Issue of violence in South Africa Risks Factors for becoming a victim of violence



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Overview

  • Overview

    • Issue of violence in South Africa
    • Risks Factors for becoming a victim of violence
    • The most prevalent violence against females
    • Technology advancement and domestic violence victims
    • Misuse of ICTs by domestic violence perpetrators
  • Towards the future

  • Questions

  • List of References



Violence: “intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual against oneself, another person, or against a group of community that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation”

  • Violence: “intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual against oneself, another person, or against a group of community that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation”

  • Various types of violence:

    • self-inflicted (violence against oneself),
    • Interpersonal (violence against another person), and
    • collective (violence against a group of community)
  • A global social problem that exceeds cultural and socio-economic boundaries.



Research has shown that:

  • Research has shown that:

    • violence and injuries are the second leading causes of death in South Africa
    • SA has the highest statistics of gender-based violence in the world (this includes rape and domestic violence)
    • SA has the highest intimate femicide rate in the world
    • In SA, the mortality rates of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) – which also occurs in domestic violence context, is six times higher than the global rate


Factors responsible for high rate of violence in South Africa include: widespread of poverty, high rate of unemployment and income inequality, alcohol and drugs misuse, exposure to abuse in childhood, weak parenting, patriarchal notion of masculinity, etc

  • Factors responsible for high rate of violence in South Africa include: widespread of poverty, high rate of unemployment and income inequality, alcohol and drugs misuse, exposure to abuse in childhood, weak parenting, patriarchal notion of masculinity, etc

  • Other factors identified from across the world are: younger age, lower education, being unmarried, strength of social network, history of family violence

  • The single most powerful risk factor for becoming a victim of violence is to be a female– and the same is true across the globe



Domestic Violence: The definition varies across cultures, legal or advocacy contexts, but basically the term refers to physical, sexual, and psychological abuse directed against domestic partners

  • Domestic Violence: The definition varies across cultures, legal or advocacy contexts, but basically the term refers to physical, sexual, and psychological abuse directed against domestic partners

      • “intimate partner, husband, former intimate partner, family member, friend or acquaintance”
  • A frequent social problem that can affect any female, regardless of her age, socioeconomic or sociocultural status

  • In South Africa, violence against female is rife in all class and race groups, but white women, because of their level of education and financial resources are in better position than most black and coloured women (i.e. women of mixed racial origin)



ICT is a double-edged sword; it can be used as a tool to facilitate violence, as well as a tool to prevent violence

  • ICT is a double-edged sword; it can be used as a tool to facilitate violence, as well as a tool to prevent violence

  • The advancement in technology has complicated the issue of violence against females

  • Technology related domestic violence can take many different forms, and victims can experience sexual, psychological, or economic abuse and sometimes physical violence.



A project carried out in twelve developing countries including South Africa, revealed that technology related violence is on the increase

  • A project carried out in twelve developing countries including South Africa, revealed that technology related violence is on the increase

  • Victims experienced similar kinds of violations and harms around the world

  • The United Nations Special Rapporteur noted “that threats and death threats are frequently delivered to rights defenders through mobile phones, text messages, or emails”



ICT provides new and more extensive techniques for the control and abuse of females

  • ICT provides new and more extensive techniques for the control and abuse of females

  • ICTs enable perpetrators to send insulting, humiliating, intimidating messages and images from anywhere in the world.

  • This implies that physically leaving the perpetrators does not end technology related violence.

  • ICTs make it difficult for victims to identify and take action against the perpetrators



There is high rate of mobile phone penetration in South Africa, with 80% of  the population owning a mobile phone and almost half of them being women

  • There is high rate of mobile phone penetration in South Africa, with 80% of  the population owning a mobile phone and almost half of them being women

  • The probability that domestic violence victims use mobile phone and go online is very high

  • Perpetrators can and do misuse:

    • mobile phone, text messaging and email
    • social networking platforms, and chatting such as Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, etc.


Perpetrators misuse mobile phones to control, harass and stalk females – one of the most technology related violence identified in South Africa

    • Perpetrators misuse mobile phones to control, harass and stalk females – one of the most technology related violence identified in South Africa
    • Perpetrators misuse frequent phone calls and text messages – which can cause stress to the recipients, to monitor, harass, threaten, and stalk their victims
    • most perpetrators use a combination of:
      • calling and hanging up,
      • silent calls,
      • conventional calls, and
      • abusive calls


Such as Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, etc. could be misused as a weapon to harm domestic violence victims.

    • Such as Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, etc. could be misused as a weapon to harm domestic violence victims.
    • Social networking platforms can enable perpetrators of domestic violence to use emails or blogs to torment their victims.
    • These platforms have been used by perpetrators to intimidate, insult, and mobilize opinions against their victims, and this has led to some victims committing suicide.
    • Also, Social networking platforms of anonymity can enable perpetrators of domestic violence to create a false identify and continue to threatening their victims.


The consequences of misuse of ICTs by domestic violence perpetrators cannot be over emphasised.

  • The consequences of misuse of ICTs by domestic violence perpetrators cannot be over emphasised.

  • The majority of the victims suffer anxiety, insomnia, mental torment, stress, fear, and some times, physical injury

  • Some females have become homeless, jobless, hopeless, lonely, while some have lost their lives.

  • Necessary actions need to be taking to promote females’ safety and wellbeing in the digital age.



Research philosophy:

  • Research philosophy:

    • Interpretive study
  • Approach to Theory:

    • Inductive approach.
  • Research purpose:

    • Descriptive and explanatory
  • Research Methodology:

    • Qualitative
  • Research time frame:

    • Cross sectional study.


Data collection:

  • Data collection:

    • Participant observation (domestic violence shelters)
    • Semi-structured interview
  • Sampling Strategies:

    • Theoretical sampling
  • Data Analysis:

    • Open coding with data.
    • Axial Coding
    • Selective Coding




Abrahams, N., Jewkes, R., Martin, L. J., Mathews, S., Vetten, L., Lombard, C. (2009). Mortality of women from intimate partner violence in South Africa: a national epidemiological study. Violence and Victims, 24(4), 546-556.

  • Abrahams, N., Jewkes, R., Martin, L. J., Mathews, S., Vetten, L., Lombard, C. (2009). Mortality of women from intimate partner violence in South Africa: a national epidemiological study. Violence and Victims, 24(4), 546-556.

  • Azriel, J. N. (2009). Social Networking as a Communications Weapon to Harm Victims: Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter Demonstrate a Need to Amend Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act. Journal of Computer & Information Law, 26(3), 415-429.

  • Belknap, J., Chu, A. T., & Deprince, A. P. (2012). The roles of phones and computers in threatening and abusing women victims of male intimate partner abuse. Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy, 19, 373-406.

  • Cavana, R. Y., Delahaye, B. L., & Sekaran, U. (2001). Applied Business Research: Quantitative and Quantitative Methods (3rd ed.). Australia: John Wiley & Sons.

  • Chiu, E. M. (2010). That guy’s a batterer!: A scarlet letter approach to domestic violence in the information age. Family Law Quarterly, 44(2), 255-292.

  • Dimond, J. P., Fiesler, C., & Bruckman, A. S. (2011). Domestic violence and information communication technologies. Interacting with computers, 23, 413-421..

  • Fascendini, F., & Fialova, K. (2011). Voices from digital spaces: Technology related violence against women. APC WNSP (Association for Progressive Communications Women’s Networking Support Programme).

  • Goulding, C. (2002). Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business and market researchers. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

  • Hand, T., Chung, D., & Peters, M. (2009). The use of information and communication technologies to coerce and control in domestic violence and following separation (Stakeholder paper 6). Syney, New South Wales: Australian Domestic & Family Violence Clearinghouse, University of New South Wales.

  • Haron, H., & Yusof, F. (2010). Cyber stalking: The social impact of social networking technology. International Conference on Education and Management Technology (ICEMT), 237-241.

  • Jewkes, R., Levin, J., & Penn-Kekana, L. (2002). Risk factors for domestic violence: findings from a South African cross-sectional study. Social Science & Medicine, 55, 1603-1617.



Joyner, K., & Mash, R. J. (2011). The value of intervening for intimate partner violence in South African primary care: project evaluation. BMJ Open, 1(2), 1-12.

  • Joyner, K., & Mash, R. J. (2011). The value of intervening for intimate partner violence in South African primary care: project evaluation. BMJ Open, 1(2), 1-12.

  • Kling, R. (1996). Computerization and controversy: Value conflicts and social choices (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.

  • Krug, E. G., Mercy, J. A., Dahlberg, L. L., & Zwi, A. B. (2002). The world report on violence and health. Lancet, 360, 1083-88.

  • Madden, R. (2010). Being ethnographic: A guide to the theory and practice of ethnography. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

  • Miller, S. L., & Smolter, N. L. (2011). “Paper Abuse”: When all else fails, batterers use procedural stalking. Violence Against Women, 17(5), 637-650.

  • Mudavanhu, S., & Radloff, J. (2013). Taking feminist activism online: reflections on the ‘Keep Saartji Baartman Centre Open’ e-campaign. Gender & Development, 21(2), 327-341.

  • Neumann, P. G. (1996). Risks of Technology. In Rob Kling (2nd ed.), Computerization and controversy: value conflicts and social choices (pp. 844-846). London: Academic Press Limited.

  • Onyejekwe, C. J. The interrelationship between gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS in South Africa. Journal of International Women’s Studies, 6(1), 34-40.

  • Orlikowski, W. J., & Baroudi, J. J. (1991). Studying Information Technology in Organizations: Research Approaches and Assumptions.Information Systems Research, Vol. 2(1), 1-28.

  • Seedat, M., Van Niekerk, A., Jewkes, R., Suffla, S., & Ratele, K. (2009). Violence and injuries in South Africa: prioritising an agenda for prevention. Health in South Africa, 374, 1011-1022.

  • Southworth, C., Finn, J., Dawson, S., Fraser, C. & Tucker, S. (2007). Intimate partner violence, technology, and stalking. Violence Against Women, 13, 842-856.

  • WHO (World Health Organization). 2002. World report on violence and health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.




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