasants

  • -the Long March

  • -fought against Japanese

  • -won civil war

  • -ended foreign domination of China

  • -industrial development

  • -involved millions in mass movements

  • -agrarian socialist utopian v. urban modernization

  • Failures: -Great Leap Forward and the human cost of it -Cultural Revolution

  • Gang of four Show Trial including his Mao’s wife symbolic rejection of the policies and actions of the Cultural Revolution



Deng Xiaoping 1978 - 1990’s??

  • Deng Xiaoping 1978 - 1990’s??

  • China not as revolutionary idealists but modern industrial state

  • Economic liberalization - introduction of capitalism

  • with Political conservatism restrictions of freedom and democracy

  • Four Modernizations

  • • Agriculture • Industry • Science and technology • Defense

  • -Foreign trade

  • -special economic (free trade zone) zones:

  • foreigners exploit Chinese workers -brings $, technology, employment



2. De-Collectivization of Agriculture

  • 2. De-Collectivization of Agriculture

  • -Prices for agic. products are increased...peasants more $

  • -Return to family agriculture: incentives (cost one child policy) -”some will get rich first”

  • -TVE’s: village enterprises expand dramatically w. investment (a Maoists policy)

  • -end of collectivization system creates surplus labor

  • 3. “Smashing the iron rice bowl”

  • -any new worker is hired without benefits

  • -400,000 state enterprises are made autonomous. Must pay wages, and exist in a market economy. -also permitting private capitalism, trade, foreign investment, etc.



4. Bureaucratic Capitalism

  • 4. Bureaucratic Capitalism

  • -Communist Party bureaucrats positioned to make $$$

  • -They make deals, consultants, finance, best land, lucrative businesses are given to well positioned.

  • -State enterprises must make a profit so, schools, must find ways of making $$.

  • 5. -0ne child policy











After World War II two dominant themes in 20th history history

  • After World War II two dominant themes in 20th history history

  • 1. Cold War - conflict between the US and USSR

  • 2. De-colonization - formerly colonized nations achieving independence

  • * themes inter-related as National Self-Determination (Versailles1919) independence movements misunderstood as communism.

  • -The USSR realized that the cold war could be won through the process of de-colonization

  • -The USA supports elite’s over genuine independence movements because it fears communism



1. Decolonization meant ending both-

  • 1. Decolonization meant ending both-

  • colonization : One country owning another people

  • Imperialism : A dominant nation exploiting / oppressing weaker people or nation.

  • 2. Why did people in Africa and Asia want to end colonization between 1945-1970’s?

  • 1. Europe impoverished by world wars

  • 2. increased political and racial consciousness in developing world

  • 3. realization that they were being exploited and oppressed economically, politically, and racially

  • 3. What is De-Colonization - a definition

  • The creation of independent states from a territory in (Asia and Africa) that was part of a European nations empire.



How did new states achieve autonomy?

  • How did new states achieve autonomy?

  • A. Violence -

  • Ho Chi Minh, Fidel Castro, Mandella, Arafat, Ben Gurion, F Fanon

  • Indonesia, Malaysia, Kenya, Angola and Mozambique, Algeria - Mao Zedong, Nicaragua, El Salvador,

  • -occurs when there is lack of democratic institutions and state violence

  • -uses assassination, violent protest, guerrilla warfare, terrorism, murder

  • -received aid and arms from mostly communist countries

  • -once successful violence can be institutionalized

  • -seeks to radically transform society and economy

  • Malcolm X Reading

  • land bloodshed overturning system



  • How did new states achieve autonomy?

  • B. Civil disobedience

  • - ML King, Gandhi, Biko,

  • passive resistance public demonstrations breaking the law

  • “meet physical force with moral force”

  • -What advantages exist avoiding the use of violence?

  • -Non-Violent struggle reform and preserve existing systems!

  • -When is “passive ineffective?





Great Powers and Nationalism (in the Third World)

  • Great Powers and Nationalism (in the Third World)

  • African and Asian countries seek independence

  • Rebellion: In several countries independence leads to Violence (ex’s)

  • 1946-54 - Vietnamese against the French

  • 1947-50 - Indonesians fight the Dutch

  • 1952-59 - “Mau Mau” rebellion in Kenya

  • 1954-62 - Algerian civil war against the French

  • 1970’s - Angola and Mozambique fight against Portugal’s rule

  • European countries respond to independence movements

  • - repress independence leaders and movements

  • - fight civil wars against rebellious nationalists

  • - create local elite's or locals who support their policies

  • - Through a mix of racism and realism Europeans retain significant influence in former colonies

  • SKIP







Decolonized Nations after independence.

  • Decolonized Nations after independence.

  • a. Revolutions often become communist countries

  • (Vietnam, Cuba, Nicaragua, China, )

  • b. Non Aligned Movement - Countries do not join either capitalist or Communists they stay “nonaligned”

  • (Indonesia, India, Egypt)

  • c. Civil Wars and Coup’s and Dictators . Local elite continue to rule

  • (Asia, Middle East, Latin America, Africa)

  • d. America interferes: “Dollar Diplomacy” when Economic Nationalism and nonalignment believed to be communist...CIA

  • (Zaire, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Guatamala, Iran, Lebanon, )

  • (ex. Lummumba in Zaire. Supporting the overthrow of a democratic leader and replacing him with a military commander who then oppressors the people in order to stay in power.)

  • e. Ethnic and religious conflict creates conflict and corruption in many of newly independent nations. Often borders do not reflect tribal boundaries. Nationalism does not “liberate” the people and discontent will lead to the rise of new movements.



Most profound example is Rwanda

  • Most profound example is Rwanda

  • - 700,000 Tutsi’s murdered over several short months by Hutu’s

  • - What is the role of the United Nations in cases of like this?



USA and National Independence Model for Intervention (Steve Kangas)

  • USA and National Independence Model for Intervention (Steve Kangas)

  • 1. Democratic/popular leader threatens US Business interests with land reform, redistribution of wealth, nationalize industry, etc

  • 2. CIA intervenes: to mobilize opposition Army, police, local land and business elite. CIA then trains soldiers and police, finances, and assists with propaganda and misinformation campaigns,

  • 3. A military coup follows, which installs a right-wing dictator. Pro-business climate established, CIA trains police, and arrests, torture, and killing of opposition groups begin. Victims of this repression are labeled “communists.”

  • 4. containing communism is used as an excuse for intervention. Actually a dictatorship is established. And the new government is provided with mostly military and some economic aid.

  • 5. Dictator becomes so powerful because of secret police that he feels he is immune from any social responsibility. Eventually he even makes an enemy of the United States or his policies become impossible to justify.

  • 6. Military intervention is necessary because the CIA finds the dictator to powerful to overthrow.

  • 7. “Liberation” from an “evil” man justifies the war.





1919: Amristar Massacre

  • 1919: Amristar Massacre

  • British troops open fire on independence

  • rally, kill 379

  • Gandhi returns to India

  • -campaigns for rights of landless poor and “untouchables”

  • -begins to campaign for independence,

  • Congress Party

  • -Non Violence, multi ethnic state

  • -Civil disobedience protests centre on:

  • a. Salt tax, and

  • b. Textile and clothing boycott



1935: British Pass the Government of India Act giving Indians limited self-government and acknowledging eventual indep.

  • 1935: British Pass the Government of India Act giving Indians limited self-government and acknowledging eventual indep.



1947 Independence

  • 1947 Independence

  • India (Hindu), Nehru Prime Minister

  • Pakistan (Muslim), Jinnah PM

  • Massacre-Migration

  • As populations move a “frenzy of slaughter” ensues

  • 500,000 die and 12 million move over frontier

  • In Delhi and Kolkutta where many Hindu’s threaten to slaughter local Muslim population. Gandhi goes on a hunger campaign to stop violence.

  • 1948 Gandhi assassinated by Hindu extremist



  • 12. -Kashmir a war breaks out between Hindu’s and Muslims and a UN brokered cease fire splits the region into two. Conflict, terrorism, continues today

  • -Sikh’s fight for an independent Sikh state in the Punjab. Sikh extremist kills Indira Gandhi in retaliation of her ordering the army to raid the Golden Temple.

  • 13. 1970’s East Pakistan splits in a brutal conflict where Millions?? May have died and becomes Bangladesh

  • 14. Both countries are now Nuclear Powers



1948: Apartheid created legally

  • 1948: Apartheid created legally

  • Election: United Party wanted to begin integration, they lost the election to National Party who campaigned on Apartheid.

  • They created a legal structure to separate the Black and White communities

  • Group Areas Act 1950

  • Separate Amenities Act

  • Population Registration Act (Pass Laws)

  • and laws preventing mixed marriage, sexual relations, and laws impacting on Education, migration, etc...



-Homelands (all small nations) were established within South Africa.

  • -Homelands (all small nations) were established within South Africa.

  • -Townships: Separate communities were created on the outskirts of cities where the Black community had to live (Soweto)

  • Forced migration was part of life in SA



1959 Sharpeville Massacre

  • 1959 Sharpeville Massacre

  • Police shoot at A non-violent Protest against Apartheid, 70 die 200 wounded.

  • Stay away from work campaign follows 18,000 detained.

  • ANC = advocates violence to overthrow Apartheid . 1964 The leaders of the protest movement are jailed for life including Nelson Mandella and Mbeki

  • The ANC begin to be the political organization that apposes the government.



Steven Biko, 70’s Is the leader of a Black Consciousness movement. Biko is arrested and eventually killed in custody

  • Steven Biko, 70’s Is the leader of a Black Consciousness movement. Biko is arrested and eventually killed in custody

  • Soweto Riots 1970’s protest against learning Afrikaans in black schools leads to a massive protests that is met with force. Over the next months over 500 school children are shot by police



UN in 1973 declared Apartheid against international law and sanctions begin being placed on South Africa in 1976.

  • UN in 1973 declared Apartheid against international law and sanctions begin being placed on South Africa in 1976.

  • Although Great Britain and the United States do not support sanctions the impact of them have a dramatic effect on the economy. It also isolates South Africa politically, socially, and athletically.



PW Botha: The 80’s is a time of increased violence. Botha tells white South Africans

  • PW Botha: The 80’s is a time of increased violence. Botha tells white South Africans

  • “Adapt or Die”

  • 1984 Apartheid legislation begins to be repealled. Botha resigns in 1989 and is replaced by FW DeKlerk.

  • De Klerk releases Nelson Mandella from Robin Island and the catalyst of change begins, legalizes the ANC, and lifts censorship.





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